Business Environment in Australia

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

Australia is the world’s thirteenth largest economic power. After a slowing down due to global recession, in 2010 the Australian economy has been growing again, with an estimated growth rate of 3 % of the GDP. This good economic performance owes to the government’s fiscal policy of incentives, by the increase in household consumption and especially by the continuous Chinese demand which helps exports.

The Australian government’s priorities are to improve the country’s competitiveness, namely with regards to the export competition of Asian countries and to deal with the challenges of its aging population and its environment which is vulnerable to climatic problems (droughts).

Australia is a prosperous country and its per capita GDP is amongst the highest in the world. Despite the recent increase in unemployment rate due to the global economic crisis, it remains consistently low, around 5%.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 987.81 1,235.54e 1,448.15 1,470.03 1,574.00e
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 1.3 2.7 3.0 3.5e 3.5e
GDP per Capita (USD) 44,999 55,590e 64,351e 64,517 68,227
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -4.0 -4.5 -2.5 -0.8 -0.2
Inflation Rate (%) 1.8 2.8 3.0e 3.0e 2.8
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 5.6 5.2e 5.0e 4.8 4.8
Current Account (billions USD) -40.94 -41.58e -45.76e -61.56e -
Current Account (in % of GDP) -4.1 -3.5e -3.7e -4.8 -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

The tertiary sector occupies a dominant position in the Australian economy (more than three-fourths of the GDP), but the agricultural and mining sectors are the most important for its exports. Australia is a vast agricultural country and one of the world's main exporters of wool, meat, wheat and cotton. The country is overflowing with mineral and energy raw materials, the export of which ensures it substantial revenues. Australia is among the top 10 producers and exporters of most mineral ores. It has the world's greatest reserves of numerous strategic resources such as uranium, of which it has 40% of the world's proven reserves.

Traditionally Australia is a finished goods importer. Its industrialization is fairly recent, a fact which explains the small scale of its manufacturing sector, which only employs 10% of the active population. The manufacturing industry is built up around the food industry (approximately a fifth of the workforce), machinery and equipment (around 20%), metal processing and metal goods (nearly 20%) and the chemical-petrochemical industry (slightly more than 10%).

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 3.4 21.2 75.1
Value Added (in % of GDP) 2.5 29.1 68.4
Value Added (Annual % Change) 6.9 3.6 4.0

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Australian Dollar (AUD) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 1.31 1.33 1.20 1.19 1.28

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Australia, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
82.5/100
Position:
Free
World Rank:
3/179
Regional Rank:
3/38

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

Australia's external trade is characterized by a structural trade deficit. The increase in exports has not compensated for the high imports which are stimulated by a strong Australian dollar. In terms of continuous growth, and despite healthy exports, the deterioration of the current account balance and of the structural deficit are still the Australian economy's weak points.
The country is becoming more and more dependent on Asian economies and the price of raw materials. Australian foreign trade is not  well developed, a fact which reflects the country's relatively weak globalization integration. Australia must improve its infrastructures in order to redress the bottlenecks that have been restricting exports for a long time, so as to allow it to better integrate in global trade. The country's main trade partners are Southeast Asia, the United States and the European Union.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Imports of Goods (million USD) 125,281 139,253 165,336 200,273 165,471
Exports of Goods (million USD) 106,097 123,437 141,358 187,257 154,234
Imports of Services (million USD) 29,909 31,600 39,197 47,613 41,360
Exports of Services (million USD) 30,378 32,438 39,786 44,513 41,246
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 12.1 7.2 9.2 12.9 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.1 2.2 3.8 4.1 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 20.5 21.1 20.9 21.6 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 18.1 19.6 19.8 19.8 -
Trade Balance (million USD) -13,372 -9,596 -17,784 -4,915 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -12,830 -8,727 -17,196 -8,013 -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 38.6 40.7 40.7 41.4 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2010
China 25.3%
Japan 18.9%
South Korea 8.9%
India 7.1%
United States 4.0%
United Kingdom 3.6%
New-Zealand 3.5%
Thailand 2.5%
Singapore 2.1%
Indonesia 1.9%
Malaysia 1.6%
Hong Kong 1.4%
Netherlands 1.1%
United Arab Emirates 0.9%
Papua New Guinea 0.9%
South Africa 0.8%
Saudi Arabia 0.7%
Brazil 0.7%
Vietnam 0.7%
Germany 0.7%
Other partnersClose extended list 35.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2010
China 18.7%
United States 11.1%
Japan 8.7%
Thailand 5.2%
Singapore 5.1%
Germany 5.0%
Malaysia 4.3%
New-Zealand 3.4%
South Korea 3.4%
United Kingdom 2.8%
Indonesia 2.5%
Italy 2.3%
France 1.8%
Vietnam 1.5%
Papua New Guinea 1.4%
Ireland 1.1%
United Arab Emirates 1.1%
Switzerland 1.0%
Sweden 1.0%
India 0.9%
Other partnersClose extended list 51.2%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2010
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 21.4%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 18.7%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 6.2%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 4.6%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 4.5%
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically...Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined; aluminium oxide; aluminium hydroxide 2.3%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 2.2%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 1.8%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 1.8%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.5%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 1.1%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 1.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 1.1%
Wool, neither carded nor combedWool, neither carded nor combed 1.0%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.9%
Meat of bovine animals, fresh or chilledMeat of bovine animals, fresh or chilled 0.8%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 0.8%
Meat of sheep or goats, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of sheep or goats, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.7%
Manganese ores and concentrates, incl. ferruginous...Manganese ores and concentrates, incl. ferruginous manganese ores and concentrates, with a manganese content of >= 20%, calculated on the dry weight "ecsc" 0.7%
Zinc ores and concentratesZinc ores and concentrates 0.6%
Lead ores and concentratesLead ores and concentrates 0.5%
Cotton, neither carded nor combedCotton, neither carded nor combed 0.5%
Unwrought zinc :Unwrought zinc : 0.4%
Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added...Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.4%
Fuel wood, in logs, billets, twigs, faggots or...Fuel wood, in logs, billets, twigs, faggots or similar forms; wood in chips or particles; sawdust and wood waste and scrap, whether or not agglomerated in logs, briquettes, pellets or similar forms 0.4%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.4%
Precious metal ores and concentratesPrecious metal ores and concentrates 0.4%
BarleyBarley 0.3%
Unwrought lead :Unwrought lead : 0.3%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.3%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 0.3%
Nickel ores and concentratesNickel ores and concentrates 0.3%
Live bovine animalsLive bovine animals 0.3%
Bars, rods, profiles and wire, of nickel (excl....Bars, rods, profiles and wire, of nickel (excl. electrically insulated products) 0.3%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.3%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 0.3%
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or...Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split 0.3%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.3%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.2%
Mechano-therapy appliances; massage apparatus;...Mechano-therapy appliances; massage apparatus; psychological aptitude-testing apparatus; ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, artificial respiration or other therapeutic respiration apparatus 0.2%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.2%
Rape or colza seeds, whether or not brokenRape or colza seeds, whether or not broken 0.2%
Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep,...Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules or hinnies, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.2%
Crustaceans, fit for human consumption, whether in...Crustaceans, fit for human consumption, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine, incl. crustaceans in shell cooked beforehand by steaming or by boiling in water; flours, meals and pellets of crustaceans, fit for human consumption 0.2%
Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.;...Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.; preparations based on inorganic or mineral colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215); inorganic products of a kind used as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined 0.2%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.2%
Bars, rods and profiles, of copper, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of copper, n.e.s. 0.2%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.2%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 0.2%
Swedes, mangolds, fodder roots, hay, alfalfa,...Swedes, mangolds, fodder roots, hay, alfalfa, clover, sainfoin, forage kale, lupines, vetches and similar forage products, whether or not in the form of pellets 0.2%
Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats,...Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats, meal, starch or malt extract, not containing cocoa or containing < 40% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s.; food preparations of milk, cream, butter milk, sour milk, sour cream, whey, yoghourt, kefir, and similar goods of heading 0401 to 0404, not containing cocoa or containing < 5% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s. 0.2%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 0.2%
Waste and scrap, of aluminium (excl. slags, scale...Waste and scrap, of aluminium (excl. slags, scale and the like from iron and steel production, containing recoverable aluminium in the form of silicates, ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted waste and scrap, of aluminium, ashes and residues from aluminium production) 0.2%
Raw hides and skins of bovine "incl. buffalo" or...Raw hides and skins of bovine "incl. buffalo" or equine animals, fresh, or salted, dried, limed, pickled or otherwise preserved, whether or not dehaired or split (excl. tanned, parchment-dressed or further prepared) 0.2%
Raw skins of sheep or lambss, fresh, or salted,...Raw skins of sheep or lambss, fresh, or salted, dried, limed, pickled or otherwise preserved, whether or not dehaired or split (excl. those with wool on, fleeces of astrakhan, caracul, persian, broadtail or similar lambs, or of indian, chinese, mongolian or tibetan lambs and tanned, parchment-dressed or further prepared) 0.2%
Preparations of a kind used in animal feedingPreparations of a kind used in animal feeding 0.1%
Live sheep and goatsLive sheep and goats 0.1%
Malt, whether or not roastedMalt, whether or not roasted 0.1%
Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a...Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state (excl. goods of heading 4802 or 4803) 0.1%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.1%
Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other...Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted copper waste and scrap, ashes and residues containing copper, and waste and scrap of primary cells, primary batteries and electric accumulators) 0.1%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.1%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.1%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 0.1%
Fats of bovine animals, sheep or goats (excl. lard...Fats of bovine animals, sheep or goats (excl. lard stearin, lard oil, oleostearin, oleooil and tallow oil, not emulsified or mixed or otherwise prepared) 0.1%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.1%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.1%
Recovered "waste and scrap" paper or paperboard ...Recovered "waste and scrap" paper or paperboard (excl. paper wool) 0.1%
Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and...Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and other fats and oils derived from milk; dairy spreads 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.1%
Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum,...Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 0.1%
Pearls, natural or cultured, whether or not worked...Pearls, natural or cultured, whether or not worked or graded, but not strung, mounted or set, pearls, natural or cultured, temporarily strung for convenience of transport (excl. imitations of natural pearls and mother-of-pearl) 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 44.6%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2010
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 7.7%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 7.6%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 4.7%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 3.7%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 3.4%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 3.3%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 2.8%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 1.9%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 1.3%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 1.1%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 1.1%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 1.0%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 1.0%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 1.0%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.9%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.8%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.6%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.6%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.6%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.6%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.6%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.6%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.5%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.5%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.5%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 0.5%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.5%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.5%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.4%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.4%
Articles for funfair, table or parlour games, incl...Articles for funfair, table or parlour games, incl. pintables, billiards, special tables for casino games and automatic bowling alley equipment 0.4%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.4%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.4%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.4%
Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by...Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children, dolls' carriages and dolls representing only human beings); reduced-size "scale" recreational models, working or not; puzzles of all kinds 0.4%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.4%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.4%
Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of...Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. articles > 100 years old) 0.4%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.4%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.4%
Nucleic acids and their salts, whether or not...Nucleic acids and their salts, whether or not chemically defined; heterocyclic compounds (excl. with oxygen only or with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only) 0.4%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.4%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.4%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.4%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.4%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.4%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.3%
Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound...Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound or other similarly recorded phenomena, incl. matrices and masters for the production of records (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.3%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.3%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.3%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with...Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with an auxiliary motor, with or without side-cars; side-cars 0.3%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.3%
Video recording or reproducing apparatus, whether...Video recording or reproducing apparatus, whether or not incorporating a video tuner (excl. video camera recorders) 0.3%
Printed books, brochures and similar printed...Printed books, brochures and similar printed matter, whether or not in single sheets (excl. periodicals and publications which are essentially devoted to advertising) 0.3%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.3%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.3%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.3%
Electrical machines and apparatus, having...Electrical machines and apparatus, having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.3%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.3%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.3%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.3%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.3%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.3%
Articles and equipment for general physical...Articles and equipment for general physical exercise, gymnastics, athletics, other sports, incl. table-tennis, or outdoor games, not specified or included in this chapter or elsewhere; swimming pools and paddling pools. 0.3%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.3%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.3%
Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic,...Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or non-electric motor; parts thereof 0.3%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.3%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.3%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.2%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 0.2%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.2%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.2%
Yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports;...Yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports; rowing boats and canoes 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.2%
Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a thickness of > 0,2 mm (excl. expanded plates, sheets and strip) 0.2%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.2%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.2%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.2%
Sodium hydroxide "caustic soda", potassium...Sodium hydroxide "caustic soda", potassium hydroxide "caustic potash"; peroxides of sodium or potassium 0.2%
Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other...Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other residues of petroleum oil or of oil obtained from bituminous minerals, n.e.s. 0.2%
Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic...Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic refining 0.2%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.2%
Meat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.2%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.2%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.2%
Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating,...Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting or boring machinery, for earth, minerals or ores; pile-drivers and pile-extractors; snow-ploughs and snow-blowers (excl. those mounted on railway wagons, motor vehicle chassis or lorries, self-propelled machinery of heading 8429, lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery of heading 8425 to 8428 and hand-operated tools) 0.2%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 0.2%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.2%
Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen...Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen of all types of textile materials (excl. floor-cloths, polishing-cloths, dish-cloths and dusters) 0.2%
Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal...Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal combustion piston engine, hydraulic turbines, water wheels, gas turbines and electric motors); parts thereof 0.2%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.2%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.2%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.2%
Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with...Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment (excl. straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane) 0.2%
Reception apparatus for radio-telephony,...Reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy or radio-broadcasting, whether or not combined, in the same housing, with sound recording or reproducing apparatus or a clock 0.2%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.2%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.2%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.2%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.2%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar...Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar substitutes prepared from fish eggs 0.2%
Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with...Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with self-contained electric motor; parts thereof 0.2%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.2%
Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless...Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless microphones with built-in transmitter); loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers (excl. telephone sets, hearing aids and helmets with built-in headphones, whether or not incorporating a microphone); audio-frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof 0.2%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.2%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.2%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 0.2%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.2%
Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing,...Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing, prepared diagnostic or laboratory reagents whether or not on a backing, and certified reference materials (excl. compound diagnostic reagents designed to be administered to the patient, blood-grouping reagents, animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses and vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms and similar products) 0.2%
Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or...Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or plastics (excl. waterproof footwear of heading 6401, orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.2%
Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not...Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not mechanically propelled (excl. railway and tramway vehicles); parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.2%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.1%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.1%
Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus...Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus and radio remote control apparatus 0.1%
Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl....Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl. wheel-mounted cranes and vehicle cranes for railways); mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane 0.1%
Preparations of a kind used in animal feedingPreparations of a kind used in animal feeding 0.1%
Bombs, grenades, torpedos, mines, missiles,...Bombs, grenades, torpedos, mines, missiles, cartridges and other ammunition and projectiles and parts thereof, incl. buckshot, shot and cartridge wads, n.e.s. 0.1%
Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles...Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles and toilet articles, of plastics (excl. baths, shower-baths, wash-basins, bidets, lavatory pans, seats and covers, flushing cisterns and similar sanitary ware) 0.1%
Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl....Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl. machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof 0.1%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.1%
Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave...Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave lotions, personal deodorants and hair lotions) 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.1%
Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or...Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or not power-operated, or for machine-tools "e.g. for pressing, stamping, punching, tapping, threading, drilling, boring, broaching, milling, turning or screw driving", incl. dies for drawing or extruding metal, and rock drilling or earth boring tools 0.1%
Wood, incl. strips and friezes for parquet...Wood, incl. strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, continuously shaped "tongued, grooved, rebated, chamfered, v-jointed beaded, moulded, rounded or the like" along any of its edges, ends or faces, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed 0.1%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.1%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.1%
Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.1%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts, knitted or crocheted (excl. wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.1%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 0.1%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.1%
Surveying, incl. photogrammetrical surveying,...Surveying, incl. photogrammetrical surveying, hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological or geophysical instruments and appliances (excl. compasses); rangefinders 0.1%
Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not...Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not minced, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.1%
Mattress supports (excl. spring interiors for...Mattress supports (excl. spring interiors for seats); articles of bedding and similar furnishing, e.g. mattresses, quilts, eiderdowns, cushions, pouffes and pillows, fitted with springs or stuffed or internally filled with any material or of cellular rubber or plastics, whether or not covered (excl. pneumatic or water mattresses and pillows, blankets and covers) 0.1%
Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores;...Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores; chemical products and preparations for the chemical or allied industries, incl. mixtures of natural products, n.e.s. 0.1%
Direction finding compasses; other navigational...Direction finding compasses; other navigational instruments and appliances (excl. radio navigational equipment) 0.1%
Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments...Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments and mixed seasonings; mustard flour and meal, whether or not prepared, and mustard 0.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans...Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans and trucks (excl. those of heading 8604) 0.1%
Heterocyclic compounds with oxygen hetero-atom[s]...Heterocyclic compounds with oxygen hetero-atom[s] only 0.1%
Men's or boys' shirts (excl. knitted or crocheted,...Men's or boys' shirts (excl. knitted or crocheted, nightshirts, singlets and other vests) 0.1%
Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel "e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed" 0.1%
Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons,...Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons, incl. driver 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for measuring or...Instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking the flow, level, pressure or other variables of liquids or gases, e.g. flow meters, level gauges, manometers, heat meters (excl. instruments and apparatus of heading 9014, 9015, 9028 or 9032) 0.1%
Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and...Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses (excl. knitted or crocheted and vests) 0.1%
Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl....Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl. cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes, of wood (excl. plywood panelling, blocks, strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, and pre-fabricated buildings) 0.1%
Stoves, ranges, grates, cookers, incl. those with...Stoves, ranges, grates, cookers, incl. those with subsidiary boilers for central heating, barbecues, braziers, gas-rings, plate warmers and similar non-electric domestic appliances, and parts thereof of iron or steel (excl. boilers and radiators for central heating, geysers and hot water cylinders) 0.1%
Special garments for professional, sporting or...Special garments for professional, sporting or other purposes, n.e.s., knitted or crocheted 0.1%
Spectacles, goggles and the like, corrective,...Spectacles, goggles and the like, corrective, protective or other (excl. spectacles for testing eyesight, contact lenses, spectacle lenses and frames and mountings for spectacles) 0.1%
Preparations for use on the hairPreparations for use on the hair 0.1%
Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches,...Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches, incl. stop-watches (excl. of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal) 0.1%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape,...Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls (excl. floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 0.1%
Containers, incl. containers for the transport of...Containers, incl. containers for the transport of fluids, specially designed and equipped for carriage by one or more modes of transport 0.1%
Electric sound or visual signalling apparatus, e.g...Electric sound or visual signalling apparatus, e.g. bells, sirens, indicator panels, burglar or fire alarms (excl. those for cycles, motor vehicles and traffic signalling); parts thereof 0.1%
Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a...Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines, e.g. ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, sparking plugs, glow plugs and starter motors; generators, e.g. dynamos and alternators, and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof 0.1%
Bicycles and other cycles, incl. delivery...Bicycles and other cycles, incl. delivery tricycles, not motorized 0.1%
Carpets and other textile floor coverings, tufted ...Carpets and other textile floor coverings, tufted "needle punched", whether or not made-up 0.1%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of textile materials (excl. toy footwear) 0.1%
Pharmaceutical preparations and products of...Pharmaceutical preparations and products of subheading nos 3006.10.10 to 3006.60.90 0.1%
Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or...Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling-stock, n.e.s. 0.1%
Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall...Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall tiles; glazed ceramic mosaic cubes and the like, whether or not on a backing (excl. of siliceous fossil meals or similar siliceous earths, refractory ceramic goods, tiles made into stands, ornamental articles and tiles specifically manufactured for stoves) 0.1%
Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in...Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, for the industrial preparation or manufacture of food or drink (other than machinery for the extraction or preparation of animal or fixed vegetable fats or oils); parts thereof 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 72.9%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
Australia an independent nation, belonging to the Commonwealth, and recognizes the British Monarch as its sovereign. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of State. She is represented in Australia by a Governor General who has a symbolic function (he is appointed by her on the recommendation of the Prime Minister). The Prime Minister is the head of the government. He runs State business. It is the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in the House of Representatives at the General Election.
Legislative Power
The parliament is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Senators are elected for a 6 year term, and the members of the House of Representatives for a 3 year term minimum. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are responsible to parliament, of which they must be elected members.
Main Political Parties
A bipartisan system with:
- The Liberal Party (conservative, centre-right, neoliberal);
- The Australian Labor Party (social democrat, centre-left).
Also : The Greens, and the National Party (conservative) in coalition with the Liberal Party.
Current Political Leaders
Prime Minister: Kevin RUDD (elected in December 2007) – Labor Party
Governor General: Quentin Alice Louise BRYCE (since 5 September 2008)
Next Election Dates
Senate : June 2011
Representatives : December 2013
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
16/175
Evolution:
12 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
1/7
Civil Liberties:
1/7

Map of freedom 2010
Source: Freedom House

 

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