Business Environment in India

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

India is amongst the world's 10 largest economies. The average GNP growth rate was 9.4% in average over the period 2006-07. This growth rate dropped during the global recession, the crisis affected India by the increase of risk aversion, a withdrawal of foreign capital and the drop of global demand.  However, India was a country that quickly got out of the crisis, its growth was stimulated by private consumption and by the state's expenditures.  From 5.7% in 2009, the growth has jumped up and it is expected to reach 9.7% in 2010 according to the estimations. 

The government has established as its priorities to continue the reforms that will allow to sustain the growth, to modernize the economic structure and to fight against poverty.  Programs concerning jobs, health, education, infrastructures and rural communities have also been announced.  The pursuit of a re-balance in public finance is also projected, the objective is to bring the deficit to 5.5% of the GDP. 

India remains a poor country: the GDP per capita is low, almost 25% of the population still lives below the poverty line and the inequalities are very strong.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 1,268.88 1,537.97e 1,704.06 1,858.97 2,061.14e
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 6.8 10.4 8.2 7.8e 8.2
GDP per Capita (USD) 1,058 1,265 1,382 1,488 1,628
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -11.0 -10.0 -8.8 -7.7e -6.3
Inflation Rate (%) 10.9 13.2e 7.5e 6.9 4.9
Current Account (billions USD) -25.89e -29.70e -30.43 -32.36 -
Current Account (in % of GDP) -2.1 -2.2 -2.0 -2.0e -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

India is the world's fourth agricultural power. Agriculture contributes to about 20% of the GNP and employs close to two-thirds of the active population. The main agricultural products are: wheat, millet, rice, corn, sugar cane, tea, potatoes and cotton.  India is also the second producer of cattle, third producer of sheep and fourth in fishing production. 

Coal is the country's main energy source (India is the third largest world producer of coal). In the manufacturing industry, textile plays a predominant role. In terms of size, the chemical industry is the second largest industrial sector (12% of the GNP).

The services sector is the most dynamic part of the Indian economy.  It contributes to more than half of its GDP, and it does not employ but a third of its active population.  The software sector, which grows rapidly, is boosting the export of services and modernizing the Indian economy.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) - - -
Value Added (in % of GDP) 17.1 28.2 54.6
Value Added (Annual % Change) 0.2 9.3 8.5

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Indian Rupee (INR) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 44.10 45.31 41.35 43.51 48.41

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in India, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
54.6/100
Position:
Mostly unfree
World Rank:
119/179
Regional Rank:
24/38

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

Return to top

Foreign Trade in Figures

India was a protectionist state for a long time, but the country has become progressively more open to international trade.  It has recently signed free trade agreements with South Korea and the ASEAN, and has entered into negotiations with several partners (EU, MERCOSUR, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa). 

 

India recorded a high commercial deficit due to the price rise of raw materials which increased the import invoices.  In regards of exports, they have recorded a lower progression during the last recent years due to the rise of the rupee in relation to the dollar (most of the exports are drawn up in dollars) and the decline of the global demand.  During the economic crisis, exports dropped at a slower rhythm than imports, creating a reduction of the commercial deficit. 

The main trade partners of India are the European Union, the United Arab Emirates, China and the United States.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 178,410 229,370 321,032 257,202 322,702
Exports of Goods (million USD) 121,808 150,159 194,827 164,907 216,162
Imports of Services (million USD) 58,222 70,388 87,760 80,274 116,906
Exports of Services (million USD) 69,456 86,612 103,829 90,193 109,514
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 22.0 10.0 23.0 -7.3 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 21.8 5.2 19.3 -6.7 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 24.4 24.7 29.0 25.3 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 21.3 20.6 23.5 20.6 -
Trade Balance (million USD) -42,804 -54,827 -92,361 -78,816 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -31,770 -42,290 -80,755 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 45.7 45.2 52.5 45.8 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2009
United Arab Emirates 14.4%
United States 10.8%
China 5.9%
Hong Kong 4.0%
Singapore 3.9%
United Kingdom 3.7%
Netherlands 3.7%
Germany 3.3%
Saudi Arabia 2.2%
South Korea 2.1%
Belgium 2.0%
Malaysia 2.0%
France 1.9%
Italy 1.9%
Japan 1.8%
Indonesia 1.7%
Bangladesh 1.2%
South Africa 1.1%
Spain 1.1%
Iran 1.1%
Other partnersClose extended list 61.0%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2009
China 11.5%
United Arab Emirates 7.4%
United States 6.0%
Saudi Arabia 5.4%
Australia 4.5%
Germany 4.1%
Iran 4.0%
Switzerland 3.8%
South Korea 3.1%
Kuwait 2.9%
Indonesia 2.9%
Japan 2.5%
Singapore 2.3%
Iraq 2.2%
Nigeria 2.1%
Belgium 2.1%
Hong Kong 2.0%
South Africa 1.9%
Malaysia 1.9%
France 1.7%
Other partnersClose extended list 65.1%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2009
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 13.1%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 9.4%
Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of...Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. articles > 100 years old) 6.0%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 3.0%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.2%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 2.0%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 1.7%
Articles of goldsmiths' or silversmiths' wares and...Articles of goldsmiths' or silversmiths' wares and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. jewellery, clocks, watches and parts thereof, musical instruments, arms, perfume atomizers and their atomizing heads, original sculptures, collectors' pieces and antiques) 1.6%
RiceRice 1.4%
Separate chemically defined organic compounds, n.e...Separate chemically defined organic compounds, n.e.s. 1.2%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 1.1%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 1.1%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 1.1%
Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl....Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl. monofilament of >= 67 decitex and with a cross sectional dimension of <= 1 mm 0.8%
Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium,...Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 0.8%
Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and...Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses (excl. knitted or crocheted and vests) 0.8%
Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not...Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil 0.8%
Cotton yarn other than sewing thread, containing >...Cotton yarn other than sewing thread, containing >= 85% cotton by weight (excl. that put up for retail sale) 0.7%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.7%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.7%
Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel "e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed" 0.7%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 0.7%
Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating...Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating cranes, and other vessels the navigability of which is subsidiary to their main function; floating docks, floating or submersible drilling or production platforms (excl. fishing vessels and warships) 0.6%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 0.6%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.6%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.6%
Articles for interior furnishing, of all types of...Articles for interior furnishing, of all types of textile materials (excl. blankets and travelling rugs, bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen, kitchen linen, curtains, incl. drapes, interior blinds, curtain or bed valances, lampshades and articles of heading 9404) 0.6%
Cotton, neither carded nor combedCotton, neither carded nor combed 0.6%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 0.6%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.5%
Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not...Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not chemically defined; preparations based on synthetic organic colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations; synthetic organic products of a kind used as fluorescent brightening agents or as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215) 0.5%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.5%
Crustaceans, fit for human consumption, whether in...Crustaceans, fit for human consumption, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine, incl. crustaceans in shell cooked beforehand by steaming or by boiling in water; flours, meals and pellets of crustaceans, fit for human consumption 0.5%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.4%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.4%
Men's or boys' shirts (excl. knitted or crocheted,...Men's or boys' shirts (excl. knitted or crocheted, nightshirts, singlets and other vests) 0.4%
Unmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuseUnmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuse 0.4%
Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate...Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate), worked, and articles; mosaic cubes etc. of natural stone, incl. slate, whether or not on a backing; artificially coloured granules, chippings, powder, of natural stone, incl. slate (excl. setts, curbstones, flagstones; articles of fused basalt and of fired steatite; jewellery, clocks, lamps and parts; buttons, chalks, original sculptures and statuary) 0.4%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.4%
Shawls, scarves, mufflers, mantillas, veils and...Shawls, scarves, mufflers, mantillas, veils and similar articles (excl. knitted or crocheted) 0.4%
AntibioticsAntibiotics 0.4%
Medicaments consisting of two or more constituents...Medicaments consisting of two or more constituents mixed together for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, not in measured doses or put up for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 0.4%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.4%
Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of...Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of leather or composition leather (excl. footware and headgear and parts thereof, and goods of chapter 95, e.g. shin guards, fencing masks) 0.4%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.3%
Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or...Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled 0.3%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.3%
Tea, whether or not flavouredTea, whether or not flavoured 0.3%
Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with...Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with an auxiliary motor, with or without side-cars; side-cars 0.3%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.3%
Woven fabrics of cotton, containing >= 85% cotton...Woven fabrics of cotton, containing >= 85% cotton by weight and weighing <= 200 g/m² 0.3%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.3%
Tugs and pusher craftTugs and pusher craft 0.3%
Maize or cornMaize or corn 0.3%
Men's or boys' shirts, knitted or crocheted (excl....Men's or boys' shirts, knitted or crocheted (excl. nightshirts, t-shirts, singlets and other vests) 0.3%
Women's or girls' slips, petticoats, briefs,...Women's or girls' slips, petticoats, briefs, panties, nightdresses, pyjamas, negligés, bathrobes, dressing gowns, housecoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. t-shirts, vests, brassieres, girdles, corsets and similar articles) 0.3%
Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other...Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled 0.3%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.3%
Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen...Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen of all types of textile materials (excl. floor-cloths, polishing-cloths, dish-cloths and dusters) 0.3%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.3%
Granite, porphyry, basalt, sandstone and other...Granite, porphyry, basalt, sandstone and other monumental or building stone, whether or not roughly trimmed or merely cut, by sawing or otherwise, into blocks or slabs of a square or rectangular shape (excl. in the form of granules, chippings or powder, or already with the characteristics of setts, curbstones and flagstones, and monumental or building stone of an apparent specific gravity of >= 2,5) 0.3%
Fixed vegetable fats and oils, incl. jojoba oil,...Fixed vegetable fats and oils, incl. jojoba oil, and their fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified (excl. soya-bean, ground-nut, olive, palm, sunflower-seed, safflower, cotton-seed, coconut, palm kernel, babassu, rape, colza and mustard oil) 0.3%
Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and...Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses, knitted or crocheted (excl. t-shirts and vests) 0.3%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.3%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.3%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.3%
Articles of iron or steel, cast, n.e.s.Articles of iron or steel, cast, n.e.s. 0.3%
Table, kitchen or other household articles, and...Table, kitchen or other household articles, and parts thereof, of iron or steel; iron or steel wool; pot scourers and scouring or polishing pads, gloves and the like, of iron or steel (excl. cans, boxes and similar containers of heading 7310; waste baskets; shovels, corkscrews and other articles of the nature of a work implement; articles of cutlery, spoons, ladles, forks etc. of heading 8211 to 8215; ornamental articles; sanitary ware) 0.2%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 0.2%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts, knitted or crocheted (excl. wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.2%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.2%
Oils and other products of the distillation of...Oils and other products of the distillation of high temperature coal tar; similar products in which the weight of the aromatic constituents exceeds that of the non-aromatic constituents 0.2%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Babies' garments and clothing accessories, knitted...Babies' garments and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted (excl. hats) 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.2%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.2%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.2%
Other bars and rods of stainless steel; angles,...Other bars and rods of stainless steel; angles, shapes and sections of stainless steel, n.e.s. 0.2%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.2%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.2%
Unwrought zinc :Unwrought zinc : 0.2%
Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating,...Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting or boring machinery, for earth, minerals or ores; pile-drivers and pile-extractors; snow-ploughs and snow-blowers (excl. those mounted on railway wagons, motor vehicle chassis or lorries, self-propelled machinery of heading 8429, lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery of heading 8425 to 8428 and hand-operated tools) 0.2%
Pepper of the genus piper; dried or crushed or...Pepper of the genus piper; dried or crushed or ground fruits of the genus capsicum or of the genus pimenta 0.2%
Made up articles of textile materials, incl. dress...Made up articles of textile materials, incl. dress patterns, n.e.s. 0.2%
Vegetable saps and extracts; pectic substances,...Vegetable saps and extracts; pectic substances, pectinates and pectates; agar-agar and other mucilages and thickeners derived from vegetable products, whether or not modified, 0.2%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.2%
Yarn of synthetic staple fibres (excl. sewing...Yarn of synthetic staple fibres (excl. sewing thread and yarn put up for retail sale) 0.2%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.2%
Synthetic filament yarn, incl. synthetic...Synthetic filament yarn, incl. synthetic monofilaments of < 67 decitex (excl. sewing thread and yarn put up for retail sale) 0.2%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steelSemi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 0.2%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.2%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.2%
Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, whether or...Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, whether or not broken (excl. edible nuts, olives, soya beans, ground-nuts, copra, linseed, rape or colza seeds and sunflower seeds) 0.2%
Carpets and other textile floor coverings, of...Carpets and other textile floor coverings, of textile materials, knotted, whether or not made-up 0.2%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.2%
Men's or boys' underpants, briefs, nightshirts,...Men's or boys' underpants, briefs, nightshirts, pyjamas, bathrobes, dressing gowns and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. vests and singlets) 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.2%
Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not...Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of vegetable fats or oils (excl. from soya-bean oil and ground-nut oil) 0.2%
Precious stones and semi-precious stones, whether...Precious stones and semi-precious stones, whether or not worked or graded, but not strung, mounted or set, ungraded precious stones and semi-precious stones, temporarily strung for convenience of transport (excl. diamonds and imitation precious stones and semi-precious stones) 0.2%
Essential oils, whether or not terpeneless, incl....Essential oils, whether or not terpeneless, incl. concretes and absolutes; resinoids; extracted oleoresins; concentrates of essential oils in fats, fixed oils, waxes or the like, obtained by enfleurage or maceration; terpenic by-products of the deterpenation of essential oils; aqueous distillates and aqueous solutions of essential oils 0.2%
Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish...Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.2%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.2%
Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting...Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting "incl. parchment-dressed leather", of bovine "incl. buffalo" or equine animals, without hair on, whether or not split (excl. chamois leather, patent leather and patent laminated leather, and metallized leather) 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.2%
Carpets and other textile floor coverings, woven,...Carpets and other textile floor coverings, woven, not tufted or flocked, whether or not made-up, incl. kelem, schumacks, karamanie and similar handwoven rugs 0.2%
Woven fabrics of silk or of silk wasteWoven fabrics of silk or of silk waste 0.1%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.1%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 0.1%
Carpets and other textile floor coverings, whether...Carpets and other textile floor coverings, whether or not made-up (excl. knotted, woven or tufted "needle punched", and of felt) 0.1%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.1%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.1%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.1%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.1%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.1%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.1%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.1%
Woven fabrics of cotton, containing >= 85% cotton...Woven fabrics of cotton, containing >= 85% cotton by weight and weighing > 200 g/m² 0.1%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.1%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.1%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.1%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.1%
Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85%...Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85% synthetic staple fibres by weight, other than those mixed principally or solely with cotton 0.1%
Sacks and bags, of a kind used for the packing of...Sacks and bags, of a kind used for the packing of goods, of all types of textile materials 0.1%
Amine-function compoundsAmine-function compounds 0.1%
Parts of footwear, incl. uppers whether or not...Parts of footwear, incl. uppers whether or not attached to soles other than outer soles; removable in-soles, heel cushions and similar articles; gaiters, leggings and similar articles, and parts thereof (excl. articles of asbestos) 0.1%
Molluscs, fit for human consumption, whether in...Molluscs, fit for human consumption, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine, incl. aquatic invertebrates (other than crustaceans and molluscs); flours, meals and pellets of aquatic invertebrates other than crustaceans, fit for human consumption 0.1%
Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their...Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.1%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.1%
Ground-nuts, whether or not shelled or broken ...Ground-nuts, whether or not shelled or broken (excl. roasted or otherwise cooked) 0.1%
Dates, figs, pineapples, avocados, guavas, mangoes...Dates, figs, pineapples, avocados, guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried 0.1%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.1%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.1%
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically...Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined; aluminium oxide; aluminium hydroxide 0.1%
Parts and accessories for motor-cycles and...Parts and accessories for motor-cycles and bicycles and for carriages for disabled persons, n.e.s. 0.1%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 0.1%
Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting...Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting "incl. parchment-dressed leather", of goats or kids, pigs, reptiles and other animals, without wool or hair on, and leather of hairless animals, whether or not split (excl. leather of bovine and equine animals, sheep and lambs, and chamois leather, patent leather and patent laminated leather, and metallized leather) 0.1%
Pig iron and spiegeleisen, in pigs, blocks or...Pig iron and spiegeleisen, in pigs, blocks or other primary forms 0.1%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.1%
Human hair, dressed, thinned, bleached or...Human hair, dressed, thinned, bleached or otherwise worked; wool, other animal hair or other textile materials, prepared for use in making wigs or the like (excl. natural plaits of human hair, whether or not washed and degreased, but not otherwise processed) 0.1%
Meat of sheep or goats, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of sheep or goats, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.1%
Woven fabrics containing >= 85% synthetic staple...Woven fabrics containing >= 85% synthetic staple fibres by weight 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Vessels, incl. warships and lifeboats (excl....Vessels, incl. warships and lifeboats (excl. rowing boats and other vessels of heading 8901 to 8905 and vessels for breaking up) 0.1%
Ginger, saffron, turmeric "curcuma", thyme, bay...Ginger, saffron, turmeric "curcuma", thyme, bay leaves, curry and other spices (excl. pepper of the genus piper, fruit of the genus capsicum or of the genus pimenta, vanilla, cinnamon, cinnamontree flowers, cloves [wholefruit], clove stems, nutmeg, mace, cardamoms, seeds of anise, badian, fennel, coriander, cumin and caraway, and juniper berries) 0.1%
Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee,...Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee, tea or mate and preparations with a basis of these products or with a basis of coffee, tea or mate; roasted chicory and other roasted coffee substitutes, and extracts, essences and concentrates thereof 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 66.2%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2009
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 24.4%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 8.8%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 5.7%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 2.8%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 2.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 1.7%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 1.6%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 1.5%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 1.4%
Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined...Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 1.3%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 1.1%
Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium,...Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 1.0%
Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 1.0%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.9%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 0.9%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.9%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 0.8%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.8%
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or...Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split 0.8%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 0.7%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.6%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 0.6%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.6%
Diphosphorus pentaoxide; phosphoric acid;...Diphosphorus pentaoxide; phosphoric acid; polyphosphoric acids, whether or not chemically defined 0.5%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.5%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.5%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.4%
Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark...Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark or sapwood, or roughly squared (excl. rough-cut wood for walking sticks, umbrellas, tool shafts and the like; wood in the form of railway sleepers; wood cut into boards or beams, etc.) 0.4%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.4%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.4%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with transmission and reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting, television, television cameras, still image video cameras and other video camera recorders, radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus or radio remote control apparatus, n.e.s. 0.4%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.4%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.4%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.3%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.3%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.3%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.3%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.3%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 0.3%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.3%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.3%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.3%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.3%
AntibioticsAntibiotics 0.3%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.3%
Soya-bean oil and its fractions, whether or not...Soya-bean oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 0.3%
Natural calcium phosphates and natural aluminium...Natural calcium phosphates and natural aluminium calcium phosphates, natural and phosphatic chalk 0.3%
Separate chemically defined organic compounds, n.e...Separate chemically defined organic compounds, n.e.s. 0.3%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 0.3%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.3%
Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating,...Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting or boring machinery, for earth, minerals or ores; pile-drivers and pile-extractors; snow-ploughs and snow-blowers (excl. those mounted on railway wagons, motor vehicle chassis or lorries, self-propelled machinery of heading 8429, lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery of heading 8425 to 8428 and hand-operated tools) 0.3%
Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating...Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating cranes, and other vessels the navigability of which is subsidiary to their main function; floating docks, floating or submersible drilling or production platforms (excl. fishing vessels and warships) 0.3%
Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.2%
Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for...Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the manufacture of products from these materials, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, parts thereof 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts of...Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts of metal-rolling mills 0.2%
Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat,...Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon 0.2%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.2%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.2%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.2%
Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum,...Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 0.2%
Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other...Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other residues of petroleum oil or of oil obtained from bituminous minerals, n.e.s. 0.2%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.2%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.2%
Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in...Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip; mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle or similar types of natural rubber with synthetic rubber or factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.2%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of...Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. articles > 100 years old) 0.2%
Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or...Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled 0.2%
Primary cells and primary batteries, electrical;...Primary cells and primary batteries, electrical; parts thereof (excl. spent) 0.2%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.2%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.2%
Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and...Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations, n.e.s. (excl. rubber accelerators) 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.2%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.2%
Liquid crystal devices not constituting articles...Liquid crystal devices not constituting articles provided for more specifically in other heading; lasers (excl. laser diodes); other optical appliances and instruments not elsewhere specified in chapter 90 0.2%
Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and...Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and fractions thereof, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 0.2%
Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their...Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Ammonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solutionAmmonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solution 0.2%
Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl....Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl. wheel-mounted cranes and vehicle cranes for railways); mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane 0.2%
Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides,...Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Tugs and pusher craftTugs and pusher craft 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Steam turbines and other vapour turbines; parts...Steam turbines and other vapour turbines; parts thereof 0.2%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.2%
Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by...Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by forging, hammering or die-stamping; machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by bending, folding, straightening, flattening, shearing, punching or notching; presses for working metal or metal carbides, not specified above 0.2%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.2%
Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in...Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state 0.2%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.2%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.2%
Electrical machines and apparatus, having...Electrical machines and apparatus, having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.2%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.2%
Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or...Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable "pre-set"; parts thereof 0.2%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.2%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.2%
Waste and scrap, of aluminium (excl. slags, scale...Waste and scrap, of aluminium (excl. slags, scale and the like from iron and steel production, containing recoverable aluminium in the form of silicates, ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted waste and scrap, of aluminium, ashes and residues from aluminium production) 0.2%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.2%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.1%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.1%
Knitting machines, stitch-bonding machines and...Knitting machines, stitch-bonding machines and machines for making gimped yarn, tulle, lace, embroidery, trimmings, braid or net and machines for tufting (excl. hem-stiching machines) 0.1%
Recovered "waste and scrap" paper or paperboard ...Recovered "waste and scrap" paper or paperboard (excl. paper wool) 0.1%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.1%
Steam or other vapour generating boilers (excl....Steam or other vapour generating boilers (excl. central heating hot water boilers capable also of producing low pressure steam); super-heated water boilers; parts thereof 0.1%
Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or...Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling-stock, n.e.s. 0.1%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Printed circuitsPrinted circuits 0.1%
Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens,...Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens, non-electric, incl. incinerators (excl. drying ovens and ovens for cracking operations) 0.1%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.1%
Unwrought lead :Unwrought lead : 0.1%
Amine-function compoundsAmine-function compounds 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.1%
Oxygen-function amino-compoundsOxygen-function amino-compounds 0.1%
Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless...Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless microphones with built-in transmitter); loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers (excl. telephone sets, hearing aids and helmets with built-in headphones, whether or not incorporating a microphone); audio-frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other...Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted copper waste and scrap, ashes and residues containing copper, and waste and scrap of primary cells, primary batteries and electric accumulators) 0.1%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.1%
Unwrought nickelUnwrought nickel 0.1%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.1%
Other nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled...Other nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled (excl. coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts) 0.1%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.1%
Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic...Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic monocarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.1%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.1%
Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or...Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or principally with the machine-tools of heading 8456 to 8465, incl. work or tool holders, self-opening dieheads, dividing heads and other special attachments for machine-tools, n.e.s.; tool holders for any type of tool for working in the hand 0.1%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.1%
Natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule,...Natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle and similar natural gums, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.1%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.1%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 56.2%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

Return to top

Political Outline

Executive Power

President is the chief of the state and is elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the provinces for a five-year term.

Prime Minister is the head of the government and is chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections, to serve a term of five years. The President, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, appoints the Cabinet.
Legislative Power
The legislature is bicameral. The Parliament consists of: Council of States and the People's Assembly. People of India enjoy considerable political rights.
Main Political Parties
India has a multi-party system with predominance of small regional parties.

The major political parties in the country are:

- Indian National Congress: a major political party involved in India's independence movement
- Bharatiya Janta Party: pro-Hindu, nationalist ideology,
- Communist Party of India: Marxism-Leninism,
- Bahujan Samajwadi Party: draws support from backward classes & religious minorities.

Current Political Leaders
President: Mrs. Pratiba Patil (since July 2007) - non-partisan
Prime Minister: Manmohan SINGH (since May 2004, reelected in May 2009) – INC, heading a coalition government with CPI(M) & other parties.
Next Election Dates
Presidential: July 2012
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
105/175
Evolution:
13 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7
Civil Liberties:
3/7

Map of freedom 2010

 

Return to top

Any Comments About This Content? Report It to Us.

 
Read more See less
Experts Views (15)
Hot Tips (1) Go Top
  • Doing Business with India

    An outline of all aspects of qualifying an opportunity and starting & operating a successful business in India. The emphasis will be to expose a few key information resources and business contacts that SMEs and Start-ups can reliably use to find an optimum opportunity and solve their individual issues and...

    Entry India, LLC on 30 Aug 2011 related to Business Environment in India

Latest News (1) Go Top
Post your content

WANT TO APPEAR ON THIS PAGE?

Post content about Business Environment in India and you will be listed here to receive requests for offers.

Zepol provides U.S. trade information to help those dealing with the perils of global business.
Contact us for a Free Trial!

Contact our expert contributors