Guide to Business in Cambodia

An Expert's View about Foreign Direct Investment in Cambodia

Posted on: 13 Jul 2010

This guide provides a comprehensive overview of doing business in Cambodia. It includes chapters on land ownership, business entities, banking, mining, energy, and investment incentives.

Guide to Business in Cambodia February 2010 No 64, St 111 PO Box 172 Phnom Penh Cambodia +855 23 217 510 +855 23 212 740 +855 23 212 840 Guide to Business in Cambodia February 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword - Cambodia: An Emerging Market Chapter 1: Legal System.......................................................................................................................5 1. History of the Cambodian Legal System 2. Lawmaking & Governance in Cambodia 3. Court Structure 4. Notary Public 5. Alternative Dispute Resolution 6. A Legal System in Transition Chapter 2: Investment ........................................................................................................................7 1. Overview 2. Reasons to Invest in Cambodia 3. Investment Procedures 4. Change in Ownership of a Qualied Investment Project Chapter 3: Commercial Law ...............................................................................................................12 1. Overview 2. Nationality & Legal Personality 3. Types of Businesses 4. Foreign Business in Cambodia 5. Taxation 6. Rights & Obligations of Directors & Shareholders Chapter 4: Land & Construction........................................................................................................18 1. Overview 2. Legal Ownership of Land in Cambodia 3. Acquisition of Property in Cambodia 4. Potential Risks 5. Enforcement of Property Rights 6. Establishing Control Over Land 7. Land Concessions BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 2 Chapter 5: Intellectual Property..........................................................................................................22 1. Overview 2. Trademarks 3. Patents 4. Utility Models 5. Industrial Designs 6. Copyrights 7. Geographical Indicators 8. Trade Secrets 9. Right of Publicity Chapter 6: Banking............................................................................................................................46 1. Overview 2. Types of Banks 3. Establishing a Bank 4. Foreign Bank Branches & Representative Oces 5. Regulatory Compliance Chapter 7: Mining & Energy..............................................................................................................50 1. Overview 2. Mining 3. Electricity 4. Oil & Gas 5. Future of Cambodian Energy BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 3 CAMBODIA: AN EMERGING MARKET e Kingdom of Cambodia sits at the heart of Southeast Asia, a dynamic region of trade in the world economy. Cambodia?s 1999 membership to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and 2004 accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) have opened the country up to the global marketplace. Cambodia?s government is business-friendly, oering numerous incentives and tax breaks to start-up companies. While Cambodia is not without the problems of many developing countries, it has many assets that make it attractive to potential investors; tourism, agricultural products and human resources are all valuable assets specic to Cambodia?s growing economy. e aim of this guide is to give investors insight into conducting business in Cambodia. e guide explores various investment opportunities, and focuses on the laws and regulations surrounding company law, intellectual property rights, land law and emerging markets, including energy, mining and telecommunications. If you would like more information regarding any of the matters discussed in this booklet, please don?t hesitate to contact us at BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 4 Legal System Chapter 1 1. HISTORY OF THE CAMBODIAN LEGAL SYSTEM Traditionally, Cambodia has followed a system of government that was heavily inuenced by Buddhist traditions and rituals. is system changed when Cambodia was colonized by the French, and a Civil Law system was introduced. Since Independence in 1954, Cambodian?s legal history can be divided into six distinct periods. Each phase has contributed signicantly to the current make-up of Cambodia?s legal infrastructure. ? 1954 to 1975: Before 1975, Cambodia?s legal system was modeled aer the French system. A comprehensive, legal framework governing commercial, civil and family relationships regulated day-to-day life. ere were several court categories, which were responsible for dierent cases. ? 1975-1979: Khmer Rouge Period. In 1975, the Khmer Rouge took over the country and destroyed Cambodia?s entire French-based legal system. ? 1979-1989: Vietnamese-Based Communist Model. e legal system that emerged during these years was heavily inuenced by Vietnam, as advisors helped dra Cambodian laws. ere was no separation of powers among the executive, judicial and legislative branches of government. ? 1989-1991: Liberalized Communist System. In 1989, the State of Cambodia embarked on a liberalization program that resulted in the promulgation of laws aimed at liberalizing ownership of property and granting greater economic freedoms to Cambodians. ? 1991-1993: UNTAC/SNC Intervention. Following a United Nations- brokered peace agreement in 1991, certain agencies and ministries of the State of Cambodia government came under the supervisory control of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). e Supreme National Council (SNC) was created as a new law and policy-making body, which enacted a number of laws, including a criminal and judiciary law. ? 1993 to present: e Royal Government of Cambodia. Aer democratic elections, the Kingdom of Cambodia and the Royal Government of Cambodia came into being in 1993 in the form of a constitutional monarchy. e Constitution established a judiciary separate and independent from the executive and legislative branches of government. e current system combines aspects of the pre-1975 French Civil Code system with legal principles from common law systems. Aer becoming a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), Cambodia is particularly interested in ensuring integration of its legal system with other systems in ASEAN member countries. Cambodia is committed to aligning its policies and practices with WTO rules, especially the principles of ?most-favored-nation? and ?national treatment?. Additionally, numerous laws and regulations have been draed and adopted to ensure compliance with WTO regulations. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 5 2. LAWMAKING AND GOVERNANCE IN CAMBODIA e rule of law in Cambodia is still young and needs to be strengthened and improved. To attract foreign investors to Cambodia, the Royal Government of Cambodia has undertaken many reforms. e most important reform for investors is the Legal and Judicial Reform. e Legal and Judicial Reform Strategy (LJR) for Cambodia has been developed to promote the establishment of a framework that is conducive to private sector development and the enforcement of personal property rights and obligations, and to contribute to the establishment of rule of law and good governance. Under Cambodia?s Constitution, power is divided between the legislative branch (the National Assembly and the Senate), the executive branch (the Royal Government) and the judiciary. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH EXECUTIVE BRANCH JUDICIAL BRANCH National Assembl e Prime Minister 1 Supreme Court Senate e Council of Ministers 1 Appeals Court Constitutional Council Various Ministries 19 Provincial Courts 2 Municipal Courts 1 Military Court Legislation is initiated by the National Assembly, the Senate, and from within the various ministries. In cases in which the legislation is initiated at ministerial level, it is sent to the Council of Ministers (COM) for modication and approval. e COM dra then goes to the National Assembly for review and debate. If passed, the dra moves on to the Senate for ratication, and nally, proceeds to the King for his Royal Assent. If the legislation is initiated by the National Assembly or the Senate, the draing legislators can present their proposals to the reviewing commission, who can in turn request the National Assembly to either reject their proposals, consider them or treat them as urgent. e Constitutional Council reviews laws to ensure compliance with the Constitution. Where an issue is not covered by a duly enacted statute, the COM has the authority to promulgate a regulation that has the same eect as a statute. ese regulations are known as ?Sub-Decrees.? e COM has broad discretion to modify or waive any Sub-Decree it has issued. 3. COURT STRUCTURE e Cambodian judicial system is competent in all civil, criminal, commercial and administrative cases. e court system is composed of the Court of First Instance, Appeals Court and Supreme Court. e government has adopted two important pieces of legislation in relation to court procedure to strengthen eectiveness and transparency: the Code of Civil Procedure and the Code of Criminal Procedure. ese two codes reform old court procedures. e creation of additional specialized courts, pertaining to administrative, family, labor and commercial law, has been proposed and is under consideration. 4. THE NOTARY PUBLIC e establishment of the Notary Public has been one of the most important developments in the implementation of judicial and administrative reform policies and governance in Cambodia. It is meant to ensure the legality of transactions involving private and ocial documents in Cambodia. e Notary Public was created on December 4, 2001, and is responsible for authentication of legal papers, such as contracts and agreements related to investment in Cambodia. It also plays a role in providing BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 6 legal consultation, draing and certifying for investors. 5. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION Informal Dispute Resolution Cambodians oen employ traditional methods of dispute resolution. Everyday disputes are oen submitted to elderly people or to other respected persons in villages or communes. Labor Dispute Resolution e Arbitration Council aims to resolve collective labor disputes. It was established in 2003 and is comprised of 30 independent arbitrators. e Council is transparent, competent and well-respected. Foreign Arbitration In 2001 Cambodian law approved the implementation of the ?UN Convention on the Recognition of and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards?. e law empowers Cambodian courts to recognize and enforce foreign arbitral awards. Future Arbitration On July 24, 2009, the COM passed a sub-decree establishing the National Arbitration Center. is center will allow businesses to bypass the court system and solve their commercial disputes through mediation in a private and independent environment. 6. A LEGAL SYSTEM IN TRANSITION As Cambodia transforms into a free-market and democratic society, its legal system has also seen signicant change. For an investor seeking to do business in Cambodia, it is important to understand not only the current diculties of the legal system but also its future opportunities. e government has committed itself to reforming the legal system. Its priorities are upgrading the legislative process, making the judiciary more transparent and bolstering structures for alternative dispute resolution. Investors must take care in the short term while these improvements in transparency and competence evolve. Although the legal system in Cambodia shares the challenges common to many developing countries, investors all over the world are discovering that Cambodia is an exciting place to be for investment and new ventures. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 7 Investment Chapter 2 1. OVERVIEW Cambodia is ideally placed for a surge in investment and business development. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Cambodia has increased signicantly since the Paris Peace Accord of 1993. e Ministry of Commerce (MOC) and e Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC) have approved over 1,000 projects worth roughly US $6.6 billion. In order to create an attractive investment climate, Cambodia has joined international and regional investment organizations, signed a number of multilateral conventions and bilateral treaties, and established business-friendly regulations and incentives to generate productive business operations in the Kingdom. 2. REASONS TO INVEST IN CAMBODIA 2.1 Location Cambodia is located in the heart of Southeast Asia. It is surrounded by ailand to the west and northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and southeast, and the Gulf of ailand to the south. e country has easy access to seaports and airports, and is rich in natural resources and world wonders. Cambodia is strategically located for a world-connected business operation. 2.2 Membership in International and Regional Organizations Cambodia is a member of various international and regional organizations that facilitate trade. Among these are the World Trade Organization (WTO), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA), in which Cambodia enjoys duty-free privileges for exports and Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment. Cambodia also accedes to the ASEAN Free Trade Area, ASEAN-China Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement, ASEAN- Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership, ASEAN-Korea Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement and a dozen other multilateral agreements. rough this regional integration, there is the potential for investors to reach billions of customers; the population of ASEAN alone is roughly 560 million, while the population of ACFTA consists of approximately 1.7 billion people. 2.3 Investment Incentives Cambodia has adopted a variety of legislation to create an open economy and encourage foreign investment. Consequently, Cambodia oers investors one of the most liberal incentive schemes in Southeast Asia. Tax incentives, a ?one-stop service? for the swi process of investment applications, and the ability to develop within Special Economic Zones, all oer extra reasons to invest in Cambodia. Except for the ownership of land, the country does not discriminate against foreign nationals. erefore investors can own 100% of their business. Additionally, Cambodia does not x prices on products and services, allowing business owners greater control of company operations. Cambodian law also oers investors various tax and duty exemptions and employment allowances. With regards to tax exemptions, investors can enjoy a corporate tax exemption for up to BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 8 eight years depending on the nature of the project. Additionally, there is a 100% exemption of export tax available for some investors. Cambodia also allows investors to employ foreign nationals if skilled workers, managers or experts are needed to conduct business. Special Economic Zones have recently been introduced to Cambodia. All industrial activities are brought together into one special development under the auspices of the Special Economic Zone. Each zone contains a production and service area and may also include a residential area to accommodate workers. 3. INVESTMENT PROCEDURES e MOC and the CDC are the institutions responsible for overseeing foreign direct investment and business development in Cambodia. FDI projects which are eligible for business incentives are called Qualied Investment Projects (QIPs) and must be registered with the CDC. e Law on Investment (2001) awards investment incentives to QIPs unless they are detailed in the Negative List of Sub Decree No. 111. QIPs fall under four types of business plans. ese are contracts, transfers, ownership, and state management. ere are various schemes within these plans open to the investor which include, but are not limited to: Build, Operate & Transfer (BOT), Build, Lease & Transfer (BLT), Build, Own, Operate & Transfer (BOOT), and Build, Own & Operate (BOO). 3.1 CDC?s Decision Process ere are two stages in the CDC approval process. First, the investment project must obtain a Conditional Registration Certicate. Second, a Final Registration Certicate is issued. With regards to the Conditional Registration Certicate, the CDC must make its decision within three business days aer receiving the Investment Proposal. In its review, the CDC may ask for more information or an amendment to the Investment Proposal. However, they must make this request within three working days of the Investment Proposal?s submission. e CDC may either refuse the Investment Proposal by issuing a Certicate of Non-Compliance or accept the proposal by issuing a Conditional Registration Certicate. If the CDC does not make its decision within three business days, the Investment Proposal will be deemed to be registered, and the CDC must immediately issue a Conditional Registration Certicate. A Certicate of Non-Compliance will be issued for a prohibited investment activity listed in Sub-Decree No 111, an Investment Proposal which has already been utilized by the Investor or an incomplete Investment Proposal. e refusal must state the reason for the denial of the Investment Proposal and where applicable provide information which will enable the CDC to register the Investment Proposal. e CDC must include the following details when granting a Conditional Registration Certicate: a list of all the required approvals, authorizations, licenses, permits and registrations for the QIP approval; the ministries, departments or agencies responsible for issuing the permits; the applicant?s choice of tax exemption; recognition of the status of the legal entity which will have responsibility of the QIP; and the investment guidelines and assessment criteria for each of the approvals, authorizations, licenses, permits and registrations. 3.2 Final Registration Certificate e CDC is in charge of obtaining all required approvals, authorizations, licenses, permits and registrations on behalf of the investor within 28 business days aer the issuance of the Conditional Registration Certicate. e CDC or the sub-committee must issue the Final Registration Certicate within 28 days aer the issuance of the Conditional Registration Certicate regardless of whether all approvals authorizations, clearances, licenses, permits and registrations are obtained. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 9 3.3 Prohibited Investment Projects Prohibited investment projects concern national security, social safety, and national economic necessity. Prohibited projects include: ? production and processing of psychotropic substances or narcotic substances; ? production of poisonous chemicals, agriculture pesticides and insecticides, and chemicals prohibited by international agreements and the World Health Organization (WHO); ? processing and production of electrical power from imported waste; ? exploitation of forests prohibited by the Forestry Law; and ? any other investment activities prohibited by other laws. 3.4 Exceptions e CDC must seek approval from the COM for projects concerning the following: ? investment capital over US$ 50 million; ? politically sensitive issues; ? exploration and exploitation of mineral and natural resources; ? environmentally unsound practices; ? long-term strategies; and ? infrastructure schemes such as Build Operate Transfer (BOT) projects. 4. CHANGE IN OWNERSHIP OF A QUALIFIED INVESTMENT PROJECT According to Sub-Decree 111 on Merger of Investors and Acquisition of Entity, investors with a qualied investment projects that are the subject of a merger or acquisition must apply to the CDC in order to inherit all rights, guarantees, privileges and obligations. 4.1 Merger An application for a merger must be submitted within ten working days before the merger and include the name of the new registered investor and a request to have the Final Registration Certicate transferred to the new entity. Within ten working days aer the submission of the application, the CDC must review the application and provide the new entity written conrmation or refusal. e CDC must be notied when the transfer of shares results in a transfer of at least 20% of voting rights. Within ten working days of the share transfer, the investor must notify the CDC of the transfer and the name and address of the transferee. 4.2 Acquisition An investor must notify the CDC within 10 working days of an acquisition of a QIP. e CDC must then review the notication and provide written conrmation of acceptance or refusal to the purchasing investor within 10 working days aer the notication has been received. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 10 4.3 Termination of Qualified Investment Project At the conclusion of investment activities, the investor must inform the CDC by a registered or hand-delivered letter. e investor or his attorney-in-fact must sign the letter. Additionally, the investor must provide proof of all settled debts, including any complaints and claims from the Ministry of Economy and Finance and pay applicable dues if imported machinery and equipment have been used for less than ve years. Fulllment of the requirements will cancel the Final Registration Certicate. Upon cancellation, the investor must cease activities and dissolve the company in the appropriate manner subject to commercial law. An investor may transfer the remaining proceeds of the assets upon cancellation. All investment incentives are void aer cancellation. 4.4 Revocation by the State e CDC may withdraw the privileges and incentives granted to a qualied investment project. It may do so when the investor violates or fails to comply with required conditions. e state may terminate an investment activity by revoking the Final Registration Certicate. e certicate will be revoked if an investor obtains a Final Registration Certicate or a Certicate of Compliance through fraud or misrepresentation; or does not commence the investment activity within six months of receiving the Final Registration Certicate. e CDC must immediately notify the investor of the revocation in writing. Revocation of the Final Registration Certicate immediately divests the investor of all investment incentives. An investor may appeal to the Chairman of the CDC in writing. Such an appeal must be made within 20 working days of receipt of the notication of revocation. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 11 Commercial Law Chapter 3 1. OVERVIEW is chapter focuses on Cambodian commercial law and how it relates to establishing a business in Cambodia. ere are also a number of incentives available to businesses under Cambodian investment law . Companies wishing to make use of these must register at the Council for Development of Cambodia. ese incentives are discussed in Chapter 2. Commercial law in Cambodia is governed by the Law on Commercial Enterprises (LoCE), which was promulgated on 19th June 2005. Under this law, various businesses are permitted to operate including sole proprietorships, partnerships and limited liability companies, foreign businesses, branch operations and public enterprises. Foreign investors usually choose to register a limited liability company as a subsidiary of the parent company to conduct business in Cambodia. If their activities are more limited, a foreign investor may prefer to open a branch or representative oce of the parent company. Under the LoCE, the investor must register the business and le an annual declaration at the Ministry of Commerce (MOC). A company must also have a legally competent natural person as a registered agent continually maintained in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Additionally, there are a number of corporate records that must be maintained at the company?s registered oce. 2. NATIONALITY AND LEGAL PERSONALITY A company is considered to have Cambodian nationality if it has a registered oce in Cambodia, and at least 51% of its shares are owned by Cambodian nationals. Only companies with Cambodian nationality will be permitted to register corporate names that imply such nationality. A limited liability company with Cambodian nationality is referred to as a ?local company?. Under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, only a local company is entitled to own land. e chairman of the Board of Directors of a local company must be a Cambodian national. Other directors can be foreigners. A general partnership that has acquired legal personality is deemed to be of Khmer nationality only if the general partnership has a place of business and a registered oce located in the Kingdom of Cambodia, and more than 51% of the record ownership interest is held by natural or legal persons of Khmer nationality. A company must display its name in the Khmer language on all seals, signs, letterhead, forms and documents used for public purpose, and public advertisements within the Kingdom of Cambodia. e Khmer name must be placed above and be larger than the name in another language. It must also sound phonetically the same as the name in the other language. e company may however use and be designated by a name in another language outside of the Kingdom of Cambodia. All companies have to conduct a company search with the MOC to determine whether or not the name already exists. e company must write a search letter to the MOC which consists of at least three dierent names with the signature of the principal. e MOC will issue the result of company search within one day. 3. TYPES OF BUSINESSES All companies that conduct commercial activities in Cambodia must be registered. e registration must be made by the company?s incorporator or director during the month of formation BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 12 and within 15 days prior to the commencement of its operations. A limited liability juristic person must have at least KHR 20 million in capital. Moreover, the company must deposit KHR 4 million into a company bank account to satisfy the Commercial Incorporation?s Capital Requirement. 3.1 Sole Proprietorship A sole proprietorship is an enterprise which is established and operated by a single natural person who is the owner of all its capital. e obligations and liabilities incurred in the operation of the business are thus his/her sole and exclusive responsibility. 3.2 Partnership e partnership is the favored method of business organization for many professionals like doctors, lawyers, and accountants. According to the LoCE, a partnership can consist of a general partnership and/or a limited partnership. 3.3 Limited Liability Company A limited liability company (LLC) is managed by ocers and directors and funded by capital provided by shareholders. It is the most common legal business form; however, forming a LLC is more complicated and expensive than forming a sole proprietorship or partnership. Companies are constituted through a process that leads to the ling of Articles of Incorporation (AI) to the MOC. e control of a company lies with its board of directors; however, the LoCE and the LLC?s constitution limit the precise nature of the control. e LoCE also controls most aspects of how a LLC is formed, how business is conducted and how the company is dissolved. e company shall issue a minimum of one thousand shares with a par value of not less than KHR 4,000 per share. erefore, the minimum share capital for setting up is KHR 4 million (approximately US $1,000). A company must have a registered oce address in Kingdom of Cambodia. Prot tax is payable on prots generated in Cambodia. See tax section below for further details. 3.4 Private Limited Company A Private Limited Company is a contract between two or more entities who agree to conduct any commercial activity. Every Private Limited Company is subject to the commercial registration requirements, which must be done at the Ministry of Commerce. 3.5 Public Limited Company A Public Limited Company (PLC) is a form of limited company that is authorized under the law to issue securities to the public. Unlike private limited companies, it may have more than 30 shareholders. In Cambodia banks are the only type of companies that are allowed to be PLCs. Once the Stock Exchange has been established, this rule will change. 4. FOREIGN BUSINESS IN CAMBODIA According to the Law on Commercial Enterprises, a foreign business is a legal person formed under the laws of a foreign country, which has a place of business and conducts business in the BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 13 Kingdom of Cambodia. It is subject to registration at the Ministry of Commerce. e three main forms of a foreign business are a representative oce, a branch and a subsidiary. 4.1 Representative Office A Representative Oce (RO) may be established by an eligible foreign investor to facilitate the sourcing of local goods and services and to collect information for its parent company. ey also serve as a channel for promoting and marketing the home company?s products and services in the host country. An RO is regarded as a cost center and accordingly should derive no income from its activities and thus is not generally subject to Cambodian tax laws. However, the RO is subject to tax requirements with regard to the withholding tax on salaries paid to employees in Cambodia, a patent tax and an annual business operation tax. e RO-Agent is subject to a commercial registration requirement, which is handled by the Ministry of Commerce. e words ?Representative Oce Agent? must be placed before or aer the name of the principal enterprise. 4.2 Branch of Foreign Company A Branch Oce is an oce that is opened by a company of another foreign country for the purpose of conducting a particular commercial activity in Cambodia. e Branch Oce is the same entity as the parent company, and therefore has the same name as the parent company. It can conduct the same activities as the RO-Agent. In addition, it may purchase, sell or conduct regular professional services or other operations engaged in production or construction in the country. e branch and parent company have joint liability with respect to losses and debts of a branch oce, and the Branch Oce must also meet local taxation obligations. e Branch Oce is also subject to the commercial registration requirement, which is handled by the Ministry of Commerce. Additionally, the word ?Branch Oce? must be placed before or aer the name of the parent company. 4.3 Subsidiary A subsidiary is a company that is incorporated in the Kingdom of Cambodia and has at least 51% percent of its capital held by a foreign company. Its formation, management, right and other obligations must be detailed in the memorandum and articles of association of the limited company. Each subsidiary is subject to commercial registration requirement, which is handled by the Ministry of Commerce. 5. TAXATION Cambodia has more lenient tax regimes in comparison to neighboring countries; however the tax requirements are dierent to most countries, and it is important for investors to adhere to the regulations. All companies are taxable under the Self Assessment System (Real Regime Tax System), regardless of the type of business activity or the level of annual revenue. Real regime system taxpayers must submit a tax declaration, a balance sheet, Results Account and Tables of complementary information to the tax administration. 5.1 Tax Registration Once a business is registered with the Ministry of Commerce, it must then register at the Large BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 14 and Medium Tax Payers Bureau (LMTB) of the Tax Department for a tax identication number (TIN), if the registered address of the business is in Phnom Penh or to the Provincial/Municipal Tax Branch oce if the registered address of business in one of the provinces/municipalities. 5.2 VAT Registration Enterprises providing taxable supplies of goods and services are required to register for VAT if they meet the criteria specied below: ? Companies, importers, exporters and investment companies ? Taxpayers with taxable turnover in respect of goods sold exceeding KHR 125 million for the preceding three consecutive months or in the next three consecutive months ? Taxpayers with taxable turnover in respect of services provided exceeding KHR 60 million for the preceding three consecutive months or in the next three consecutive months ? Taxpayers undertaking government contracts with a total taxable turnover exceeding KHR 30 million VAT registration must be made before the commencement of business operations for investment and import-export businesses, or within 30 days in which the taxpayer becomes a taxable person. However, normally, VAT registration is undertaken at the same time as the registration. 5.3 Patent Tax When registering for the TIN, the company must also pay a Patent Tax for the rst year. is tax is an annual business registration tax. If the registration is in the second half of the calendar and governmental scal year (1 July ? 31 December) then only half of the annual fee is charged. e rst Patent Tax payment must be made within 15 days of business registration. e Patent Tax is payable annually thereaer for each business activity of the business and each location of the business ? that is, should the business inform the tax authorities that they will have two or more main business activities, then a Patent Tax is due for each business activity. A company must renew its patent registration before 31 March each year. 5.4 Stamp Duty A newly established company, branch or representative oce is required to register with the Tax Department?s local tax branch oce and pay the stamp duty within 15 days of registration at the Ministry of Commerce. e rental agreement for the business premises must also be presented together with a copy of the Patent Tax receipts (of the landlord / lessor) on the rental business, if the lessor is a natural person, or a copy of both the Patent Tax certicate and VAT certicate, if the lessor is a company or a registered business within the Real Regime for tax. Where the premises are the property of the business owner, the family book and a letter from the local authority to certify the ownership of the premises should be presented. Land title documentation is required if the land is also owned. Where another business that has registered, paid the Stamp Duty and has authorized the registering business to use its premises, then the registering business must present a letter / agreement of the use of the premises, a copy of the Patent Tax receipts on the premises rental of the authorizing business (in case they are renting the premises) or evidence of property title where the authorizing company owns the premises. At this point the business has its Articles of Incorporation, Registration Certicate and Business License stamped and dated. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 15 5.5 Annual Declaration and Modification Each company must le an annual declaration with the Ministry of Commerce concerning the status of the partnership or company. Every registered company is obliged to submit an Annual Declaration of the Company?s situation at the Business Registration Department of the Ministry of Commerce. Any company that fails to submit this declaration at the end of the year will be ned, and if the company fails to submit a declaration for three consecutive years, it will be rendered an illegal company. 5.6 Tax on Profit e Tax on Prot is the debt of a resident taxpayer on income from Cambodian sources and from foreign sources. For a non- resident taxpayer, this tax is assessed on income from Cambodian sources only. e tax rates on the annual prot are as follows: ? 20% for the prot gained by a legal person. ? 30% for prot gained under an oil or natural gas production sharing contract and the exploitation of natural resources including timber, ore, gold, and precious stones. ? 9% for the prot of a qualied investment project approved by CDC to be entitled to the 5 year transitional period commencing from the tax year aer the date of the promulgation of the Law on the Amendment of the Law on Investment of the Kingdom of Cambodia. ? 0% for the prot of qualied investment project during the tax exemption period as determined by CDC. According to the progressive tax rate by tranche for the table below for the prot realized by the physical person and the distributive share to each member of a pass- through that is not classied as a legal person. ANNUAL TAXABLE PROFIT TAX RATE From 0 to 6,000,000 Riels 0% From 6,000,001 to 15,000,000 Riels 5% From 15 000,001 to 102,000,000 Riels 10% From 102,000,001 to 150,000,000 Riels 15% Greater than 150,000,000 Riels 20% For an enterprise having principal activity in the insurance or reinsurance of life, property or other risks, the tax on prot shall be determined as follows: ? 5% of the gross premiums received in the tax year for the insurance or reinsurance of risk in the Kingdom of Cambodia ? For other activities not relating to insurance or reinsurance, the normal tax on prot rates apply 5.7 Minimum Tax e Minimum Tax is a separate and distinct tax from the tax on prot. It is imposed at the rate of one percent of the annual turnover inclusive of all taxes with the exception of VAT, and is payable at the time of the annual liquidation of the tax on prot. e minimum tax may be reduced by the annual BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 16 tax on prot that is actually paid. 5.8 Tax Audits e Law provides the Tax Department with the power to carry out an audit of a taxpayer?s activities and to reassess tax where the taxpayer has not complied with the Law on Taxation and the tax regulations. e Department has a three-year period following the submission of the monthly or annual tax returns in which to raise a tax re-assessment. However, this period is extended to 10 years where there is evidence that the taxpayer has obstructed the implementation of the tax provisions. e denition of obstruction is very broad and includes the failure to submit tax returns within 30 days of the due date. 6. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF DIRECTORS AND SHAREHOLDERS e LoCE limits a shareholder?s liability to the price of the shareholder?s subscription. However, a 2005 Prakas mentions circumstances where shareholders may be liable for unpaid taxes of the company. e Prakas gives authority to the tax oce to withhold the property of shareholders, directors or managers that are liable for unpaid taxes of their company. A director may be any legally competent person over the age of 18 and does not need to be a shareholder in the company. A private limited company must have one or more directors and a public limited company must have at least three directors. Directors are elected by an ordinary resolution of shareholders who have the right to vote. e Law on Commercial enterprises imposes a number of obligations on directors. Like shareholders, directors may be liable for the unpaid taxes of a company where the director had knowledge and an intention not to report to the taxation oce. A director or ocer of a company also has a duty to disclose in writing, the nature and extent of his or her interest in the company in relation to any contracts with the company or his or her material interest in any person who is a party to a contract or proposed contract with the company. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 17 Land & Construction Chapter 4 1. OVERVIEW Cambodia?s 18.1 million hectares of land have always been a fundamental asset for this agricultural society. Farms, sheries and forests make up over 80% of the country?s land expanse, but decades of political strife have led to confusion and conict about ownership and land tenure. During the civil war era (1975-1979), there was no private ownership of land in Cambodia. Title records and registers were destroyed, and all land belonged to the state organization. Today, the social and legal legitimacy of landholding varies widely. is new era of political stability and economic growth has given the Royal Government an opportunity to implement new policies of land administration and management. e 2001 Land Law reects Cambodia?s new focus on domestic land issues, addressing the following topics: ? private ownership for both residential and agricultural holdings; ? private ownership for plots that have been under unconicted possession for at least ve years; ? creation of a land registry and systems for registering titles and encumbrances; ? mechanisms for identifying the boundaries of state land; ? mechanisms for distribution of state land (?social concessions?); ? communal tenure for indigenous communities and religious sites; and ? cap on industrial agricultural concessions (10,000 hectare) It will take a number of years before the new land laws are fully designed, implemented and enforced. Further amendments and sub-decrees are expected. It is important for investors to perform due diligence before acquiring any property interests in land. 2. LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF LAND IN CAMBODIA Land in Cambodia may be privately owned by individuals with Cambodian citizenship or by legal entities having Cambodian nationality. A legal entity has Cambodian nationality if 51% or more of its voting shares are held by Cambodian citizens or by another legal entity. Land can also be owned by public Cambodian communities or associations. e state owns a signicant portion of the land, and state property is used for public purposes and services. e Land Law (2001) established natural reserve boundaries and immovable royal properties. Foreigners cannot own land in Cambodia, under Article 44 of the Constitution. Cambodia?s Investment Law of 1994, however, permits investors to use and develop land, and to sign unlimited long-term lease agreements. In February 2008, Prime Minister Hun Sen quashed rumors that the National Assembly planned to introduce a law allowing 100% ownership of land by foreigners. However, a recent sub-decree passed by the Council of Ministers now allows foreigners to purchase individual apartments within a building creating a form of co-ownership. A foreign title law is expected to follow which would conrm a foreigner?s ability to purchase real estate above the ground oor of the building. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 18 3. ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY IN CAMBODIA While foreigners are not allowed to own real estate outright in Cambodia, there are still several ways to establish a commercial presence in the country. Foreign investors can incorporate a local company (51% Cambodian owned), set up a joint venture with Cambodian partners or sign long-term leases. It is even possible to buy land by acquiring Cambodian citizenship, an avenue encouraged by the government yet impractical for many investors. Investors can also use a nominee structure- acquiring land in the name of Cambodian partners. Foreigners can own the buildings or structures they develop on leased land or on land owned by a locally incorporated company. Foreign investors can also take advantage of the signicant incentives and tax breaks that the Cambodian government grants to Qualied Investment Projects (QIPs), as long as a majority ownership of land is vested in legal entities of Cambodian citizenship. 4. POTENTIAL RISKS Land disputes are frequent in Cambodia. e system of title registry is still young, and many land transactions are not properly registered. But an investor can take many steps to avoid problems. 4.1 Title Search Before acquiring an interest in real property, an investor must take care to verify the clear, unencumbered ownership of the land. A thorough title search is essential. e search report will show whether the title is encumbered with any liens or easements. A title search will also conrm that the foreign investor is paying the right person for the property. 4.2 Background Check An investor entering into a joint venture should perform a background check on the Cambodian individual or legal entity with whom he will partner. 4.3 Boundary Demarcation To avoid land disputes, the investor should take care to identify and register the boundaries of the property with cadastral ministries. It is a good idea to designate and control borders with a sturdy, permanent fence. 4.4 Documentation e 2001 Land Law provides for issuance of indefeasible right-proving documents for agricultural and residential land. At each step of a land transaction, an investor should acquire strong documentation of property rights, to avoid any land-grabbing and fraudulent claims of others in the future. Long-term leases are only enforceable if written. 5. ENFORCEMENT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS In the event of a land dispute, parties can seek resolution with the new cadastral commissions. e 2001 Land Law established the commissions at the local and national level. ese commissions settle disputes over unregistered immovable property: they hear complaints; survey lands; issue proposed rulings regarding possession and ownership rights; and demarcate boundaries. e commissions are obliged to publicly display the adjudication record, including an index map and list of owners, so that parties have an opportunity to object. When the adjudication record is nal, the commission must BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 19 register it with the Ministry of Land Management, Urban planning and Construction (MLMUPC), which will then issue certicates of ownership and/or rights of possession. Disputes about sales contracts or lease agreements can be taken to civil court. In practice, however, decisions in these courts are linked to corruption. Negotiation, mediation and other techniques of alternative dispute resolution typically lead to more just results. 6. ESTABLISHING CONTROL OVER LAND 6.1 Locally Incorporated Land-Holding Company (LHC) For those investors who wish to acquire land and operate a business in Cambodia, this option is the most appealing. Establishing a LHC is widely accepted and suitable for foreign investors who are individuals or legal entities. Additionally, a LHC can hold more than one piece of land at a time. On the other hand, disadvantages do exist. As foreigners cannot own 100% of land, an investor must nd and partner with a Cambodian co-owner. is restriction also exposes minority shareholders to risk. Furthermore, there are higher transaction costs and registration fees, high taxes and burdens of administration and reporting. 6.2 Joint-Venture Companies (JVCs) JVCs are comprised of a LHC and an Operating Company, of which the Operating Company can be 100% foreign-owned. e Operating Company becomes a minority shareholder (49%) in a majority Cambodian-owned LHC. ere are several ways to ensure security within a JVC. Despite owning less than half of the company, foreign investors can hold a higher class of rights than the local counterpart. Cambodian shareholders can also sign a contract granting special rights to the foreigner, such as permanent majority on the board. Additionally, one has the option of a mortgage or a lease agreement. e Operating Company makes a loan to the LHC, and the Operating Company holds a mortgage. With a mortgage, the Operating Company has a registered security interest in the land purchased by LHC. With regards to a lease agreement, the Operating Company signs a lease agreement with the LHC, thereby giving powers and rights to use the land to the Operating Company. Together, the mortgage and lease form an interrelated set of documents designed for maximum protection of minority shareholder?s interest in the land. 6.3 Long-Term Leases Another option available to foreign investors is a long-term lease. e lease gives the lessor all the necessary rights to develop leased land. Leases can also be assigned, sold or transferred through succession. Additionally, there is no maximum term for which land can be leased from a private owner; however, there is a 40 year maximum lease term on state land which allows the possibility of an extension. Some of the disadvantages to a long-term lease include: the lessee cannot rely on the Cambodian courts to resolve disputes; uncertainty exists with regards to who owns the buildings aer the lease expires; and according to investment law, the lessor can claim ownership to buildings aer a lease expires. Should one choose to obtain a long-term lease, there are contractual safeguards to consider. A forum selection clause enables the parties to resolve contract disputes outside Cambodia. An investor can include restrictions on sale which require that the landowner must obtain the lessee?s permission to sell or bar the land owner from selling unless the new owner recognizes the lease. One can also acquire administrative oversight?agreement to register a ?block sale notice? with the Land Oce, BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 20 instructing the oce not the sell the land without the lessee?s permission. 6.4 Nominee Structure Investors can use a nominee structure?acquiring land in the name of Cambodian partners; however, this method is not recommended as it is illegal as of 25 September 2007 and lacks security as well. 6.5 Transfer of Title is option allows foreign nationals to purchase land or property and register the title in the name of a Cambodian citizen. e foreign national and the Cambodian can then enter into a lease agreement (period of 70 to 99 years), whereby the Cambodian citizen leases the land or property back to the foreign national. In this agreement, the foreign national may sell the land or property and retain 100% of revenue from the sale. To ensure security, aer the title is transferred to the Cambodian citizen, the foreign national should retain possession of the original copy of the new land title because the sale of the land is prohibited without the original copy of the land title. e sale agreement must be in writing, certied by local authorities and registered with the Cadastral Registry Unit. Once due diligence has been approved, the buyer and seller can proceed with signing a land sale purchase agreement and the brokerage agreement. e Land Oce will not complete the transfer until they see payment of the transfer tax and Land Oce Fees. 7. LAND CONCESSIONS e Law on Concession was adopted by the National Assembly on 10 September 2007 and unanimously passed by the Senate on 4 October 2007. e purpose of the law is to promote and facilitate the implementation of privately nanced infrastructure projects in Cambodia with an aim to benet the public and the national economy and fulll social needs. A land concession is a legal right provided in a juridical act under the discretion of the competent authority (granted by the Cambodian government), given to a natural person, legal entity or group of persons to occupy and exercise the rights on a land in accordance with the Land Law. A land concession area must not exceed 10,000 hectares and the maximum duration is limited to 99 years. All public authorities or competent institutions entitled to undertake infrastructure projects (ministries, public institutions, state-owned legal entities, local government) have the power to enter into concession contracts for infrastructure projects falling within their respective sphere of competence and related ancillary agreements. 8. CONSTRUCTION All individuals or legal entities, either public or private, shall have the right to construct buildings on the land they possess. Obtaining a construction permit, however, is an obligatory rst step. In addition, the construction permit must be obtained prior to having the title certicate to the land and the master plan approved by the government. An application for a construction permit must be made and submitted to the provincial oce and municipality or to the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) depending on the case. e Ministry of Public Works and Transportation will review plan before opening the construction site. In theory, once all documents have been submitted to the construction oce, it takes approximately 45 days for a documents review. is time frame is subject to be changed without notice by the ocial in charge. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 21 Intellectual Property Chapter 5 1. OVERVIEW Intellectual property is a vital asset for many rms doing business in Cambodia. Whether it be to distinguish goods from competitors?, protecting the fruits of research investment, or maintaining the condentiality of nancial plans, IP considerations surface in virtually all industries. Cambodia?s 2004 accession to the World Trade Organization prompted the adoption of several laws regulating intellectual property rights. While it will be a number of years before Cambodia comes into full WTO compliance, investors can take advantage of this developing regulatory framework and seek out protection for their inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and other creative products. Although the laws are still in the early stages of development, relatively ecient procedures for registering and enforcing important IP rights are in place. Ignoring or postponing registering IP assets can be very costly in the long run. 2. TRADEMARKS Trademarks provide their owners the right to prevent rivals from using identical or confusingly similar marks and trade names on their goods and services. is publication is meant as a straightforward guide to the registration and enforcement of trademarks within the Kingdom of Cambodia. It draws on the Law itself, coupled with advice and interpretation based on professional experience. In February 2002, the National Assembly adopted the Law on Marks, Trade Names and Acts 1 of Unfair Competition. is was followed in 2006 by a Sub-Decree on its implementation. As the legislation, and indeed much of the Cambodian legal system, is so recent, trademark law is not as developed or sophisticated as in many countries. ere remain signicant gaps and unresolved questions in the law, as well as many provisions which are not uniformly applied in practice. 2.1 Protectable Subject Matter Cambodian trademark law protects trademarks, service marks, collective marks, and trade names. e denitions resemble those of many other countries and treaty agreements. Trademarks and service marks are dened as any visible sign capable of distinguishing the goods (trademark) or services (service mark) of an enterprise. is denition excludes non-visible marks, such as smell, sound, or taste marks. Although not specically addressed in the law, three- dimensional trademarks can also be registered if they comport with the statutory requirements of ?distinctiveness.? Depending on the circumstances, it may be easier to register a product as a three- dimensional trademark than as an industrial design. Collective marks must be a visible sign capable of distinguishing the origin or any other common characteristic, including the quality, of goods or services of dierent enterprises which use the sign under the control of the registered owner of the collective mark. A trade name means the name and/or designation identifying and distinguishing an enterprise. According to the Article 21 of the Trademark Law, unregistered trade names are protected against any ?unlawful act.? Nevertheless, it is wise to register one?s business name as a trademark, as it strengthens one?s rights and simplies enforcement. Geographical Indications (?GI?) are registerable under a provisional law, as the National 1 Prakas on the Procedures for the Registration and Protection of Marks of Goods which include a Geographical Indication ? Ministry of Commerce No. 105 MOC / SM 2009; 18 May 2009 BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 22 Assembly dras a full GI bill to comply with Cambodia?s TRIPS obligations. 2.2 Registering a Trademark in Cambodia Trademarks are registered with the Ministry of Commerce?s Department of Intellectual Property (DIP). Cambodia uses a rst-to-le system, so the use of a mark is not required when ling an application. Applications and supporting documents may be in either Khmer or English; documents in other languages must be accompanied by a Khmer or English translation. Foreign applicants must be represented by an agent residing and practicing in Cambodia. e application process begins with the ling of an application form (provided by the DIP free of charge), een specimens of the mark, and if led by an agent, an original notarized power of attorney. e accuracy of the power of attorney document is particularly important, as the DIP will use that information when draing the Final Certicate of Registration. e applicant must also pay the ocial fees upon ling, which are proportional to the number of marks and classes desired. 2 For priority claims under the Paris Convention , the applicant must include information regarding any previous international registration of the mark, and evidence setting forth such registration (including all registration numbers and priority claim/rst use dates). Although not a signatory, Cambodia follows the Nice Agreement in classifying goods and 3 services. e applicant must specify the particular goods or services, as the Nice class heading is 4 not acceptable. Marks with gurative elements must be described using the Vienna Classication. Marks containing foreign words are registerable, but the applicant must provide a transliteration and translation. Once complete documentation has been submitted, and unless the DIP rejects the mark, the process of registration typically takes around four months. If the DIP decides that all the legal requirements are fullled, they will issue a certicate of registration to the applicant and publish the mark in the Ocial Gazette of the Ministry of Commerce. Trademark Ocial Fees (US$) Ocial search (Word) $30 per mark, per class Ocial search (Logo & Word) $40 per mark, per class Application and registration (10-year term) $180 per mark, per class Filing of adavit of use or non-use $85 per mark, per class Record of mark assignment $85 per mark, per class Record of name change or merger of mark owner $85 per mark, per class Other corrections (applicant?s fault) $45 per mark, per class Record of address change $85 per mark, per class Cancellation of mark registration $110 per certicate Renewal Filing $180 per mark, per class 2 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, adopted March 20, 1883. 3 International Classication of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks, adopted June 15, 1957. 4 International Classication of the Figurative Elements of Marks, adopted June 12, 1973. BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 23 2.3 Bars to Registration e Trademark Law sets forth six specic bars to registration. A mark cannot be validly registered, and is subject to opposition and invalidation if it is: ? Incapable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises; ? Contrary to public order or good custom; ? Likely to mislead as to the origin of the goods or services concerned or their nature or characteristics; ? Identical with, or is an imitation of or contains as an element, an armorial bearing, ag and other emblem, a name or abbreviation or initials of the name of or ocial sign or hallmark adopted by any State, intergovernmental organization or organization created by an international convention, unless authorized by the competent authority of that State or organization; ? Identical with, or confusingly similar to, or constitutes a translation of a mark or trade name which is well-known and registered in the Kingdom of Cambodia for goods or services which are not identical or similar to those in respect of which is applied for, provided that use of the mark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the interests of the owner of the well-known mark are likely to be damaged by such use; or ? If it is identical with a mark belonging to a dierent proprietor and already on the Register, or with an earlier ling or priority date, in respect of the same goods or services or closely related goods or services, or it is so nearly resembles such mark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion. In practice, if the DIP decides that a mark should not be registered, it will inform the applicant via a Notice of Preliminary Rejection. e reason for rejection is typically only a short phrase, and a list of the prior registrations where the DIP nds it would be confusingly similar. e applicant then has sixty days to apply for a hearing or submit written arguments as to why it should be registered. Failure to respond is deemed to constitute an abandonment of the application. 2.4 Maintaining a Trademark e initial registration is valid for ten years from the date of ling, and may be renewed indenitely for consecutive ten-year periods. e application for renewal may be made within six months preceding the expiration, or six months following with payment of a late fee. In the sixth year of the initial term, and of each renewal term, the mark owner must submit an Adavit of Use or Non-Use, and pay the ocial fee. e owner thereby states that either the mark is currently in use in Cambodia (and must submit supporting evidence), or that it is justiably not in use but is intended to be used, and there is no intention to abandon the mark. Failure to submit the adavit will lead to automatic cancellation by the DIP. e owner also has continuing obligations to register changes of name and address, mergers, assignments, and changes of agent. Each of these procedures requires submission of a form and supporting documents, and payment of the ocial fee. 2.5 Publication and Opposition BNG Legal 2010 Guide to Business in Cambodia Page 24 Once the mark is registered and the certicate issued, the DIP will publish a reference in the Ocial Gazette of the Ministry of Commerce. e published information contains the ling and priority date (if any), the mark itself, application and registration numbers, class, names and addresses of the owner and agent (if any). e Ocial Gazette is available in hard-copy format only, free of charge from the Ministry of Commerce. Within ninety days of publication, an interested person may give notice of opposition to the DIP. A registration may be opposed on the grounds that it does not meet the denitional requirement for a mark, it is barred under one of the six statutory bars described above, and/or the procedures were improperly followed. e notice of opposition is then forwarded to the applicant, who can choose to submit a counter-statement within ninety days. If no counter-statement is submitted, the registration is deemed abandoned. But if a counter-statement is submitted, following a hearing, the DIP will decide whether the registration should be cancelled. e Law does not provide for any appeal process, and so the DIP?s decision is deemed nal. 2.6 Invalidation, Removal, and Cancellation Even aer the 90-day opposition period, interested parties can request the invalidation, removal from the Register, or cancellation of a registered mark. Any interested party may request the invalidation of a mark on the grounds that it does not meet the denitional requirements, or is barred by a statutory bar. Failure to abide by proper procedure, while a valid basis for opposition, is not applicable to invalidation requests. Invalidations are deemed eective as of the date of registration. Furthermore, any interested party may request the removal of a mark from the Register on the grounds that up to one month prior to the request, the mark had not been used by the owner, or a licensee, during a continuous ve-year period. However, the law provides an armative defense for when ?special circumstances? prevented the use of the mark, and there was no intent to not use or ab
Posted: 13 July 2010

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