Business Environment in Brazil

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

Brazil is one of the top ten world economic powers. Its cautious taxation and monetary policies, together with the necessary microeconomic reforms, have given the Brazilian economy solid basis allowing it to withstand the global economic crisis. After going through a slight recession in 2009 (-0.2%), the Brazilian economy returned to robust growth in 2010, driven by the resumption of international trade and supported by the government’s stimulus measures. Estimated at 7.5% of the GDP, Brazil enjoys the strongest growth in Latin America.

The new president Dilma Rousseff, elected in October 2010, has made a commitment to pursue the policies of the former president Lula. The growth acceleration plan launched in 2007 includes, among others measures, a vast program of infrastructure construction, support for lending and investment funding, as well as long-term fiscal measures. The government also seeks to reduce the public debt, which amounts to up to 40% of the GDP.

Despite the good economic performance, the country continues to face large social problems. Brazil remais one of the most unequal countries in the world, with strong regional disparities, while crime and criminal violence are also on the rise. The unemployment rate is at around 7% and casual employment is widespread.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 1,600.84 2,090.31 2,421.64e 2,576.24 2,735.30e
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) -0.6 7.5e 4.5 4.1 4.1
GDP per Capita (USD) 8,360 10,816 12,423 13,109 13,812e
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -2.4 -3.5e -2.5 -2.6 -2.4
Inflation Rate (%) 4.9 5.0e 6.3 4.8 4.5
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 8.1 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Current Account (billions USD) -24.33 -55.65e -59.88e -68.53 -
Current Account (in % of GDP) -1.5e -2.9 -2.9 -3.2e -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

Brazil has abundant natural resources and its economy is relatively diversified.

A major agricultural power, Brazil is the world's first producer of coffee, sugar cane and oranges, as well as one of the largest producers of soy. It also attracts many world groups in the food industry and biofuels. Brazil has the world's largest commercial livestock herd. Nevertheless, agriculture's contribution to the GDP is relatively small, accounting for only 6.6%, yet the sector represents 40% of its exports. Forests cover half of the country, with the largest ombrophilous forest in the world situated in the Amazon Basin. Brazil is the world’s fourth largest exporter of timber.

Brazil is also a great industrial country. It benefits from its mineral ore wealth and is the second world exporter of iron and one of the main producers of aluminum. As an oil producer, the Brazil is aiming to become self-sufficient in the near future. The country is asserting itself more and more in the textile, aeronautics, pharmacy, automobile, steel and chemical industry sectors. Most of the large automobile manufacturers have set up their production plants in the country. The industrial sector contributes more than quarter of the GDP.
The tertiary sector represents almost two-thirds of the GDP.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 19.3 21.4 59.1
Value Added (in % of GDP) 6.1 25.4 68.5
Value Added (Annual % Change) -5.2 -5.9 2.7

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Brazilian Real (BRL) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 2.43 2.18 1.95 1.83 2.00

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Brazil, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
56.3/100
Position:
Mostly unfree
World Rank:
108/179
Regional Rank:
18/26

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

Although foreign trade only represents a quarter of its GDP, Brazil is amongst the 20 top world exporters. However, the country still has enormous economic potential. The country's main trade partners are the EU, the countries of the Mercosur (Common South American market which encompasses Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), the United States and China. Brazil’s trade deficit is a surplus and after a drop in trade due to the global economic recession, it has improved in 2010, a trend which should continue.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 95,838 126,645 182,377 133,673 191,468
Exports of Goods (million USD) 137,808 160,649 197,942 152,995 201,915
Imports of Services (million USD) 27,149 34,700 44,396 44,074 59,640
Exports of Services (million USD) 17,946 22,615 28,822 26,245 30,292
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 18.4 19.9 18.0 -11.4 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 5.0 6.2 -0.6 -10.3 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 11.5 11.8 13.6 11.3 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 14.4 13.4 13.8 11.3 -
Trade Balance (million USD) 46,458 40,032 24,836 25,290 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 36,804 26,813 8,146 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 25.8 25.2 27.4 22.6 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2010
China 15.2%
United States 9.6%
Argentina 9.2%
Netherlands 5.1%
Germany 4.0%
Japan 3.5%
United Kingdom 2.3%
Chile 2.1%
Italy 2.1%
Russia 2.1%
Spain 1.9%
Venezuela 1.9%
South Korea 1.9%
Mexico 1.8%
France 1.8%
India 1.7%
Belgium 1.7%
Saudi Arabia 1.5%
Saint Lucia 1.4%
Paraguay 1.3%
Other partnersClose extended list 56.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2010
United States 15.0%
China 14.1%
Argentina 7.9%
Germany 6.9%
South Korea 4.6%
Japan 3.8%
Nigeria 3.3%
Italy 2.7%
France 2.6%
India 2.3%
Chile 2.3%
Mexico 2.1%
United Kingdom 1.7%
Switzerland 1.6%
Spain 1.5%
Canada 1.5%
Algeria 1.3%
Bolivia 1.2%
Saudi Arabia 1.1%
Russia 1.1%
Other partnersClose extended list 51.4%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2010
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 14.3%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 8.1%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 6.3%
Soya beans, whether or not brokenSoya beans, whether or not broken 5.5%
Meat and edible offal of fowls of the species...Meat and edible offal of fowls of the species gallus domesticus, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowls, fresh, chilled or frozen 2.9%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 2.6%
Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not...Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil 2.3%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 2.2%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 2.2%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 2.0%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 1.7%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 1.7%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 1.5%
Unmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuseUnmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuse 1.3%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steelSemi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 1.2%
Maize or cornMaize or corn 1.1%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 1.0%
Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable...Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable juices, unfermented, not containing added spirit, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 1.0%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 0.9%
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically...Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined; aluminium oxide; aluminium hydroxide 0.9%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.8%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.7%
Soya-bean oil and its fractions, whether or not...Soya-bean oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 0.7%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.7%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.6%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.6%
Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl....Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl. sausages and similar products, and meat extracts and juices) 0.6%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 0.6%
Meat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.6%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.6%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.5%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of >= 80%; ethyl alcohol and other spirits, denatured, of any strength 0.5%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 0.5%
Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting...Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting "incl. parchment-dressed leather", of bovine "incl. buffalo" or equine animals, without hair on, whether or not split (excl. chamois leather, patent leather and patent laminated leather, and metallized leather) 0.5%
Pig iron and spiegeleisen, in pigs, blocks or...Pig iron and spiegeleisen, in pigs, blocks or other primary forms 0.5%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.5%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.5%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.5%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 0.4%
Cotton, neither carded nor combedCotton, neither carded nor combed 0.4%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.4%
Tanned or crust hides and skins of bovine "incl....Tanned or crust hides and skins of bovine "incl. buffalo" or equine animals, without hair on, whether or not split (excl. further prepared) 0.4%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.4%
Live bovine animalsLive bovine animals 0.3%
Flexible tubing of base metal, with or without...Flexible tubing of base metal, with or without fittings 0.3%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.3%
Chassis fitted with engines, for tractors, motor...Chassis fitted with engines, for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705 (excl. those with engines and cabs) 0.3%
Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate...Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate), worked, and articles; mosaic cubes etc. of natural stone, incl. slate, whether or not on a backing; artificially coloured granules, chippings, powder, of natural stone, incl. slate (excl. setts, curbstones, flagstones; articles of fused basalt and of fired steatite; jewellery, clocks, lamps and parts; buttons, chalks, original sculptures and statuary) 0.3%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.3%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.3%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.3%
Meat and edible offal, salted, in brine, dried or...Meat and edible offal, salted, in brine, dried or smoked; edible flours and meals of meat or meat offal 0.3%
Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee,...Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee, tea or mate and preparations with a basis of these products or with a basis of coffee, tea or mate; roasted chicory and other roasted coffee substitutes, and extracts, essences and concentrates thereof 0.3%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.3%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.3%
Wood, incl. strips and friezes for parquet...Wood, incl. strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, continuously shaped "tongued, grooved, rebated, chamfered, v-jointed beaded, moulded, rounded or the like" along any of its edges, ends or faces, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed 0.3%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Oxygen-function amino-compoundsOxygen-function amino-compounds 0.2%
Meat of bovine animals, fresh or chilledMeat of bovine animals, fresh or chilled 0.2%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.2%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.2%
Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or...Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or plastics (excl. waterproof footwear of heading 6401, orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.2%
Hydrogen, rare gases and other non-metalsHydrogen, rare gases and other non-metals 0.2%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.2%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.2%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.2%
Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood...Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood (excl. sheets of compressed wood, hollow-core composite panels, parquet panels or sheets, inlaid wood and sheets identifiable as furniture components) 0.2%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.2%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.2%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.2%
Manganese ores and concentrates, incl. ferruginous...Manganese ores and concentrates, incl. ferruginous manganese ores and concentrates, with a manganese content of >= 20%, calculated on the dry weight "ecsc" 0.2%
Ethers, ether-alcohols, ether-phenols,...Ethers, ether-alcohols, ether-phenols, ether-alcohol-phenols, alcohol peroxides, ether peroxide, ketone peroxides, whether or not chemically defined, and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 0.2%
Guts, bladders and stomachs of animals (other than...Guts, bladders and stomachs of animals (other than fish), whole and pieces thereof, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, dried or smoked 0.2%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 0.2%
Chemical wood pulp, dissolving gradesChemical wood pulp, dissolving grades 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Bodies, incl. cabs, for tractors, motor vehicles...Bodies, incl. cabs, for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705 0.2%
Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans...Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans and trucks (excl. those of heading 8604) 0.2%
Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in...Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip; mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle or similar types of natural rubber with synthetic rubber or factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.2%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.1%
Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons,...Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons, incl. driver 0.1%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.1%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 0.1%
Kaolin and other kaolinic clays, whether or not...Kaolin and other kaolinic clays, whether or not calcined 0.1%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.1%
Aluminium ores and concentratesAluminium ores and concentrates 0.1%
Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep,...Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules or hinnies, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.1%
Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall...Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall tiles; glazed ceramic mosaic cubes and the like, whether or not on a backing (excl. of siliceous fossil meals or similar siliceous earths, refractory ceramic goods, tiles made into stands, ornamental articles and tiles specifically manufactured for stoves) 0.1%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.1%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 0.1%
Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or...Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.1%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.1%
Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel,...Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils 0.1%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 0.1%
Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl....Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl. cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes, of wood (excl. plywood panelling, blocks, strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, and pre-fabricated buildings) 0.1%
Granite, porphyry, basalt, sandstone and other...Granite, porphyry, basalt, sandstone and other monumental or building stone, whether or not roughly trimmed or merely cut, by sawing or otherwise, into blocks or slabs of a square or rectangular shape (excl. in the form of granules, chippings or powder, or already with the characteristics of setts, curbstones and flagstones, and monumental or building stone of an apparent specific gravity of >= 2,5) 0.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.1%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.1%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 62.9%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2010
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 6.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 5.6%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 4.7%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 2.9%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 2.2%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 2.2%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.7%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with transmission and reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting, television, television cameras, still image video cameras and other video camera recorders, radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus or radio remote control apparatus, n.e.s. 1.7%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 1.6%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 1.5%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 1.4%
Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 1.2%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 1.1%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 1.1%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 1.0%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 1.0%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 1.0%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 1.0%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.9%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.8%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 0.8%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.8%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.7%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.7%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.7%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.7%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.7%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.6%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.6%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 0.6%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.6%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.6%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.6%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.6%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.6%
Liquid crystal devices not constituting articles...Liquid crystal devices not constituting articles provided for more specifically in other heading; lasers (excl. laser diodes); other optical appliances and instruments not elsewhere specified in chapter 90 0.5%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.5%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 0.5%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.5%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.5%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.5%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.5%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.4%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.4%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.4%
Natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule,...Natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle and similar natural gums, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.4%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 0.4%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.4%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.4%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.4%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.4%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.4%
Synthetic filament yarn, incl. synthetic...Synthetic filament yarn, incl. synthetic monofilaments of < 67 decitex (excl. sewing thread and yarn put up for retail sale) 0.4%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.4%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.4%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.4%
Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat,...Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon 0.4%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.4%
Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other...Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other residues of petroleum oil or of oil obtained from bituminous minerals, n.e.s. 0.3%
Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in...Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip; mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle or similar types of natural rubber with synthetic rubber or factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.3%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.3%
Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans...Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans and trucks (excl. those of heading 8604) 0.3%
Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides,...Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.3%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.3%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.3%
Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for...Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the manufacture of products from these materials, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, parts thereof 0.3%
Organo-sulphur compoundsOrgano-sulphur compounds 0.3%
Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated olefins, in primary forms 0.3%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.3%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.3%
Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed...Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed beam lamp units and ultra-violet or infra-red lamps; arc-lamps; parts thereof 0.3%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.3%
Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl....Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl. wheel-mounted cranes and vehicle cranes for railways); mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane 0.3%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Parts and accessories for motor-cycles and...Parts and accessories for motor-cycles and bicycles and for carriages for disabled persons, n.e.s. 0.3%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.3%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.3%
Malt, whether or not roastedMalt, whether or not roasted 0.2%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.2%
Railway or tramway track construction material of...Railway or tramway track construction material of iron or steel, the following : rails, check-rails and rack rails, switch blades, crossing frogs, point rods and other crossing pieces, sleepers "cross-ties", fish-plates, chairs, chair wedges, sole plates "base plates", rail clips, bedplates, ties and other material specialized for jointing or fixing rails 0.2%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.2%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.2%
Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl....Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl. monofilament of >= 67 decitex and with a cross sectional dimension of <= 1 mm 0.2%
Printed circuitsPrinted circuits 0.2%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.2%
Nucleic acids and their salts, whether or not...Nucleic acids and their salts, whether or not chemically defined; heterocyclic compounds (excl. with oxygen only or with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only) 0.2%
Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with...Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment (excl. straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane) 0.2%
Electrical machines and apparatus, having...Electrical machines and apparatus, having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.2%
Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.;...Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.; preparations based on inorganic or mineral colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215); inorganic products of a kind used as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined 0.2%
Mineral or chemical phosphatic fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical phosphatic fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.2%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 0.2%
Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores;...Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores; chemical products and preparations for the chemical or allied industries, incl. mixtures of natural products, n.e.s. 0.2%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.2%
RiceRice 0.2%
Fabrics, knitted or crocheted, of a width of > 30...Fabrics, knitted or crocheted, of a width of > 30 cm (excl. warp knit fabrics "incl. those made on galloon knitting machines", those containing by weight >= 5% of elastomeric yarn or rubber thread, and pile fabrics, incl. "long pile", looped pile fabrics, labels, badges and similar articles, and knitted or crocheted fabrics, impregnated, coated, covered or laminated) 0.2%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.2%
Oils and other products of the distillation of...Oils and other products of the distillation of high temperature coal tar; similar products in which the weight of the aromatic constituents exceeds that of the non-aromatic constituents 0.2%
Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other...Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled 0.2%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a...Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines, e.g. ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, sparking plugs, glow plugs and starter motors; generators, e.g. dynamos and alternators, and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof 0.2%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.2%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.2%
Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal...Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal combustion piston engine, hydraulic turbines, water wheels, gas turbines and electric motors); parts thereof 0.2%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.2%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.2%
Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not...Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not chemically defined; preparations based on synthetic organic colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations; synthetic organic products of a kind used as fluorescent brightening agents or as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215) 0.2%
Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by...Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by forging, hammering or die-stamping; machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by bending, folding, straightening, flattening, shearing, punching or notching; presses for working metal or metal carbides, not specified above 0.2%
Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic...Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic monocarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Heterocyclic compounds with oxygen hetero-atom[s]...Heterocyclic compounds with oxygen hetero-atom[s] only 0.2%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 0.2%
Acrylic polymers, in primary formsAcrylic polymers, in primary forms 0.2%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless...Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless microphones with built-in transmitter); loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers (excl. telephone sets, hearing aids and helmets with built-in headphones, whether or not incorporating a microphone); audio-frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof 0.2%
Converters, ladles, ingot moulds and casting...Converters, ladles, ingot moulds and casting machines of a kind used in metallurgy or in metal foundries (excl. metal powder presses); parts thereof 0.2%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.2%
Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by...Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children, dolls' carriages and dolls representing only human beings); reduced-size "scale" recreational models, working or not; puzzles of all kinds 0.2%
Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those...Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those principally designed for the transport of persons or goods), e.g. breakdown lorries, crane lorries, fire fighting vehicles, concrete-mixer lorries, road sweeper lorries, spraying lorries, mobile workshops and mobile radiological units 0.2%
Fish, fit for human consumption, dried, salted or...Fish, fit for human consumption, dried, salted or in brine; smoked fish, fit for human consumption, whether or not cooked before or during the smoking process; flours, meals and pellets of fish, fit for human consumption 0.2%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.2%
Polymers of styrene, in primary formsPolymers of styrene, in primary forms 0.2%
Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not...Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not minced, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.2%
Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing,...Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing, prepared diagnostic or laboratory reagents whether or not on a backing, and certified reference materials (excl. compound diagnostic reagents designed to be administered to the patient, blood-grouping reagents, animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses and vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms and similar products) 0.2%
Carboxyamide-function compounds; amide-function...Carboxyamide-function compounds; amide-function compounds of carbonic acid 0.2%
Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a thickness of > 0,2 mm (excl. expanded plates, sheets and strip) 0.2%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.1%
Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic,...Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or non-electric motor; parts thereof 0.1%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.1%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.1%
Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium,...Platinum, incl. palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium and ruthenium, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 0.1%
AntibioticsAntibiotics 0.1%
Yarn of artificial staple fibres (excl. sewing...Yarn of artificial staple fibres (excl. sewing thread and yarn put up for retail sale) 0.1%
Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their...Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.1%
Polyamides, in primary formsPolyamides, in primary forms 0.1%
Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens,...Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens, non-electric, incl. incinerators (excl. drying ovens and ovens for cracking operations) 0.1%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.1%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.1%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.1%
Moulding boxes for metal foundry; mould bases;...Moulding boxes for metal foundry; mould bases; moulding patterns; moulds for metal (other than ingot moulds), metal carbides, glass, mineral materials, rubber or plastics (excl. moulds of graphite or other carbons, ceramic or glass moulds and linotype moulds or matrices) 0.1%
Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or...Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable "pre-set"; parts thereof 0.1%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.1%
Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in...Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state 0.1%
Sulphur of all kinds (excl. sublimed sulphur,...Sulphur of all kinds (excl. sublimed sulphur, precipitated sulphur and colloidal sulphur) 0.1%
Yarn of synthetic staple fibres (excl. sewing...Yarn of synthetic staple fibres (excl. sewing thread and yarn put up for retail sale) 0.1%
Hormones, prostaglandines, thromboxanes and...Hormones, prostaglandines, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, natural or reproduced by synthesis; derivatives and structural analogues thereof "incl. chain modified polypeptides", used primarily as hormones 0.1%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.1%
Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or...Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or not power-operated, or for machine-tools "e.g. for pressing, stamping, punching, tapping, threading, drilling, boring, broaching, milling, turning or screw driving", incl. dies for drawing or extruding metal, and rock drilling or earth boring tools 0.1%
Amino-resins, phenolic resins and polyurethanes,...Amino-resins, phenolic resins and polyurethanes, in primary forms 0.1%
Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and...Reaction initiators, reaction accelerators and catalytic preparations, n.e.s. (excl. rubber accelerators) 0.1%
Cotton yarn other than sewing thread, containing >...Cotton yarn other than sewing thread, containing >= 85% cotton by weight (excl. that put up for retail sale) 0.1%
Olive oil and its fractions obtained from the...Olive oil and its fractions obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by mechanical or other physical means under conditions that do not lead to deterioration of the oil, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, of vulcanised rubber other...Tubes, pipes and hoses, of vulcanised rubber other than hard rubber, with or without their fittings, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges 0.1%
Sodium hydroxide "caustic soda", potassium...Sodium hydroxide "caustic soda", potassium hydroxide "caustic potash"; peroxides of sodium or potassium 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape,...Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls (excl. floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Separate chemically defined organo-inorganic...Separate chemically defined organo-inorganic compounds, n.e.s. 0.1%
Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl....Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl. lamps of heading 8539), windscreen wipers, defrosters and demisters, of a kind used for cycles or motor vehicles; parts thereof 0.1%
Apples, pears and quinces, freshApples, pears and quinces, fresh 0.1%
Wheat or meslin flourWheat or meslin flour 0.1%
Reception apparatus for radio-telephony,...Reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy or radio-broadcasting, whether or not combined, in the same housing, with sound recording or reproducing apparatus or a clock 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for measuring or...Instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking the flow, level, pressure or other variables of liquids or gases, e.g. flow meters, level gauges, manometers, heat meters (excl. instruments and apparatus of heading 9014, 9015, 9028 or 9032) 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.1%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.1%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.1%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.1%
Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum,...Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 0.1%
Anti-knock preparations, oxidation inhibitors, gum...Anti-knock preparations, oxidation inhibitors, gum inhibitors, viscosity improvers, anti-corrosive preparations and other prepared additives, for mineral oils, incl. gasoline, or for other liquids used for the same purposes as mineral oils 0.1%
Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, incl...Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, incl. gloves, mittens and mitts, for all purposes, of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber and footwear and headgear and parts thereof) 0.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and...Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and after-shave products, personal deodorants, bath and shower preparations, depilatories and other perfumery, toilet or cosmetic preparations, n.e.s.; prepared room deodorizers, whether or not perfumed or having disinfectant properties 0.1%
Wire of iron or non-alloy steel, in coils (excl....Wire of iron or non-alloy steel, in coils (excl. bars and rods) 0.1%
Compounds with other nitrogen function (excl....Compounds with other nitrogen function (excl. amine-function compounds; oxygen-function amino-compounds; quaternary ammonium salts and hydroxides; lecithin and other phosphoaminolipids; carboxyamide-function compounds; amide-function compounds of carbonic acid; carboxyimide-function, imine-function or nitrile-function compounds; diazo-, azo- or azoxy-compounds; organic derivatives of hydrazine or of hydroxylamine) 0.1%
Sewing machines (other than book-sewing machines...Sewing machines (other than book-sewing machines of heading 8440); furniture, bases and covers specially designed for sewing machines; sewing machine needles; parts thereof 0.1%
Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or...Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling-stock, n.e.s. 0.1%
Vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise than by...Vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid, frozen (excl. preserved by sugar, and tomatoes, mushrooms and truffles) 0.1%
Unwrought lead :Unwrought lead : 0.1%
Provitamins and vitamins, natural or reproduced by...Provitamins and vitamins, natural or reproduced by synthesis, incl. natural concentrates, derivatives thereof used primarily as vitamins, and intermixtures of the foregoing, whether or not in any solvent 0.1%
Nitrile-function compoundsNitrile-function compounds 0.1%
Carbonates; peroxocarbonates "percarbonates";...Carbonates; peroxocarbonates "percarbonates"; commercial ammonium carbonate containing ammonium carbamate 0.1%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.1%
Carboxylic acids with additional oxygen function...Carboxylic acids with additional oxygen function and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and...Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus...Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus and radio remote control apparatus 0.1%
Amine-function compoundsAmine-function compounds 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 78.5%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
The president is both Head of State and Head of the Government; he holds executive power. He (and the vice-president) is elected by universal suffrage for a four year term. He appoints the Council of Ministers.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral. The parliament, called National Congress, is made up of two houses: the Senate (upper house), which has 81 members (3 members for each of the 26 provinces and for the federal district, elected according to the majority principle, for an 8 year term) ; and the Chamber of Deputies (lower house), which has 513 seats (and whose members are elected by proportional representation for a four year term). Each of the 26 States, and the federal district of Brazilia, has a separate legislature and administration. Brazilians enjoy considerable political rights.
Main Political Parties
Fifteen political parties are represented in the National Congress. As it frequently happens that a politician changes parties, the proportion of seats of a given party in Congress changes regularly. The main political parties are as follows:
- The PT (Workers' Party, center-left)
- The PFL (Liberal Front Party, right-wing)
- The PMDB(Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, center)
- The PSDB (Brazilian Social Democratic Party, center-left)
- The PCdoB ( Brazilian Communist Party, left-wing)
Current Political Leaders
President: Dilma ROUSSEFF (since 1 January 2011) – PT
Vice President: Michel Temer (since 1 January 2011) - PT
Next Election Dates
Presidential: October 2014
Legislative: October 2014
Senate : October 2014 (for 1/3 of the members)
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
71/175
Evolution:
11 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7
Civil Liberties:
2/7

Map of freedom 2010

 

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