Political Conditions in Egypt
- Type of State
- Republic based on the constitution of 1971 revised in 2005. The state has a presidential system of government.
- Executive Power
- The president is the head of state. He is elected by universal suffrage for a 6-year term of office (no limit for extension). He appoints the Prime Minister who must be approved by a confidence vote in the parliament. The President also appoints the head of the Council of Ministers. He can dissolve the Assembly and rule by decree. He holds almost total power.
- Legislative Power
- The legislative power is bicameral. The Parliament is formed by the People's Assembly (the lower house) which has 454 members (of which 444 are elected by universal suffrage and 10 are nominated by the President for a 5-year term) and the Advisory Council (the upper house) which plays only an advisory role and which has 264 members (of which 176 are elected by universal suffrage and 88 appointed by the president for a 6-year term). The president can dissolve the People's Assembly only if he has the support of the people during a referendum.
- Main Political Parties
- The multi-party system was restored in 1976 by the then president Sadate. However, in practice it is the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) which completely dominates the political arena. The Muslim brothers, a brotherhood created in 1928 by Hassan El Banna is the main opposition party of the country. They were banned but in spite of it, they were able to win 88 seats in the People's Assembly in the 2005 elections. The other opposition parties like Wafd, El-Ghad or the Nasserian Party are minority parties and were nearly wiped out in the 2005 elections.
- Current Political Leaders
Prime Minister: Ahmad Shafiq
- Next Election Dates
Presidential: in 2011
People's Assembly: November-December 2015
Advisory Council: in 2013
Indicator of Freedom of the Press
- World Rank:
- 3 places up compared to 2008
Indicator of Political Freedom
- Not Free
- Political Freedom:
- Civil Liberties:
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