Business Environment in Egypt

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

With the establishment of a new government in July 2004, Egypt launched an economic reforms program, including a large stimulus plan in 2008. Consequently, tariffs and taxes were lowered and simplified. The transparency of the national budget was reinforced and many privatizations were initiated. This new policy bore its fruits as growth reached a level of more than 5% in 2009 and 2010, especially thanks to the resumption of private and public consumption. The construction, communications, wholesale and retail sectors, catering and hospitality, as well as manufacturing contributed to the development of economic growth. However, the year 2010 was marked by an under-performance of the sectors which most strongly contribute to the country’s GDP, namely agriculture and mining. The IMF growth estimates for 2011 are between 5.5% and 5.8%, counting on the increase in consumption, recovery of foreign growth (tourism and the Suez Canal) and a resumption of investments.

Although the Egyptian economy has entered into a cycle of progressive growth, its level of growth remains insufficient to maintain employment and reduce the share of population living below the poverty of line (18%). In addition, the country faces a high rate of inflation (about 10%). Foreign accounts, weakened during the crisis by a decline in foreign exchange earnings and net capital flows, have recovered and the trade balance returned to surplus in 2010.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 188.61 218.47 231.11e 251.87e 273.33e
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 4.7 5.1 1.0e 4.0 5.0e
GDP per Capita (USD) 2,456e 2,789 2,892 3,090 3,288e
Inflation Rate (%) 16.2 11.7e 11.5e 12.0 9.8e
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 9.4e 9.2e 9.2e 9.1e 9.1e
Current Account (billions USD) -4.42 -5.52e -5.30e -5.52e -
Current Account (in % of GDP) -2.4 -2.6 -2.1 -2.0 -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

Agriculture contributes around 13% of the GDP and employs about a third of the active population. The warm climate and the abundant Nile water allows for several annual harvests. The main crops are cereals, cotton, sugar cane and beets.

Egypts remains a country with little industry. With its diverse natural reserves (gold, minerals, iron, oil and gas), oil and gas-related activities and the secondary sector account for just over a third of the GDP. Egypt is the world’s sixth largest exporter of natural gas.

Finally, the tertiary sector represents around 50 % of the Egyptian GDP. It is largely dominated by revenues from telecommunications (which grew by 11% during the first quarter of 2010) and from tourism (the tourist industry brings about 11b in annual revenues. For example Cairo received 14m of visitors in 2010).

In spite of its economy’s diversification, the country still depends for a large part of its income on the Suez Canal (380m during the first quarter of 2010).

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 31.2 22.0 46.6
Value Added (in % of GDP) 13.7 37.3 49.0
Value Added (Annual % Change) 3.2 5.7 4.3

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Egyptian Pound (EGP) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 6.20 5.78 5.73 5.64 5.43

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Egypt, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
59.1/100
Position:
Mostly unfree
World Rank:
92/179
Regional Rank:
11/17

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

The Egyptian market is gradually opening up, especially after signing an agreement with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 2006, and a free trade treaty with the United States. Its three primary export partners are the European Union, which represents more than a third of the trade, United States and Syria. The EU and the USA absorb almost 60% of egyptian exports. Egypt mainly exports mineral fuels and oil, cotton, iron and steel. It imports mainly consumer electronic goods and capital goods, nuclear reactors and nuclear-powered boilers, cereals, food products and chemical products. Import volume has doubled and is twice the export volume, a fact which contributed to the deterioration of the country's trade balance, now a deficit (USD 25.1b in 2010)

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 27,300 37,100 48,382 44,946 52,923
Exports of Goods (million USD) 16,728 19,224 26,224 23,062 26,438
Imports of Services (million USD) 10,288 13,088 16,335 12,765 12,659
Exports of Services (million USD) 15,834 19,660 24,668 21,302 23,762
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 21.8 28.8 26.3 -17.9 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 21.3 23.3 28.8 -14.5 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 31.6 34.8 38.6 31.9 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 29.9 30.3 33.0 25.0 -
Trade Balance (million USD) -8,438 -14,900 -19,759 -16,818 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -3,873 -9,299 -12,462 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 61.5 65.1 71.7 56.9 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2010
Italy 8.4%
Spain 6.2%
Saudi Arabia 5.9%
United States 5.9%
India 4.7%
Libya 4.6%
Turkey 3.7%
France 3.5%
United Kingdom 3.1%
Syria 3.0%
Jordan 2.7%
United Arab Emirates 2.3%
Germany 2.2%
Sudan 2.1%
Netherlands 2.1%
South Korea 2.0%
Lebanon 2.0%
China 1.6%
Morocco 1.5%
Switzerland 1.5%
Other partnersClose extended list 69.1%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2010
United States 9.4%
China 9.2%
Germany 7.6%
Italy 5.6%
Saudi Arabia 4.0%
South Korea 3.6%
France 3.6%
Turkey 3.5%
Russia 3.5%
Brazil 3.3%
Ukraine 3.1%
India 2.9%
Kuwait 2.9%
Japan 2.7%
United Kingdom 2.4%
Malta 2.0%
Argentina 1.7%
Belgium 1.6%
Spain 1.6%
Netherlands 1.6%
Other partnersClose extended list 64.2%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2010
Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except...Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except crude 11.2%
Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons 8.6%
Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals,...Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals, crude 6.8%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenousMineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenous 4.1%
Gold, unwrought, semi-manufactured, powder formGold, unwrought, semi-manufactured, powder form 3.9%
Copper plates, sheets and strips, thickness > 0...Copper plates, sheets and strips, thickness > 0.15mm 2.4%
Insulated wire and cable, optical fibre cableInsulated wire and cable, optical fibre cable 2.3%
Citrus fruit, fresh or driedCitrus fruit, fresh or dried 2.0%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 1.8%
Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not...Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not cla 1.7%
RiceRice 1.4%
Carpets and other textile floor covering, knottedCarpets and other textile floor covering, knotted 1.3%
Solid cane or beet sugar and chemically pure...Solid cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose 1.2%
Mens or boys suits, jackets, trousers etc not knitMens or boys suits, jackets, trousers etc not knit 1.2%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knit or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knit or crochet 1.0%
Cotton, not carded or combedCotton, not carded or combed 1.0%
Glassware for table, kitchen, toilet, decorationGlassware for table, kitchen, toilet, decoration 1.0%
Cotton yarn not sewing thread >85% cotton, not...Cotton yarn not sewing thread >85% cotton, not retail 1.0%
Household, sanitary, hospital paper articles,...Household, sanitary, hospital paper articles, clothin 0.9%
Mixed alkylbenzenes and mixed alkylnaphthalenes,...Mixed alkylbenzenes and mixed alkylnaphthalenes, nes 0.9%
Carbon (carbon blacks and other forms of carbon,...Carbon (carbon blacks and other forms of carbon, nes) 0.9%
Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, etc. fresh or...Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, etc. fresh or chille 0.9%
Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in...Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in dosage 0.9%
Ammonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solutionAmmonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solution 0.9%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.9%
Petroleum jelly, petroleum wax, other mineral...Petroleum jelly, petroleum wax, other mineral waxes 0.9%
Other furniture and parts thereofOther furniture and parts thereof 0.8%
Vegetable saps, etc, pectin etc, agar-agar etcVegetable saps, etc, pectin etc, agar-agar etc 0.8%
Bed, table, toilet and kitchen linensBed, table, toilet and kitchen linens 0.8%
Grapes, fresh or driedGrapes, fresh or dried 0.8%
Garments made up of felt or coated fabricGarments made up of felt or coated fabric 0.7%
Hot rolled bar, rod of iron/steel, in irregular...Hot rolled bar, rod of iron/steel, in irregular coils 0.7%
Womens, girls suits, jacket, dress, skirt, etc,...Womens, girls suits, jacket, dress, skirt, etc, wove 0.7%
Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth, wall...Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth, wall tiles 0.7%
Marble, travertine, ecaussine etcMarble, travertine, ecaussine etc 0.7%
Wood tar, tar oils, creosote, naphtha, veg....Wood tar, tar oils, creosote, naphtha, veg. pitches 0.7%
Quilted textile products in piece (not embroidered...Quilted textile products in piece (not embroidered) 0.7%
Articles of iron or steel nesArticles of iron or steel nes 0.6%
Aluminium powders and flakesAluminium powders and flakes 0.6%
Retort carbon, coke or semi-coke of coal, lignite...Retort carbon, coke or semi-coke of coal, lignite,pea 0.6%
Bovine or equine leather, no hair, not chamois,...Bovine or equine leather, no hair, not chamois, paten 0.6%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.5%
Plastic articles nesPlastic articles nes 0.5%
Natural phosphates (calcium, calcium-aluminium),...Natural phosphates (calcium, calcium-aluminium), chal 0.5%
Potatoes, fresh or chilledPotatoes, fresh or chilled 0.5%
Vegetables (uncooked, steamed, boiled) frozenVegetables (uncooked, steamed, boiled) frozen 0.5%
Sugar confectionery, non-cocoa, white chocolateSugar confectionery, non-cocoa, white chocolate 0.5%
Bathroom wares, of plasticsBathroom wares, of plastics 0.4%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 0.4%
Organic surface active agent, preparation, except...Organic surface active agent, preparation, except soa 0.4%
Fruits nes, freshFruits nes, fresh 0.4%
Fruit and vegetable juices, not fermented or...Fruit and vegetable juices, not fermented or spirited 0.4%
Tobacco, tobacco substitute products nesTobacco, tobacco substitute products nes 0.4%
Vegetables, leguminous dried, shelledVegetables, leguminous dried, shelled 0.3%
Articles of nickel, nesArticles of nickel, nes 0.3%
Ceramic bathroom, kitchen and other sanitary...Ceramic bathroom, kitchen and other sanitary fixtures 0.3%
Worked monumental, building stone, articles...Worked monumental, building stone, articles thereof 0.3%
Aluminium bars, rods and profilesAluminium bars, rods and profiles 0.3%
Plants, plant parts for perfumery, pharmacy, etc,Plants, plant parts for perfumery, pharmacy, etc, 0.3%
Leguminous vegetables, fresh or chilledLeguminous vegetables, fresh or chilled 0.3%
Polymers of vinyl chloride, other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride, other halogenated olefins 0.3%
Stoves, ranges/barbecues,etc, non-electric, iron...Stoves, ranges/barbecues,etc, non-electric, iron/stee 0.3%
Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular,...Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular, reinforced 0.3%
Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel,...Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel, nes 0.3%
Air conditioning equipment, machineryAir conditioning equipment, machinery 0.3%
Unglazed ceramic flags, paving, hearth or wall...Unglazed ceramic flags, paving, hearth or wall tiles 0.3%
Commodities not specified according to kindCommodities not specified according to kind 0.3%
Vegetables nes, fresh or chilledVegetables nes, fresh or chilled 0.2%
Mens, boys suits,jackets,trousers etc knit or...Mens, boys suits,jackets,trousers etc knit or crochet 0.2%
Electric equipment with heating element, domestic...Electric equipment with heating element, domestic etc 0.2%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.2%
Ethyl alcohol, undenatured and > 80%, or denaturedEthyl alcohol, undenatured and > 80%, or denatured 0.2%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphaticMineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic 0.2%
Plastic tube, pipe, hose and fittingsPlastic tube, pipe, hose and fittings 0.2%
Dates, figs, pineapple, avocado, guava, fresh or...Dates, figs, pineapple, avocado, guava, fresh or drie 0.2%
Paper, board containers, packing items, box files,...Paper, board containers, packing items, box files, et 0.2%
Refrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nesRefrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nes 0.2%
Asphalt, bitumen, coal tar pitch, etc articlesAsphalt, bitumen, coal tar pitch, etc articles 0.2%
Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, clad, plated or...Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, clad, plated or coate 0.2%
SoapsSoaps 0.2%
Garments, knit or crochet, nesGarments, knit or crochet, nes 0.2%
Public-transport type passenger motor vehiclesPublic-transport type passenger motor vehicles 0.2%
Cement (portland, aluminous, slag or hydraulic)Cement (portland, aluminous, slag or hydraulic) 0.2%
Bar, rod, angle etc nes, hollow steel drill barsBar, rod, angle etc nes, hollow steel drill bars 0.2%
Woven cotton fabric, >85% cotton, < 200g/m2Woven cotton fabric, >85% cotton, < 200g/m2 0.2%
Electrical power, etc, control and distribution...Electrical power, etc, control and distribution board 0.2%
Men's or boys' shirtsMen's or boys' shirts 0.2%
Articles of aluminium nesArticles of aluminium nes 0.2%
Food preparations, nesFood preparations, nes 0.2%
Oil-cake other than soya-bean or groundnutOil-cake other than soya-bean or groundnut 0.2%
Polymers of propylene, other olefins in primary...Polymers of propylene, other olefins in primary forms 0.2%
Synthetic staple fibres, not processed for...Synthetic staple fibres, not processed for spinning 0.2%
Chocolate and other foods containing cocoaChocolate and other foods containing cocoa 0.2%
Bitumen, asphalt, oil shales, tar sands,...Bitumen, asphalt, oil shales, tar sands, asphaltites 0.2%
Uncoated paper for writing, printing, office...Uncoated paper for writing, printing, office machines 0.2%
Yeast, dead unicellular organisms nes, baking...Yeast, dead unicellular organisms nes, baking powders 0.2%
Molasses from the extraction or refining of sugarMolasses from the extraction or refining of sugar 0.2%
Seed, fruit and spores, for sowingSeed, fruit and spores, for sowing 0.2%
Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc,...Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc, primary 0.2%
Ground-nuts, not roasted or otherwise cookedGround-nuts, not roasted or otherwise cooked 0.2%
Containers, bobbins and packages, of plasticsContainers, bobbins and packages, of plastics 0.1%
Mens, boys underwear, nightwear, not knit or...Mens, boys underwear, nightwear, not knit or crochet 0.1%
Copper wireCopper wire 0.1%
Pasta, couscous, etc.Pasta, couscous, etc. 0.1%
Vegetables, dried, not further preparedVegetables, dried, not further prepared 0.1%
Baked bread, pastry, wafers, rice paper, biscuits,...Baked bread, pastry, wafers, rice paper, biscuits, et 0.1%
Polymer based paints, varnishes in non-aqueous...Polymer based paints, varnishes in non-aqueous medium 0.1%
Vegetables nes, prepared/preserved, not frozen...Vegetables nes, prepared/preserved, not frozen/vinega 0.1%
Wheat or meslin flourWheat or meslin flour 0.1%
Mixted odoriferous substances for industrial useMixted odoriferous substances for industrial use 0.1%
Salt (sodium chloride) including solution, salt...Salt (sodium chloride) including solution, salt water 0.1%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy stee 0.1%
Vegetables nes, prepared, frozenVegetables nes, prepared, frozen 0.1%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.1%
Parts and accessories for motor vehiclesParts and accessories for motor vehicles 0.1%
Glass bottles, flasks, jars, phials, stoppers, etcGlass bottles, flasks, jars, phials, stoppers, etc 0.1%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.1%
Razors and razor blades (including blanks in...Razors and razor blades (including blanks in strips) 0.1%
Aluminium wireAluminium wire 0.1%
Seed spicesSeed spices 0.1%
Womens, girls suit, dress, skirt, etc, knit or...Womens, girls suit, dress, skirt, etc, knit or croche 0.1%
Soya-bean oil, fractions, not chemically modifiedSoya-bean oil, fractions, not chemically modified 0.1%
Essential oils, resinoids and terpenic by-productsEssential oils, resinoids and terpenic by-products 0.1%
CopraCopra 0.1%
Starch, sugar, brewing & distilling industry...Starch, sugar, brewing & distilling industry residues 0.1%
Sanitary ware and parts thereof, of iron or steelSanitary ware and parts thereof, of iron or steel 0.1%
TeaTea 0.1%
Sauce, condiments, mixed seasoning and mustardSauce, condiments, mixed seasoning and mustard 0.1%
Hydroxides and peroxides of sodium and potassiumHydroxides and peroxides of sodium and potassium 0.1%
Safflower, sunflower and cotton-seed oil,...Safflower, sunflower and cotton-seed oil, fractions 0.1%
Jams, jellies, marmalades, fruit, nut pastes,...Jams, jellies, marmalades, fruit, nut pastes, purees 0.1%
Safety glass (toughened, tempered, laminated)Safety glass (toughened, tempered, laminated) 0.1%
Soups, broths and homogenized food preparationsSoups, broths and homogenized food preparations 0.1%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film etc of plasticSelf-adhesive plates, sheets, film etc of plastic 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 65.4%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2010
Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except...Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except crude 6.9%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 4.1%
Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons 3.4%
Articles of iron or steel nesArticles of iron or steel nes 2.6%
Motor vehicles for transport of persons (except...Motor vehicles for transport of persons (except buses 2.5%
Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals,...Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals, crude 2.5%
Maize (corn)Maize (corn) 2.4%
Parts and accessories for motor vehiclesParts and accessories for motor vehicles 1.9%
Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in...Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in dosage 1.7%
Wood sawn, chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeledWood sawn, chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled 1.7%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steelSemi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 1.6%
Electric apparatus for line telephony, telegraphyElectric apparatus for line telephony, telegraphy 1.5%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 1.3%
Soya beansSoya beans 1.3%
Ferrous waste or scrap, ingots or iron or steelFerrous waste or scrap, ingots or iron or steel 1.3%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goodsMotor vehicles for the transport of goods 1.0%
Iron ores and concentrates, roasted iron pyritesIron ores and concentrates, roasted iron pyrites 1.0%
Palm oil and its fractions, not chemically...Palm oil and its fractions, not chemically modified 1.0%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 1.0%
Tube, pipe of iron or steel, except seamless > 406...Tube, pipe of iron or steel, except seamless > 406.4m 0.9%
Solid cane or beet sugar and chemically pure...Solid cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose 0.9%
Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not...Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not cla 0.7%
Refined copper and copper alloys, unwroughtRefined copper and copper alloys, unwrought 0.7%
Synthetic filament yarn(not sewing thread) not...Synthetic filament yarn(not sewing thread) not retail 0.7%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.7%
Radio and tv transmitters, television camerasRadio and tv transmitters, television cameras 0.6%
Tractors (other than works, warehouse equipment)Tractors (other than works, warehouse equipment) 0.6%
Organic surface active agent, preparation, except...Organic surface active agent, preparation, except soa 0.6%
Iron/steel bar, only forged hot-rolled drawn,...Iron/steel bar, only forged hot-rolled drawn, extrude 0.6%
Vegetables, leguminous dried, shelledVegetables, leguminous dried, shelled 0.6%
Polymers of propylene, other olefins in primary...Polymers of propylene, other olefins in primary forms 0.6%
Taps, cocks, valves for pipes, tanks, boilers, etcTaps, cocks, valves for pipes, tanks, boilers, etc 0.5%
Pumps for liquidsPumps for liquids 0.5%
Coal, briquettes, ovoids etc, made from coalCoal, briquettes, ovoids etc, made from coal 0.5%
Refrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nesRefrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nes 0.5%
Woven cotton nes, >85% cotton, >200g/m2Woven cotton nes, >85% cotton, >200g/m2 0.5%
Air, vacuum pumps, compressors, ventilating fans,...Air, vacuum pumps, compressors, ventilating fans, etc 0.5%
Pipe fittings, of iron or steelPipe fittings, of iron or steel 0.5%
Fish, frozen, wholeFish, frozen, whole 0.5%
Chemical industry products nesChemical industry products nes 0.5%
Safflower, sunflower and cotton-seed oil,...Safflower, sunflower and cotton-seed oil, fractions 0.5%
Machines nes having individual functionsMachines nes having individual functions 0.5%
Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc,...Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc, primary 0.5%
Cement (portland, aluminous, slag or hydraulic)Cement (portland, aluminous, slag or hydraulic) 0.4%
Machinery to sort, screen, wash, etc mineral...Machinery to sort, screen, wash, etc mineral products 0.4%
Cotton yarn not sewing thread >85% cotton, not...Cotton yarn not sewing thread >85% cotton, not retail 0.4%
TeaTea 0.4%
Insulated wire and cable, optical fibre cableInsulated wire and cable, optical fibre cable 0.4%
Uncoated kraft paper and paperboardUncoated kraft paper and paperboard 0.4%
Electrical switches, connectors, etc, for < 1kvElectrical switches, connectors, etc, for < 1kv 0.4%
Polymers of vinyl chloride, other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride, other halogenated olefins 0.4%
Parts, accessories, except covers, for office...Parts, accessories, except covers, for office machine 0.4%
Machinery parts, without electric features, nesMachinery parts, without electric features, nes 0.4%
Instruments etc for medical, surgical, dental, etc...Instruments etc for medical, surgical, dental, etc us 0.4%
Electric transformers,static converters and...Electric transformers,static converters and rectifier 0.4%
Woven synthetic filament yarn, monofilament ...Woven synthetic filament yarn, monofilament >67dtex 0.4%
Polymers of styrene, in primary formsPolymers of styrene, in primary forms 0.4%
Woven fabric with >85% synthetic staple fibresWoven fabric with >85% synthetic staple fibres 0.4%
Paper, board, clay, inorganic coated at least one...Paper, board, clay, inorganic coated at least one sid 0.4%
Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, clad, plated or...Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, clad, plated or coate 0.4%
Liquid, gas centrifuges, filtering, purifying...Liquid, gas centrifuges, filtering, purifying machine 0.3%
Shafts, cranks, gears, clutches, flywheel, pulleys...Shafts, cranks, gears, clutches, flywheel, pulleys et 0.3%
Automatic data processing machines (computers)Automatic data processing machines (computers) 0.3%
Lifting, handling, loading machinery nesLifting, handling, loading machinery nes 0.3%
Milk and cream, concentrated or sweetenedMilk and cream, concentrated or sweetened 0.3%
Ferrous products from reduction of iron ore, pure...Ferrous products from reduction of iron ore, pure iro 0.3%
Soya-bean oil-cake and other solid residuesSoya-bean oil-cake and other solid residues 0.3%
Self-propelled earth moving, road making, etc...Self-propelled earth moving, road making, etc machine 0.3%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.3%
Industrial, laboratory furnaces, ovens,...Industrial, laboratory furnaces, ovens, incinerators 0.3%
Electric motors and generators, except generating...Electric motors and generators, except generating set 0.3%
Meat, edible offal of domestic poultryMeat, edible offal of domestic poultry 0.3%
Uncoated paper for writing, printing, office...Uncoated paper for writing, printing, office machines 0.3%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.3%
Tobacco, tobacco substitute products nesTobacco, tobacco substitute products nes 0.3%
Cotton, not carded or combedCotton, not carded or combed 0.3%
Butter and other fats and oils derived from milkButter and other fats and oils derived from milk 0.3%
Plywood, veneered panels and similar laminated...Plywood, veneered panels and similar laminated wood 0.3%
Transfers (decalcomanias)Transfers (decalcomanias) 0.3%
Live bovine animalsLive bovine animals 0.3%
Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron,...Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron, stee 0.3%
Semi-chemical wood pulpSemi-chemical wood pulp 0.3%
Plastic articles nesPlastic articles nes 0.3%
Parts for radio, tv transmission, receive...Parts for radio, tv transmission, receive equipment 0.3%
Machinery for dish washing, bottle washing,...Machinery for dish washing, bottle washing, filling 0.3%
Colouring matter nes, inorganic luminophoresColouring matter nes, inorganic luminophores 0.3%
Derricks, cranes, straddle carriers, crane trucksDerricks, cranes, straddle carriers, crane trucks 0.3%
Electrical power, etc, control and distribution...Electrical power, etc, control and distribution board 0.3%
Special purpose motor vehiclesSpecial purpose motor vehicles 0.2%
Tobacco unmanufactured, tobacco refuseTobacco unmanufactured, tobacco refuse 0.2%
Soya-bean oil, fractions, not chemically modifiedSoya-bean oil, fractions, not chemically modified 0.2%
Machinery for rubber, plastics industryMachinery for rubber, plastics industry 0.2%
Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular,...Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular, reinforced 0.2%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.2%
Machinery, non-domestic, involving heating or...Machinery, non-domestic, involving heating or cooling 0.2%
Public-transport type passenger motor vehiclesPublic-transport type passenger motor vehicles 0.2%
Tube or hollow profile, seamless iron/steel not...Tube or hollow profile, seamless iron/steel not cast 0.2%
Printing and ancillary machineryPrinting and ancillary machinery 0.2%
Mixted odoriferous substances for industrial useMixted odoriferous substances for industrial use 0.2%
Womens or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blousesWomens or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses 0.2%
AntibioticsAntibiotics 0.2%
Paper, board, etc coated, impregnated, coloured,...Paper, board, etc coated, impregnated, coloured, nes 0.2%
Household, laundry-type washing machine,...Household, laundry-type washing machine, washer-drier 0.2%
Acrylic polymers in primary formsAcrylic polymers in primary forms 0.2%
Motorcycles, bicycles etc with auxiliary motorMotorcycles, bicycles etc with auxiliary motor 0.2%
Earth or snow moving, boring or pile driving...Earth or snow moving, boring or pile driving machines 0.2%
Ceramic, glass pigments, opacifiers, colours,...Ceramic, glass pigments, opacifiers, colours, enamels 0.2%
Womens, girls underwear, nightwear, not knit,...Womens, girls underwear, nightwear, not knit, crochet 0.2%
Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel,...Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel, nes 0.2%
Blood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and culturesBlood, antisera, vaccines, toxins and cultures 0.2%
Prepared or preserved fish, fish eggs, caviarPrepared or preserved fish, fish eggs, caviar 0.2%
Starch, sugar, brewing & distilling industry...Starch, sugar, brewing & distilling industry residues 0.2%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers/other gas turbine...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers/other gas turbine engine 0.2%
Other furniture and parts thereofOther furniture and parts thereof 0.2%
Edible offal of domestic animalsEdible offal of domestic animals 0.2%
Air conditioning equipment, machineryAir conditioning equipment, machinery 0.2%
Carpets, tuftedCarpets, tufted 0.2%
Potatoes, fresh or chilledPotatoes, fresh or chilled 0.2%
Apples, pears and quinces, freshApples, pears and quinces, fresh 0.2%
Plastic plate, sheet, film, foil, strip, cellular,...Plastic plate, sheet, film, foil, strip, cellular, ne 0.2%
Heterocyclics, nitrogen hetero atom only, nucleic...Heterocyclics, nitrogen hetero atom only, nucleic aci 0.2%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy stee 0.2%
Rolled stainless steel sheet, width > 600mmRolled stainless steel sheet, width > 600mm 0.2%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.2%
Mens or boys suits, jackets, trousers etc not knitMens or boys suits, jackets, trousers etc not knit 0.2%
Acyclic alcohols and their derivativesAcyclic alcohols and their derivatives 0.2%
Compression-ignition engines (diesel etc)Compression-ignition engines (diesel etc) 0.2%
Television receivers, video monitors, projectorsTelevision receivers, video monitors, projectors 0.2%
Natural rubber and gums, in primary form, plates,...Natural rubber and gums, in primary form, plates, etc 0.2%
Womens, girls suits, jacket, dress, skirt, etc,...Womens, girls suits, jacket, dress, skirt, etc, wove 0.1%
Containers, bobbins and packages, of plasticsContainers, bobbins and packages, of plastics 0.1%
Woven fabric >85% synth+cotton, >170g/m2 unbl...Woven fabric >85% synth+cotton, >170g/m2 unbl/bleache 0.1%
Food preparations, nesFood preparations, nes 0.1%
Automatic regulating or controlling equipmentAutomatic regulating or controlling equipment 0.1%
Machine-tools for forging, die-stamping, bending...Machine-tools for forging, die-stamping, bending meta 0.1%
Articles of vulcanised rubber except hard rubber,...Articles of vulcanised rubber except hard rubber, nes 0.1%
Cigars, cigarettes etc, tobacco or tobacco...Cigars, cigarettes etc, tobacco or tobacco substitute 0.1%
Aluminium foil of a thickness < 0.2mmAluminium foil of a thickness < 0.2mm 0.1%
Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc (retail)Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc (retail) 0.1%
Metal-rolling mills and rolls thereofMetal-rolling mills and rolls thereof 0.1%
Spark-ignition internal combustion enginesSpark-ignition internal combustion engines 0.1%
Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids,...Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, derivatives 0.1%
Copper pipes, tubesCopper pipes, tubes 0.1%
CrustaceansCrustaceans 0.1%
CarbonatesCarbonates 0.1%
Parts for internal combustion spark ignition...Parts for internal combustion spark ignition engines 0.1%
Synthetic organic colouring matterSynthetic organic colouring matter 0.1%
Ball or roller bearingsBall or roller bearings 0.1%
Producer, water and acetylene gas generatorsProducer, water and acetylene gas generators 0.1%
Animal feed preparations, nesAnimal feed preparations, nes 0.1%
Plastic tube, pipe, hose and fittingsPlastic tube, pipe, hose and fittings 0.1%
Nonwovens textiles except feltNonwovens textiles except felt 0.1%
NewsprintNewsprint 0.1%
Trailers and non-mechanically propelled vehicle...Trailers and non-mechanically propelled vehicle nes 0.1%
Steam turbines and other vapour turbinesSteam turbines and other vapour turbines 0.1%
Electric accumulatorsElectric accumulators 0.1%
Carbon electrodes, brushes and electrical items...Carbon electrodes, brushes and electrical items nes 0.1%
Seed, fruit and spores, for sowingSeed, fruit and spores, for sowing 0.1%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, potassicMineral or chemical fertilizers, potassic 0.1%
Electric filament, discharge lampsElectric filament, discharge lamps 0.1%
Steam/vapour generating boiler(except central...Steam/vapour generating boiler(except central heating 0.1%
Lamps and lighting fittings, illuminated signs,...Lamps and lighting fittings, illuminated signs, etc 0.1%
Electric equipment with heating element, domestic...Electric equipment with heating element, domestic etc 0.1%
Printed reading books, brochures, leaflets etcPrinted reading books, brochures, leaflets etc 0.1%
Uncoated paper and paperboard nesUncoated paper and paperboard nes 0.1%
Paper, board containers, packing items, box files,...Paper, board containers, packing items, box files, et 0.1%
Aluminium oxide, hydroxide and artificial corundumAluminium oxide, hydroxide and artificial corundum 0.1%
Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber,...Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber, et 0.1%
Oxygen-function amino-compoundsOxygen-function amino-compounds 0.1%
Malt extract, flour, dairy preparations, low cocoaMalt extract, flour, dairy preparations, low cocoa 0.1%
Refractory brick, block, tile etc not...Refractory brick, block, tile etc not siliceous-earth 0.1%
Polycarboxylic acid, derivativesPolycarboxylic acid, derivatives 0.1%
Parts for electrical switches, protectors,...Parts for electrical switches, protectors, connectors 0.1%
Gaskets and similar joints of metal sheetGaskets and similar joints of metal sheet 0.1%
Composite diagnostic or laboratory reagents, nesComposite diagnostic or laboratory reagents, nes 0.1%
Thermionic and cold cathode valves and tubesThermionic and cold cathode valves and tubes 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 80.4%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
The president is the head of state. He is elected by universal suffrage for a 6-year term of office (no limit for extension). He appoints the Prime Minister who must be approved by a confidence vote in the parliament. The President also appoints the head of the Council of Ministers. He can dissolve the Assembly and rule by decree. He holds almost total power.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is bicameral. The Parliament is formed by the People's Assembly (the lower house) which has 454 members (of which 444 are elected by universal suffrage and 10 are nominated by the President for a 5-year term) and the Advisory Council (the upper house) which plays only an advisory role and which has 264 members (of which 176 are elected by universal suffrage and 88 appointed by the president for a 6-year term). The president can dissolve the People's Assembly only if he has the support of the people during a referendum.
Main Political Parties
The multi-party system was restored in 1976 by the then president Sadate. However, in practice it is the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) which completely dominates the political arena. The Muslim brothers, a brotherhood created in 1928 by Hassan El Banna is the main opposition party of the country. They were banned but in spite of it, they were able to win 88 seats in the People's Assembly in the 2005 elections. The other opposition parties like Wafd, El-Ghad or the Nasserian Party are minority parties and were nearly wiped out in the 2005 elections.
Current Political Leaders
Vice-President: Vacant
Prime Minister: Ahmad Shafiq
Next Election Dates
Presidential: in 2011
People's Assembly: November-December 2015
Advisory Council: in 2013
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
143/175
Evolution:
3 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Not Free
Political Freedom:
6/7
Civil Liberties:
5/7

Map of freedom 2010
Source: Freedom House

 

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