Business Environment in Finland

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

Often used as an example for its economic performances and its competitiveness and innovative successes, Finland is one of the countries in the euro zone which has been hit the hardest by the crisis, due to a collapse of exports. After shrinking by 8% In 2009, the economy rebounded in 2010, with an estimated growth of 2.4%. The recovery was driven by the processing industry and semi-furnished goods stimulated by both foreign and domestic demand. It is expected that the economy will not return to its pre-recession growth rate before the end of 2012.

The crisis and stimulus measures had a profound and durable impact on public finances and debt levels. The main obstacle which the government now must deal with is therefore to combine measures to promote growth and measures allowing for the rebalancing of accounts. In the more long-term perspective, the aging population is also a source of future pressure on spending. Structural reforms focused on increasing productivity and employment offer are therefore necessary.

Its GDP being among the highest in the world, Finland offers a high living standard. The distribution of wealth is fair, however, social inequalities have risen in the recent years. Affected by the crisis, the unemployment rate has also increased considerably, reaching around 9% today.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 238.44 239.23e 260.38 271.48e 280.96
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) -8.2 3.1e 3.1e 2.5 2.2
GDP per Capita (USD) 44,556e 44,489 48,188 49,999e 51,498
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.1 -0.8
Inflation Rate (%) 1.6 1.7e 3.0 2.1 2.0
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 8.3 8.4 8.0e 7.8e 7.7e
Current Account (billions USD) 3.30e 4.85 4.51 4.49 -
Current Account (in % of GDP) 1.4e 2.0 1.8e 1.8e -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

Agriculture represents less than 3% of the current Finnish GNP and employes less than 5% of the population. Because of the unfavorable climate, agricultural development is limited to the maintainace of a certain level of self-sufficiency in basic products. Cereal production dominates, well ahead of milk production and animal husbandry. Finland's accession to the EU has further accelerated the process of restructuring and downsizing of this sector.

Forestry is traditionally well-developed: Finland exports a rich variety of products randing from simple wooden products to high-tech tags and labels and including paper, cardboard, packaging etc. Other key industrial sectors are metal production, mechanical engineering and electronic goods. Finland specializes in exporting information and communication technologies, Nokia becoming the world leading manufacturer of mobile handsets.

The service sector employs almost 70% of the population and accounts for almost 65% of the GDP.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 4.5 25.4 69.5
Value Added (in % of GDP) 2.7 28.2 69.2
Value Added (Annual % Change) -0.6 -16.3 -3.5

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Euro (EUR) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 0.80 0.80 0.73 0.68 0.72

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Finland, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
74.0/100
Position:
Mostly free
World Rank:
17/179
Regional Rank:
8/42

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

Finland is a highly industrialized country, whose economy relies heavily on exports (40% of the GNP) and whose trade accounts for roughly 85% of the GDP. 

As an effect of the global economic crisis, the country experienced an unprecedented fall in foreign trade, exports decreasing by 32% and imports by 31%. The recovery in 2010 has been slow. The country's trade balance is structurally positive and remains positive in spite of a deterioration due to the crisis; this trend should continue in 2011.

The country's main trading partners are Germany, Russia, Sweden, China and the United States.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 69,375 81,704 91,781 60,890 68,095
Exports of Goods (million USD) 77,206 90,025 96,456 62,855 69,264
Imports of Services (million USD) 18,571 22,613 30,377 25,636 22,864
Exports of Services (million USD) 17,388 23,167 31,772 27,482 24,750
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.9 7.0 6.5 -18.1 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 11.8 4.8 - - -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 40.8 40.7 43.0 34.9 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 45.5 45.8 47.0 37.4 -
Trade Balance (million USD) 11,505 12,503 10,210 4,790 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 10,385 13,021 11,383 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 86.3 86.6 89.9 72.3 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2010
Sweden 11.4%
Germany 10.1%
Russia 9.0%
United States 7.0%
Netherlands 6.8%
China 5.1%
United Kingdom 4.8%
France 3.4%
Belgium 2.9%
Norway 2.7%
Italy 2.6%
Poland 2.6%
Estonia 2.1%
Spain 2.0%
Denmark 1.9%
Japan 1.7%
Turkey 1.5%
South Korea 1.3%
Switzerland 1.2%
Canada 1.2%
Other partnersClose extended list 55.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2010
Russia 17.8%
Germany 13.3%
Sweden 10.1%
China 7.3%
Netherlands 5.4%
France 3.9%
United States 3.4%
United Kingdom 3.1%
Italy 2.8%
Estonia 2.4%
Denmark 2.4%
Belgium 2.4%
Norway 2.3%
Poland 1.8%
Japan 1.8%
Spain 1.3%
Brazil 1.2%
Czech Republic 1.2%
Switzerland 1.1%
Austria 0.9%
Other partnersClose extended list 46.0%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2010
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 7.4%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 7.3%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 3.5%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 3.5%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 3.0%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 2.2%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 2.2%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 1.9%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 1.7%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.6%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 1.6%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 1.5%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 1.3%
Machinery for making pulp of fibrous cellulosic...Machinery for making pulp of fibrous cellulosic material or for making or finishing paper or paperboard (excl. autoclaves, boilers, dryers, other heating appliances and calenders); parts thereof 1.3%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 1.3%
Unwrought nickelUnwrought nickel 1.0%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 1.0%
Raw furskins, incl. heads, tails, paws and other...Raw furskins, incl. heads, tails, paws and other pieces or cuttings suitable for use in furriery (excl. raw hides and skins of heading 4101, 4102 or 4103) 0.9%
Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel "e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed" 0.9%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.9%
Unwrought zinc :Unwrought zinc : 0.9%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.8%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 0.8%
Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood...Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood (excl. sheets of compressed wood, hollow-core composite panels, parquet panels or sheets, inlaid wood and sheets identifiable as furniture components) 0.8%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.8%
Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a...Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state (excl. goods of heading 4802 or 4803) 0.7%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 0.6%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.6%
Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating,...Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting or boring machinery, for earth, minerals or ores; pile-drivers and pile-extractors; snow-ploughs and snow-blowers (excl. those mounted on railway wagons, motor vehicle chassis or lorries, self-propelled machinery of heading 8429, lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery of heading 8425 to 8428 and hand-operated tools) 0.6%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.6%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.6%
Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls of...Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state, not worked other than as specified in note 3 to this chapter, n.e.s. 0.6%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.6%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.6%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.6%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 0.6%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.5%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.5%
Vegetable parchment, greaseproof papers, tracing...Vegetable parchment, greaseproof papers, tracing papers and glassine and other glazed transparent or translucent papers, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state 0.5%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.5%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.5%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.5%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 0.5%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.5%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.5%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.5%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.5%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 0.5%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.5%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.5%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.4%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.4%
Enzymes; prepared enzymes, n.e.s.Enzymes; prepared enzymes, n.e.s. 0.4%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.4%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.4%
Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.;...Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.; preparations based on inorganic or mineral colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215); inorganic products of a kind used as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined 0.4%
Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic...Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic refining 0.4%
Agricultural, horticultural, forestry,...Agricultural, horticultural, forestry, poultry-keeping or bee-keeping machinery, incl. germination plant fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment; poultry incubators and brooders; parts thereof 0.4%
Cobalt mattes and other intermediate products of...Cobalt mattes and other intermediate products of cobalt metallurgy; cobalt and articles thereof, n.e.s.; cobalt waste and scrap (excl. ash and residues containing cobalt) 0.4%
Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl....Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl. cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes, of wood (excl. plywood panelling, blocks, strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, and pre-fabricated buildings) 0.4%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.4%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 0.4%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.4%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.4%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.4%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 0.3%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.3%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.3%
Plates, sheets and strip, of copper, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of copper, of a thickness of > 0,15 mm (excl. expanded sheet and strip copper and electrically insulated strip) 0.3%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.3%
Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing,...Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing, prepared diagnostic or laboratory reagents whether or not on a backing, and certified reference materials (excl. compound diagnostic reagents designed to be administered to the patient, blood-grouping reagents, animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses and vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms and similar products) 0.3%
Yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports;...Yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports; rowing boats and canoes 0.3%
Prefabricated buildings, whether or not complete...Prefabricated buildings, whether or not complete or already assembled 0.3%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal...Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal combustion piston engine, hydraulic turbines, water wheels, gas turbines and electric motors); parts thereof 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of < 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.3%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.3%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape,...Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls (excl. floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.3%
Sulphates; alums; peroxosulphates "persulphates"Sulphates; alums; peroxosulphates "persulphates" 0.3%
Copper tubes and pipesCopper tubes and pipes 0.3%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.2%
Phenols; phenol-alcoholsPhenols; phenol-alcohols 0.2%
Safety glass, toughened "tempered", laminated...Safety glass, toughened "tempered", laminated safety glass (excl. multiple-walled insulating units of glass, glasses for spectacles and clock or watch glasses) 0.2%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, in strips or rolls of a width <= 36 cm, in rectangular or square sheets of which no side > 36 cm in the unfolded state, or cut to shape other than rectangular or square, and articles of paper pulp, paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs or cellulose fibres, n.e.s. 0.2%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.2%
Cellulose and its chemical derivatives, n.e.s., in...Cellulose and its chemical derivatives, n.e.s., in primary forms 0.2%
Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not...Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not mechanically propelled (excl. railway and tramway vehicles); parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Ethers, ether-alcohols, ether-phenols,...Ethers, ether-alcohols, ether-phenols, ether-alcohol-phenols, alcohol peroxides, ether peroxide, ketone peroxides, whether or not chemically defined, and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.2%
Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl....Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl. wheel-mounted cranes and vehicle cranes for railways); mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane 0.2%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.2%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.2%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.2%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.2%
Other bars and rods of alloy steel other than...Other bars and rods of alloy steel other than stainless, angles, shapes and sections of alloy steel other than stainless, n.e.s.; hollow drill bars and rods, of alloy or non-alloy steel 0.2%
Lubricant preparations, incl. cutting-oil...Lubricant preparations, incl. cutting-oil preparations, bolt or nut release preparations, anti-rust or anti-corrosion preparations and mould release preparations based on lubricants; textile lubricant preparations and preparations of a kind used for the oil or grease treatment of textile materials, leather, furskins or other materials (excl. preparations containing, as basic constituents, >= 70% petroleum oil or bituminous mineral oil by weight) 0.2%
Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those...Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those principally designed for the transport of persons or goods), e.g. breakdown lorries, crane lorries, fire fighting vehicles, concrete-mixer lorries, road sweeper lorries, spraying lorries, mobile workshops and mobile radiological units 0.2%
Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and...Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and other fats and oils derived from milk; dairy spreads 0.2%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.2%
Steam or other vapour generating boilers (excl....Steam or other vapour generating boilers (excl. central heating hot water boilers capable also of producing low pressure steam); super-heated water boilers; parts thereof 0.2%
Ketones and quinones, whether or not with other...Ketones and quinones, whether or not with other oxygen function, and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Surveying, incl. photogrammetrical surveying,...Surveying, incl. photogrammetrical surveying, hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological or geophysical instruments and appliances (excl. compasses); rangefinders 0.2%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.2%
Electric, incl. electrically heated gas, laser or...Electric, incl. electrically heated gas, laser or other light or photon beam, ultrasonic, electron beam, magnetic pulse or plasma arc soldering, brazing or welding machines and apparatus, whether or not capable of cutting; electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals, metal carbides or cermets; parts thereof (excl. guns for spraying hot materials of heading 8424) 0.2%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 0.2%
Cobalt oxides and hydroxides; commercial cobalt...Cobalt oxides and hydroxides; commercial cobalt oxides 0.2%
Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel,...Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils 0.2%
Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other...Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted copper waste and scrap, ashes and residues containing copper, and waste and scrap of primary cells, primary batteries and electric accumulators) 0.2%
Polymers of styrene, in primary formsPolymers of styrene, in primary forms 0.2%
Wadding, gauze, bandages and the like, e.g....Wadding, gauze, bandages and the like, e.g. dressings, adhesive plasters, poultices, impregnated or covered with pharmaceutical substances or put up for retail sale for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary purposes 0.2%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.2%
Glass fibres, incl. glass wool, and articles...Glass fibres, incl. glass wool, and articles thereof (excl. mineral wools and articles thereof, optical fibres, fibre bundles or cable, electrical insulators or parts thereof, brushes of glass fibres, dolls' wigs) 0.2%
Natural or artificial abrasive powder or grain, on...Natural or artificial abrasive powder or grain, on a base of textile material, paper, paperboard or other materials, whether or not cut to shape or sewn or otherwise made-up 0.2%
Wood pulp obtained by a combination of mechanical...Wood pulp obtained by a combination of mechanical and chemical pulping processes 0.2%
Textile products and articles, for technical use,...Textile products and articles, for technical use, specified in note 7 to chapter 59 0.2%
Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in...Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state 0.2%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous medium; solutions of products of subheading 3901 to 3913 in volatile organic solvents, containing > 50% solvent by weight (excl. solutions of collodion) 0.2%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.1%
Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and...Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and photographs, n.e.s. 0.1%
Nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated,...Nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or laminated, n.e.s. 0.1%
Radiators for central heating, non-electrically...Radiators for central heating, non-electrically heated, and parts thereof, of iron or steel; air heaters and hot air distributors, incl. distributors which can also distribute fresh or conditioned air, non-electrically heated, incorporating a motor-driven fan or blower, and parts thereof, of iron or steel 0.1%
Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their...Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.1%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.1%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.1%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.1%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 0.1%
Meat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.1%
Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by...Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by forging, hammering or die-stamping; machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by bending, folding, straightening, flattening, shearing, punching or notching; presses for working metal or metal carbides, not specified above 0.1%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.1%
Oscilloscopes, spectrum analysers and other...Oscilloscopes, spectrum analysers and other instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking electrical quantities (excl. meters of heading 9028); instruments and apparatus for measuring or detecting alpha, beta, gamma, x-ray, cosmic or other ionizing radiations 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for measuring or...Instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking the flow, level, pressure or other variables of liquids or gases, e.g. flow meters, level gauges, manometers, heat meters (excl. instruments and apparatus of heading 9014, 9015, 9028 or 9032) 0.1%
Calendering or other rolling machines (other than...Calendering or other rolling machines (other than for metals or glass) and cylinders therefor; parts thereof 0.1%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.1%
Steel, alloy, other than stainless, in ingots or...Steel, alloy, other than stainless, in ingots or other primary forms, semi-finished products of alloy steel other than stainless (excl. waste and scrap in ingot form, and products obtained by continuous casting) 0.1%
Machine-tools, incl. machines for nailing,...Machine-tools, incl. machines for nailing, stapling, glueing or otherwise assembling, for working wood, cork, bone, hard rubber, hard plastics or similar hard materials (excl. machines for working in the hand) 0.1%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.1%
Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons,...Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons, incl. driver 0.1%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.1%
Phosphinates "hypophosphites", phosphonates ...Phosphinates "hypophosphites", phosphonates "phosphites" and phosphates; polyphosphates, whether or not chemically defined 0.1%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.1%
Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or...Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or not illustrated or containing advertising material 0.1%
Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark...Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark or sapwood, or roughly squared (excl. rough-cut wood for walking sticks, umbrellas, tool shafts and the like; wood in the form of railway sleepers; wood cut into boards or beams, etc.) 0.1%
Garments made-up of felt or nonwovens, whether or...Garments made-up of felt or nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or laminated; garments of textile fabrics, rubberised or impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with plastics or other substances (excl. knitted or crocheted, and babies' garments and clothing accessories) 0.1%
Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements,...Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements, caulking compounds and other mastics; painters' fillings; non-refractory surfacing preparations for façades, indoor walls, floors, ceilings or the like 0.1%
Machinery for making up paper pulp, paper or...Machinery for making up paper pulp, paper or paperboard, incl. cutting machines of all kinds, n.e.s.; parts thereof 0.1%
Chemical elements and compounds doped for use in...Chemical elements and compounds doped for use in electronics, in the form of discs, wafers, cylinders, rods or similar forms, or cut into discs, wafers or similar forms, whether or not polished or with a uniform epitaxial coating (excl. elements that have been further processed, e.g. by selective diffusion) 0.1%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.1%
Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or...Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable "pre-set"; parts thereof 0.1%
Articles and equipment for general physical...Articles and equipment for general physical exercise, gymnastics, athletics, other sports, incl. table-tennis, or outdoor games, not specified or included in this chapter or elsewhere; swimming pools and paddling pools. 0.1%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in an aqueous medium 0.1%
Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic,...Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or non-electric motor; parts thereof 0.1%
Hydrometers, areometers and similar floating...Hydrometers, areometers and similar floating instruments, thermometers, pyrometers, barometers, hygrometers and psychrometers, recording or not, and any combination of these instruments 0.1%
Rosin, resin acids and derivatives thereof; rosin...Rosin, resin acids and derivatives thereof; rosin spirit and rosin oils; run gums 0.1%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.1%
Bars, rods and profiles, of copper, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of copper, n.e.s. 0.1%
Whey, whether or not concentrated or containing...Whey, whether or not concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter; products consisting of natural milk constituents, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter, n.e.s. 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 75.3%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2010
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 9.6%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 3.8%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.7%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.6%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 2.5%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 2.2%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 2.1%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 1.8%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 1.3%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 1.2%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 1.2%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 1.1%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 1.0%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.7%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.7%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.7%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.7%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.6%
Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark...Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark or sapwood, or roughly squared (excl. rough-cut wood for walking sticks, umbrellas, tool shafts and the like; wood in the form of railway sleepers; wood cut into boards or beams, etc.) 0.6%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 0.6%
Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel "e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed" 0.6%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.6%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.6%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.6%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.6%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.5%
Zinc ores and concentratesZinc ores and concentrates 0.5%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 0.5%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.5%
Nickel ores and concentratesNickel ores and concentrates 0.5%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.5%
Unwrought nickelUnwrought nickel 0.5%
Nickel mattes, nickel oxide sinters and other...Nickel mattes, nickel oxide sinters and other intermediate products of nickel metallurgy : 0.5%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.5%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.5%
Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined...Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 0.5%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.4%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 0.4%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.4%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.4%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.4%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.4%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.4%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.4%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.4%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.4%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.4%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.3%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.3%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.3%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.3%
Fuel wood, in logs, billets, twigs, faggots or...Fuel wood, in logs, billets, twigs, faggots or similar forms; wood in chips or particles; sawdust and wood waste and scrap, whether or not agglomerated in logs, briquettes, pellets or similar forms 0.3%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.3%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.3%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.3%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 0.3%
Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound...Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound or other similarly recorded phenomena, incl. matrices and masters for the production of records (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.3%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.3%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.3%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.3%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.3%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.3%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.3%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.3%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.3%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.3%
Raw furskins, incl. heads, tails, paws and other...Raw furskins, incl. heads, tails, paws and other pieces or cuttings suitable for use in furriery (excl. raw hides and skins of heading 4101, 4102 or 4103) 0.3%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.3%
Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores;...Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores; chemical products and preparations for the chemical or allied industries, incl. mixtures of natural products, n.e.s. 0.3%
Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic,...Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or non-electric motor; parts thereof 0.3%
Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and...Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.3%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.3%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.3%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.2%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.2%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.2%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.2%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.2%
Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not...Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not mechanically propelled (excl. railway and tramway vehicles); parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Cobalt mattes and other intermediate products of...Cobalt mattes and other intermediate products of cobalt metallurgy; cobalt and articles thereof, n.e.s.; cobalt waste and scrap (excl. ash and residues containing cobalt) 0.2%
Kaolin and other kaolinic clays, whether or not...Kaolin and other kaolinic clays, whether or not calcined 0.2%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.2%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.2%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.2%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.2%
Articles and equipment for general physical...Articles and equipment for general physical exercise, gymnastics, athletics, other sports, incl. table-tennis, or outdoor games, not specified or included in this chapter or elsewhere; swimming pools and paddling pools. 0.2%
Articles for funfair, table or parlour games, incl...Articles for funfair, table or parlour games, incl. pintables, billiards, special tables for casino games and automatic bowling alley equipment 0.2%
Preparations of a kind used in animal feedingPreparations of a kind used in animal feeding 0.2%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.2%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.2%
Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of...Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes 0.2%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.2%
Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat,...Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon 0.2%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.2%
Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans...Self-propelled railway or tramway coaches, vans and trucks (excl. those of heading 8604) 0.2%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.2%
Garments made-up of felt or nonwovens, whether or...Garments made-up of felt or nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or laminated; garments of textile fabrics, rubberised or impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with plastics or other substances (excl. knitted or crocheted, and babies' garments and clothing accessories) 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 0.2%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.2%
Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by...Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children, dolls' carriages and dolls representing only human beings); reduced-size "scale" recreational models, working or not; puzzles of all kinds 0.2%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.2%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.2%
Ammonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solutionAmmonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solution 0.2%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Chassis fitted with engines, for tractors, motor...Chassis fitted with engines, for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705 (excl. those with engines and cabs) 0.2%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.2%
Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal...Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal combustion piston engine, hydraulic turbines, water wheels, gas turbines and electric motors); parts thereof 0.2%
Acrylic polymers, in primary formsAcrylic polymers, in primary forms 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.2%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.2%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.2%
Nuclear reactors; fuel elements "cartridges",...Nuclear reactors; fuel elements "cartridges", non-irradiated, for nuclear reactors; machinery and apparatus for isotopic separation; parts thereof 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.2%
Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing...Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing containers, of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, n.e.s.; box files, letter trays, and similar articles, of paperboard of a kind used in offices, shops or the like 0.2%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.2%
Printed circuitsPrinted circuits 0.2%
Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.2%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.2%
Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen...Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen of all types of textile materials (excl. floor-cloths, polishing-cloths, dish-cloths and dusters) 0.2%
Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing,...Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing, prepared diagnostic or laboratory reagents whether or not on a backing, and certified reference materials (excl. compound diagnostic reagents designed to be administered to the patient, blood-grouping reagents, animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses and vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms and similar products) 0.2%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.2%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.2%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.2%
Sodium hydroxide "caustic soda", potassium...Sodium hydroxide "caustic soda", potassium hydroxide "caustic potash"; peroxides of sodium or potassium 0.2%
Printed books, brochures and similar printed...Printed books, brochures and similar printed matter, whether or not in single sheets (excl. periodicals and publications which are essentially devoted to advertising) 0.2%
Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments...Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments and mixed seasonings; mustard flour and meal, whether or not prepared, and mustard 0.1%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.1%
Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of...Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of iron ore and other spongy ferrous products, in lumps, pellets or similar forms; iron having a minimum purity by weight of 99,94%, in lumps, pellets or similar forms 0.1%
Agricultural, horticultural, forestry,...Agricultural, horticultural, forestry, poultry-keeping or bee-keeping machinery, incl. germination plant fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment; poultry incubators and brooders; parts thereof 0.1%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.1%
Casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar containers,...Casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar containers, incl. rigid or collapsible tubular containers, of aluminium, for any material (other than compressed or liquefied gas), of a capacity of <= 300 l, not fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment, whether or not lined or heat-insulated, n.e.s. 0.1%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.1%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts, knitted or crocheted (excl. wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.1%
Machinery for making pulp of fibrous cellulosic...Machinery for making pulp of fibrous cellulosic material or for making or finishing paper or paperboard (excl. autoclaves, boilers, dryers, other heating appliances and calenders); parts thereof 0.1%
Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless...Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless microphones with built-in transmitter); loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers (excl. telephone sets, hearing aids and helmets with built-in headphones, whether or not incorporating a microphone); audio-frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof 0.1%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Dextrins and other modified starches, e.g....Dextrins and other modified starches, e.g. pregelatinised or esterified starches; glues based on starches, dextrins or other modified starches (excl. those put up for retail sale and weighing <= 1 kg) 0.1%
Carbonates; peroxocarbonates "percarbonates";...Carbonates; peroxocarbonates "percarbonates"; commercial ammonium carbonate containing ammonium carbamate 0.1%
Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl....Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl. sausages and similar products, and meat extracts and juices) 0.1%
Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar...Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar substitutes prepared from fish eggs 0.1%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.1%
Oscilloscopes, spectrum analysers and other...Oscilloscopes, spectrum analysers and other instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking electrical quantities (excl. meters of heading 9028); instruments and apparatus for measuring or detecting alpha, beta, gamma, x-ray, cosmic or other ionizing radiations 0.1%
Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with...Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with an auxiliary motor, with or without side-cars; side-cars 0.1%
Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed...Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed beam lamp units and ultra-violet or infra-red lamps; arc-lamps; parts thereof 0.1%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.1%
Polyamides, in primary formsPolyamides, in primary forms 0.1%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.1%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of >= 80%; ethyl alcohol and other spirits, denatured, of any strength 0.1%
Molybdenum ores and concentratesMolybdenum ores and concentrates 0.1%
Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials,...Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic bonding agents (excl. particle board, whether or not bonded with one or more sheets of fibreboard; laminated wood with a layer of plywood; composite panels with outer layers of fibreboard; paperboard; furniture components identifiable as such) 0.1%
Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl....Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl. cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes, of wood (excl. plywood panelling, blocks, strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, and pre-fabricated buildings) 0.1%
Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes,...Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks, incl. ski-jackets, wind-cheaters, wind-jackets and similar articles (excl. knitted or crocheted, suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers and trousers) 0.1%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous medium; solutions of products of subheading 3901 to 3913 in volatile organic solvents, containing > 50% solvent by weight (excl. solutions of collodion) 0.1%
Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or...Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or plastics (excl. waterproof footwear of heading 6401, orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.1%
Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl....Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl. machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof 0.1%
Mattress supports (excl. spring interiors for...Mattress supports (excl. spring interiors for seats); articles of bedding and similar furnishing, e.g. mattresses, quilts, eiderdowns, cushions, pouffes and pillows, fitted with springs or stuffed or internally filled with any material or of cellular rubber or plastics, whether or not covered (excl. pneumatic or water mattresses and pillows, blankets and covers) 0.1%
Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a...Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state (excl. goods of heading 4802 or 4803) 0.1%
Electrical machines and apparatus, having...Electrical machines and apparatus, having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.1%
Panty hose, tights, stockings, socks and other...Panty hose, tights, stockings, socks and other hosiery, incl. stockings for varicose veins and footwear without applied soles, knitted or crocheted (excl. for babies) 0.1%
Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with...Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with self-contained electric motor; parts thereof 0.1%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.1%
Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable...Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable juices, unfermented, not containing added spirit, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.1%
Citrus fruit, fresh or driedCitrus fruit, fresh or dried 0.1%
Electric sound or visual signalling apparatus, e.g...Electric sound or visual signalling apparatus, e.g. bells, sirens, indicator panels, burglar or fire alarms (excl. those for cycles, motor vehicles and traffic signalling); parts thereof 0.1%
Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or...Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or not illustrated or containing advertising material 0.1%
Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl....Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl. white chocolate 0.1%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.1%
Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic...Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic monocarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not...Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil 0.1%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.1%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.1%
Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not...Synthetic organic colouring matter, whether or not chemically defined; preparations based on synthetic organic colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations; synthetic organic products of a kind used as fluorescent brightening agents or as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215) 0.1%
Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a...Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines, e.g. ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, sparking plugs, glow plugs and starter motors; generators, e.g. dynamos and alternators, and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof 0.1%
Anti-knock preparations, oxidation inhibitors, gum...Anti-knock preparations, oxidation inhibitors, gum inhibitors, viscosity improvers, anti-corrosive preparations and other prepared additives, for mineral oils, incl. gasoline, or for other liquids used for the same purposes as mineral oils 0.1%
Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls of...Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state, not worked other than as specified in note 3 to this chapter, n.e.s. 0.1%
Bananas, incl. plantains, fresh or driedBananas, incl. plantains, fresh or dried 0.1%
Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or...Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or not power-operated, or for machine-tools "e.g. for pressing, stamping, punching, tapping, threading, drilling, boring, broaching, milling, turning or screw driving", incl. dies for drawing or extruding metal, and rock drilling or earth boring tools 0.1%
Live plants incl. their roots, cuttings and slips;...Live plants incl. their roots, cuttings and slips; mushroom spawn (excl. bulbs, tubers, tuberous roots, corms, crowns and rhizomes, and chicory plants and roots) 0.1%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.1%
Fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants,...Fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants, prepared or preserved, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or spirit (excl. prepared or preserved with vinegar, preserved with sugar but not laid in syrup, and jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, fruit purée and pastes, obtained by cooking) 0.1%
Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a thickness of > 0,2 mm (excl. expanded plates, sheets and strip) 0.1%
Lubricant preparations, incl. cutting-oil...Lubricant preparations, incl. cutting-oil preparations, bolt or nut release preparations, anti-rust or anti-corrosion preparations and mould release preparations based on lubricants; textile lubricant preparations and preparations of a kind used for the oil or grease treatment of textile materials, leather, furskins or other materials (excl. preparations containing, as basic constituents, >= 70% petroleum oil or bituminous mineral oil by weight) 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 77.8%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
President of Finland is the head of state, leads the foreign policy, and is the Commander-in-Chief of the Defense Forces. The main executive power lies in the cabinet appointed and headed by the prime minister. Before the constitutional rewrite, which was completed in 2000, the president enjoyed more power.
Legislative Power
Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Finland (Eduskunta), and the government has limited rights to amend or extend legislation. The president has the power of veto over parliamentary decisions although it can be overrun by the parliament.
Main Political Parties
Finland has a multi-party system where a single party does not have chance to gain power alone; so parties work with each other to form coalition governments. The main political parties in the country are:
- Center Party (Suomen Keskusta) – a centrist political party, traditionally representing rural interests having strong political influence in small municipalities;
- National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus) – a right-wing party draws its major support from business community and urban professionals;
- Social Democratic Party (Suomen Sosiaalidemokraattinen Puolue, SDP) – follows social-democratic ideology, draws its major support from country's working class;
- Greens (Vihreät) - advocates environmental interests;
- The Swedish People's Party (SFP) (in Finnish) – a moderate liberal party of Swedish speaking minority.
Current Political Leaders
President: Tarja Halonen (since March 2000, re-elected in January 2006) –Social Democratic Party (SDP)
Prime Minister: Mari KIVINIEMI (since 22 June 2010) - Centre Party (Kesk)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: January 2012
Parliamentary: March 2011
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
2/175
Evolution:
3 place up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
1/7
Civil Liberties:
1/7

Map of freedom 2010
Source: Freedom House

 

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