Trade Policy and Regulations in Germany
Foreign Trade in Figures
Trade represents more than 80% of Germany’s GDP; with exports representing about 40% of GDP, Germany is a leader in exports (only recently caught up with by China).
The global recession which has lead to a decrease in exports reduced the positive trade balance of the country, however since the beginning of the recovery, trade balance shows comfortable surplus and this trend should continue in the coming years.
The whole of the European Union is its primary trade partner: around 60% of German exports and 60% of its imports are done with the EU. China and the U.S. are the other two main partners.
|Foreign Trade Indicators||2006||2007||2008||2009||2010|
|Imports of Goods (million USD)||906,684||1,054,980||1,185,070||926,347||1,067,107|
|Exports of Goods (million USD)||1,108,107||1,321,214||1,446,172||1,120,040||1,268,840|
|Imports of Services (million USD)||224,081||258,682||288,401||252,543||256,289|
|Exports of Services (million USD)||187,830||221,929||255,789||225,756||229,861|
|Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||12||5||3||-9||-|
|Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||12||8||-||-||-|
|Trade Balance (million USD)||198,053||270,621||265,097||188,348||-|
|Current Account (million USD)||189,121||254,563||246,055||165,471||-|
|Foreign Trade (in % of GDP)||85||87||89||77||-|
|Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||40||40||41||36||-|
|Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||45||47||47||41||-|
Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank
Main Partner Countries
(% of Exports)
|Other partnersClose extended list||63.6%|
(% of Imports)
|Other partnersClose extended list||63.2%|
- Main International Economic Cooperation
- Member of
World Trade Organisation
Member of the European Union
Member of the European Economic Area which since 1 January 1993 guarantees the free movement of most goods between European countries.
Multilateral agreements and bilateral agreements with many countries.
- Assessment of Commercial Policy
German commercial policy
Barriers to exchanges
- Average Customs Duty (Excluding Agricultural Products)
Trade, inside the EU, in goods originating from one of the 25 Member States is totally free of Customs Duty. This trade consists of delivery and purchases inside the Community and not of exports and imports.
Duties for countries outside Europe are not very high, especially for industrial products (4.2% on average for the general tariff).
- Useful Resources
- National Organization of Intellectual Property
- The organization responsible for the protection of intellectual property in Germany is the Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt (DPMA).
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Although the European Union is a customs union with a Community Customs Code and a harmonized tariff system for product classification, customs administration is a Member State activity.
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