Political Conditions in Indonesia
- Type of State
- Unitary Republic made up of 440 administrative districts, based on parliamentary democracy with a Presidential form of government.
- Executive Power
- The President is both the head of the State and the head of the government. The President enjoys the executive powers and appoints the cabinet. Both the President and the Vice-President are elected through direct universal suffrage for five-year terms. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and responsible for domestic governance and policy-making and foreign affairs.
- Legislative Power
- The legislature in Indonesia is bicameral. The parliament called People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) consists of: DPR (House of People’s Representatives – lower house) having 550 seats with its members elected directly to serve five-year terms, and DPD (House of Regional Representatives- upper house) having 128 seats with each province electing 4 members on a non-party basis. The President cannot dissolve the parliament but the President has the power to veto bills, and in turn a supermajority of legislators may act to override the veto.The people of Indonesia have limited political rights.
- Main Political Parties
- Indonesia has a multi-party system where a single party does not often have a chance of gaining power alone. Thus parties need to work together to form coalition governments. The major political parties in Indonesia are:
- PD (Democratic Party) - advocates ‘Pancasila’ – the 5 principles the Constitution is based on;
- Golkar (Functional Groups Party) – initially an alliance of NGOs opposing communism, now advocates democratic and liberal values;
- PBB (Crescent Moon and Star Party) – a moderate Islamist party;
- PDI-P (Indonesian Party for the Democratic Fight) – based on ‘Pancasila’ ideology, a split-away group from the PD led by ex-President Megawati Sukarnoputri.
- Current Political Leaders
- President: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since October 2004) - PD
Vice-President: Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since October 2004) - Golkar
- Next Election Dates
- Presidential: July 2014
Indicator of Freedom of the Press
- World Rank:
- 10 places up compared to 2008
Indicator of Political Freedom
- Political Freedom:
- Civil Liberties:
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The United States and Indonesia have enjoyed good relations in recent decades. The third most populous democracy in the world and the largest nation in Southeast Asia, Indonesia has pursued cooperative relations with its neighbors, thereby contributing to peace and stability in the region.
U.S. Commercial Service Poland on 1 Mar 2010 related to Political Conditions in Indonesia
U.S. Department Of Commerce, Indonesia