Business Environment in Indonesia

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

Due to the unfavorable international economic situation, the Indonesian growth rate has evidently slowed down in 2009 (4.5%).  However, it has shown more resistance than its neighboring countries due to the low amount of exports on its economy and the importance of private consumption since the country has a significant domestic market.  The country adopted a stimulus plan which lowered taxes, increased subsidies and commitments for supplemental expenditures, which have allowed to soften the effects of the crisis.  The growth, estimated at 6% of the GDP, has accelerated in 2010, under the effects of the revival of investments and the continuous growth of private consumption.

 

Despite the good results from the main economic indicators, structural reforms are required.  A large program of development of infrastructures has been issued.  The country suffers from sub-investment, the authorities are strongly promoting public-private partnerships.  The government has also re-confirmed its priority to the fight against corruption.  In addition, the protection of the environment is a major challenge in Indonesia.

The unemployment level remains high and many workers are in a precarious condition.  A large part of the population lives below the poverty line and the gap between the very rich and the very poor does not diminish.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 538.46 706.74 822.63 908.13 997.94e
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 4.6 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.7
GDP per Capita (USD) 2,327e 3,015e 3,465 3,776e 4,096
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -1.7 -0.5 -1.5e -1.4e -1.3e
Inflation Rate (%) 4.8 5.1e 7.1e 5.9e 5.3e
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 7.9 7.1e 6.7 6.5 6.4
Current Account (billions USD) 10.58 9.48e 2.84 -2.27 -
Current Account (in % of GDP) 2.0e 1.4e 0.4 -0.3 -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

The agricultural sector contributes to nearly 14% of the country’s GDP and employs nearly 40% of the active population. Indonesia is one of the largest rubber producers in the world. Other major crops are rice, sugar cane, coffee, tea, tobacco, palm oil, coconuts and spices. Indonesia is the only Asian country to be an member of the OPEC to which it assures 5% of its production. However, it is still a net importer of oil. The country has great exploitable timber lands and mainly exports timber. 

 

 

Industries contribute to around half of the GDP. The industrial sector includes manufacturing of textiles, cement, chemical fertilizers, electronic products, rubber tires, clothing and shoes (most of these are for the American market). Wood processing is also a major activity.

The tertiary sector (financial institutions, transportation and communications) contributes to around 40% of the GDP. The banking sector is well-developed. The Islamic bank  Syariah  has expanded rapidly during these recent years. Tourism is a major source of revenue, however, the sector has suffered from terrorist threats and natural catastrophes.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 41.2 18.8 39.9
Value Added (in % of GDP) 15.8 49.1 35.2
Value Added (Annual % Change) 4.1 3.5 2.1

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 9,704.74 9,159.32 9,141.00 9,698.96 10,389.94

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Indonesia, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
56.0/100
Position:
Mostly unfree
World Rank:
112/179
Regional Rank:
21/38

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

Indonesia is a member of the WTO and ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian nations).  Indonesia is open to foreign trade, which represented more than 40% of the GDP in 2009. 

The trade balance of the country is structurally positive.  However, this balance was degraded under the effect of the global recession and the fall of the price in raw materials; but,  it still remained on a surplus due to a small contraction of exports in relation to imports.  The revival of exports as well as imports in 2010 did not change this positive trend. 

The three main export partners of Indonesia are Japan, the United States and Southeast Asia.  The commodities that are mainly exported are mineral fuels and hydrocarbons, electrical equipment, animal and vegetable fats & oils, nuclear reactors & boilers, and rubber.  Its main export partners are Southeast Asia, Japan and China.  The commodities that are mainly imported are mineral fuels & oils, nuclear reactors & boilers, iron & steel, electric & electronic equipment, and organic chemicals.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Imports of Goods (million USD) 75,533 80,346 92,777 126,950 91,749
Exports of Goods (million USD) 86,996 103,527 118,013 139,606 119,481
Imports of Services (million USD) 21,836 21,175 24,075 27,994 27,626
Exports of Services (million USD) 12,571 11,093 12,074 14,731 13,242
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 17.8 8.6 9.1 10.0 -15.0
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 16.6 9.4 8.5 9.5 -9.7
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 29.9 25.6 25.4 28.7 21.3
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 34.1 31.0 29.4 29.8 24.1
Trade Balance (million USD) 17,534 29,660 32,754 22,916 35,133
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 8,411 19,786 20,913 9,917 -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 64.0 56.7 54.8 58.5 45.5

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2009
Japan 15.9%
China 9.9%
United States 9.3%
Singapore 8.8%
South Korea 7.0%
India 6.4%
Malaysia 5.8%
Australia 2.8%
Thailand 2.8%
Netherlands 2.5%
Philippines 2.1%
Germany 2.0%
Hong Kong 1.8%
Spain 1.6%
Italy 1.4%
United Kingdom 1.3%
Vietnam 1.2%
United Arab Emirates 1.1%
Belgium 0.9%
Saudi Arabia 0.8%
Other partnersClose extended list 49.0%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2009
Singapore 16.1%
China 14.5%
Japan 10.2%
United States 7.3%
Malaysia 5.9%
South Korea 4.9%
Thailand 4.8%
Australia 3.5%
Saudi Arabia 3.2%
Germany 2.5%
India 2.3%
Hong Kong 1.8%
France 1.7%
Kuwait 1.5%
Brazil 1.1%
Canada 1.0%
United Kingdom 0.9%
Azerbaijan 0.8%
Italy 0.7%
Sweden 0.7%
Other partnersClose extended list 46.1%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2009
Coal, briquettes, ovoids etc, made from coalCoal, briquettes, ovoids etc, made from coal 11.8%
Palm oil and its fractions, not chemically...Palm oil and its fractions, not chemically modified 8.9%
Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons 7.7%
Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals,...Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals, crude 6.7%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 4.4%
Natural rubber and gums, in primary form, plates,...Natural rubber and gums, in primary form, plates, etc 2.8%
Refined copper and copper alloys, unwroughtRefined copper and copper alloys, unwrought 1.5%
Uncoated paper for writing, printing, office...Uncoated paper for writing, printing, office machines 1.5%
Coconut, palm kernel, babassu oil, fractions,...Coconut, palm kernel, babassu oil, fractions, refined 1.3%
Petroleum coke, bitumen & other oil industry...Petroleum coke, bitumen & other oil industry residues 1.2%
Unwrought tinUnwrought tin 1.1%
Other furniture and parts thereofOther furniture and parts thereof 1.1%
Plywood, veneered panels and similar laminated...Plywood, veneered panels and similar laminated wood 1.0%
Footwear with uppers of leatherFootwear with uppers of leather 1.0%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.9%
Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roastedCocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted 0.9%
Radio and tv transmitters, television camerasRadio and tv transmitters, television cameras 0.9%
Printing and ancillary machineryPrinting and ancillary machinery 0.8%
Gold, unwrought, semi-manufactured, powder formGold, unwrought, semi-manufactured, powder form 0.8%
Video recording and reproducing apparatusVideo recording and reproducing apparatus 0.8%
Automatic data processing machines (computers)Automatic data processing machines (computers) 0.8%
Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except...Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except crude 0.7%
CrustaceansCrustaceans 0.7%
Parts and accessories for motor vehiclesParts and accessories for motor vehicles 0.7%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate, not...Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate, not dissolving 0.7%
Coffee, coffee husks and skins and coffee...Coffee, coffee husks and skins and coffee substitutes 0.7%
Womens, girls suits, jacket, dress, skirt, etc,...Womens, girls suits, jacket, dress, skirt, etc, woven 0.7%
Insulated wire and cable, optical fibre cableInsulated wire and cable, optical fibre cable 0.6%
Paper, board, clay, inorganic coated at least one...Paper, board, clay, inorganic coated at least one side 0.5%
Motor vehicles for transport of persons (except...Motor vehicles for transport of persons (except buses) 0.5%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, etc, knit or...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, etc, knit or crochet 0.5%
Parts, accessories, except covers, for office...Parts, accessories, except covers, for office machines 0.5%
Nickel matte, interim products of nickel...Nickel matte, interim products of nickel metallurgy 0.5%
Yarn (not sewing), synthetic staple fibre, not...Yarn (not sewing), synthetic staple fibre, not retail 0.5%
Woven synthetic filament yarn, monofilament ...Woven synthetic filament yarn, monofilament >67dtex 0.5%
Chemical industry products nesChemical industry products nes 0.5%
Electric transformers,static converters and...Electric transformers,static converters and rectifiers 0.4%
Womens or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blousesWomens or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses 0.4%
Passenger and goods transport ships, boatsPassenger and goods transport ships, boats 0.4%
Mens or boys suits, jackets, trousers etc not knitMens or boys suits, jackets, trousers etc not knit 0.4%
Synthetic filament yarn(not sewing thread) not...Synthetic filament yarn(not sewing thread) not retail 0.4%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knit or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knit or crochet 0.4%
Electric apparatus for line telephony, telegraphyElectric apparatus for line telephony, telegraphy 0.4%
Copper wireCopper wire 0.4%
Cigars, cigarettes etc, tobacco or tobacco...Cigars, cigarettes etc, tobacco or tobacco substitute 0.4%
Men's or boys' shirtsMen's or boys' shirts 0.3%
Seats (except dentist, barber, etc chairs)Seats (except dentist, barber, etc chairs) 0.3%
Acyclic alcohols and their derivativesAcyclic alcohols and their derivatives 0.3%
Special purpose ships, vessels, nesSpecial purpose ships, vessels, nes 0.3%
Wood continuously shaped along any edgesWood continuously shaped along any edges 0.3%
Electrical switches, connectors, etc, for < 1kvElectrical switches, connectors, etc, for < 1kv 0.3%
Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc,...Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc, primary 0.3%
Radio, radio-telephony receiversRadio, radio-telephony receivers 0.3%
SoapsSoaps 0.3%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.3%
Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular,...Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular, reinforced 0.3%
Oxygen-function amino-compoundsOxygen-function amino-compounds 0.3%
Tube or hollow profile, seamless iron/steel not...Tube or hollow profile, seamless iron/steel not cast 0.3%
Womens, girls suit, dress, skirt, etc, knit or...Womens, girls suit, dress, skirt, etc, knit or crochet 0.3%
Crustaceans, molluscs, etc, prepared or preservedCrustaceans, molluscs, etc, prepared or preserved 0.3%
Parts for radio, tv transmission, receive...Parts for radio, tv transmission, receive equipment 0.3%
Television receivers, video monitors, projectorsTelevision receivers, video monitors, projectors 0.3%
Containers, bobbins and packages, of plasticsContainers, bobbins and packages, of plastics 0.3%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.3%
Primary cells and primary batteriesPrimary cells and primary batteries 0.3%
Electric accumulatorsElectric accumulators 0.3%
Footwear with uppers of textile materialsFootwear with uppers of textile materials 0.3%
Brassieres, girdles, corsets, braces, suspenders,...Brassieres, girdles, corsets, braces, suspenders, etc 0.3%
Refrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nesRefrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nes 0.3%
Builders joinery and carpentry, of woodBuilders joinery and carpentry, of wood 0.2%
Yarn (not sewing), artificial staple fibre, not...Yarn (not sewing), artificial staple fibre, not retail 0.2%
Nickel ores and concentratesNickel ores and concentrates 0.2%
Ammonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solutionAmmonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solution 0.2%
Mens, boys overcoats, capes, windjackets etc,...Mens, boys overcoats, capes, windjackets etc, woven 0.2%
Electric motors and generators, except generating...Electric motors and generators, except generating sets 0.2%
Parts for use with lifting, moving machineryParts for use with lifting, moving machinery 0.2%
Margarine, edible animal or veg oil preparations...Margarine, edible animal or veg oil preparations nes 0.2%
Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not...Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not clad 0.2%
Artificial staple fibres, not carded or combedArtificial staple fibres, not carded or combed 0.2%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.2%
Aluminium ores and concentratesAluminium ores and concentrates 0.2%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.2%
Parts, accessories of audio, video recording...Parts, accessories of audio, video recording equipment 0.2%
Cocoa butter, fat, oilCocoa butter, fat, oil 0.2%
Fish, frozen, wholeFish, frozen, whole 0.2%
Prepr binder for foundryPrepr binder for foundry 0.2%
Fish, fresh or chilled, wholeFish, fresh or chilled, whole 0.2%
Womens, girls blouses & shirts, knit or crochetWomens, girls blouses & shirts, knit or crochet 0.2%
Audio-electronic equipment, except recording...Audio-electronic equipment, except recording devices 0.2%
Tugs and pusher craftTugs and pusher craft 0.2%
Prepared or preserved fish, fish eggs, caviarPrepared or preserved fish, fish eggs, caviar 0.2%
Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or...Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable 0.2%
Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel,...Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel, nes 0.2%
Fish fillets, fish meat, mince except liver, roeFish fillets, fish meat, mince except liver, roe 0.2%
Paper, household, sanitary, width > 36 centimetresPaper, household, sanitary, width > 36 centimetres 0.2%
Footwear nes, with outer sole, upper rubber or...Footwear nes, with outer sole, upper rubber or plastic 0.2%
Air, vacuum pumps, compressors, ventilating fans,...Air, vacuum pumps, compressors, ventilating fans, etc 0.2%
Cotton yarn not sewing thread >85% cotton, not...Cotton yarn not sewing thread >85% cotton, not retail 0.2%
Ignition/starter equipment, internal combustion...Ignition/starter equipment, internal combustion engine 0.2%
Rubber clothing and accessories, except hard...Rubber clothing and accessories, except hard rubber 0.2%
Jewellery and parts, containing precious metalJewellery and parts, containing precious metal 0.2%
Diodes, transistors, semi-conductors, etcDiodes, transistors, semi-conductors, etc 0.2%
Organic surface active agent, preparation, except...Organic surface active agent, preparation, except soap 0.2%
Tobacco unmanufactured, tobacco refuseTobacco unmanufactured, tobacco refuse 0.1%
TeaTea 0.1%
Oil-cake other than soya-bean or groundnutOil-cake other than soya-bean or groundnut 0.1%
Ornaments of wood, jewel, cutlery caskets and...Ornaments of wood, jewel, cutlery caskets and cases 0.1%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenousMineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenous 0.1%
Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc (retail)Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc (retail) 0.1%
Musical instruments electrical, requiring...Musical instruments electrical, requiring amplifier 0.1%
Electric filament, discharge lampsElectric filament, discharge lamps 0.1%
Polymers of vinyl chloride, other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride, other halogenated olefins 0.1%
Parts for internal combustion spark ignition...Parts for internal combustion spark ignition engines 0.1%
Cement (portland, aluminous, slag or hydraulic)Cement (portland, aluminous, slag or hydraulic) 0.1%
Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in...Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in dosage 0.1%
Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or...Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried 0.1%
NewsprintNewsprint 0.1%
Mens, boys suits,jackets,trousers etc knit or...Mens, boys suits,jackets,trousers etc knit or crochet 0.1%
Thermionic and cold cathode valves and tubesThermionic and cold cathode valves and tubes 0.1%
Mens, boys shirts, knit or crochetMens, boys shirts, knit or crochet 0.1%
Pepper (piper), crushed or ground capsicum,...Pepper (piper), crushed or ground capsicum, pimenta 0.1%
Wigs, false beards, eyebrows and eyelashesWigs, false beards, eyebrows and eyelashes 0.1%
Float glass, surface ground, polished glass in...Float glass, surface ground, polished glass in sheets 0.1%
Womens, girls overcoats, etc, knit or crochetWomens, girls overcoats, etc, knit or crochet 0.1%
Baked bread, pastry, wafers, rice paper, biscuits,...Baked bread, pastry, wafers, rice paper, biscuits, etc 0.1%
Parts and accessories of bicycles, motorcycles,...Parts and accessories of bicycles, motorcycles, etc 0.1%
Office books, forms, exercise books, folders,...Office books, forms, exercise books, folders, binders 0.1%
Fruit, nut, edible plant parts nes, prepared...Fruit, nut, edible plant parts nes, prepared/preserved 0.1%
Optical fibres, lenses, mirrors, prisms, etcOptical fibres, lenses, mirrors, prisms, etc 0.1%
Halogenated derivatives of hydrocarbonsHalogenated derivatives of hydrocarbons 0.1%
Woven fabric >85% synth + cotton, <170g/m2 unbl...Woven fabric >85% synth + cotton, <170g/m2 unbl/blchd 0.1%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.1%
Aircraft, spacecraft, satellitesAircraft, spacecraft, satellites 0.1%
Compounded unvulcanised rubber, in primary formsCompounded unvulcanised rubber, in primary forms 0.1%
Pasta, couscous, etc.Pasta, couscous, etc. 0.1%
Edible products of animal origin, nesEdible products of animal origin, nes 0.1%
Parts of aircraft, spacecraft, etcParts of aircraft, spacecraft, etc 0.1%
Heterocyclic compounds, nesHeterocyclic compounds, nes 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 60.5%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2009
Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except...Oils petroleum, bituminous, distillates, except crude 11.2%
Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals,...Petroleum oils, oils from bituminous minerals, crude 7.6%
Aircraft, spacecraft, satellitesAircraft, spacecraft, satellites 3.2%
Radio and tv transmitters, television camerasRadio and tv transmitters, television cameras 2.1%
Passenger and goods transport ships, boatsPassenger and goods transport ships, boats 1.7%
Automatic data processing machines (computers)Automatic data processing machines (computers) 1.5%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 1.4%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goodsMotor vehicles for the transport of goods 1.2%
Parts for radio, tv transmission, receive...Parts for radio, tv transmission, receive equipment 1.2%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 1.2%
Parts and accessories for motor vehiclesParts and accessories for motor vehicles 1.1%
Soya-bean oil-cake and other solid residuesSoya-bean oil-cake and other solid residues 1.1%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steelSemi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 0.9%
Motor vehicles for transport of persons (except...Motor vehicles for transport of persons (except buses) 0.9%
Electric apparatus for line telephony, telegraphyElectric apparatus for line telephony, telegraphy 0.9%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.9%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.8%
Cotton, not carded or combedCotton, not carded or combed 0.8%
Tube or hollow profile, seamless iron/steel not...Tube or hollow profile, seamless iron/steel not cast 0.8%
Parts for use with lifting, moving machineryParts for use with lifting, moving machinery 0.8%
Self-propelled earth moving, road making, etc...Self-propelled earth moving, road making, etc machines 0.7%
Parts for internal combustion spark ignition...Parts for internal combustion spark ignition engines 0.7%
Shafts, cranks, gears, clutches, flywheel, pulleys...Shafts, cranks, gears, clutches, flywheel, pulleys etc 0.7%
Taps, cocks, valves for pipes, tanks, boilers, etcTaps, cocks, valves for pipes, tanks, boilers, etc 0.7%
Soya beansSoya beans 0.6%
Knit or crochet fabric, nesKnit or crochet fabric, nes 0.6%
Printing and ancillary machineryPrinting and ancillary machinery 0.6%
Solid cane or beet sugar and chemically pure...Solid cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose 0.6%
Polymers of propylene, other olefins in primary...Polymers of propylene, other olefins in primary forms 0.6%
Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not...Hot-rolled products, iron/steel, width>600mm, not clad 0.6%
Parts, accessories, except covers, for office...Parts, accessories, except covers, for office machines 0.6%
Electrical switches, connectors, etc, for < 1kvElectrical switches, connectors, etc, for < 1kv 0.6%
Pumps for liquidsPumps for liquids 0.6%
Tugs and pusher craftTugs and pusher craft 0.5%
Air, vacuum pumps, compressors, ventilating fans,...Air, vacuum pumps, compressors, ventilating fans, etc 0.5%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.5%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers/other gas turbine...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers/other gas turbine engines 0.5%
Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons 0.5%
Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, not clad, plated,...Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, not clad, plated, etc 0.5%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.5%
Insulated wire and cable, optical fibre cableInsulated wire and cable, optical fibre cable 0.5%
Ferrous waste or scrap, ingots or iron or steelFerrous waste or scrap, ingots or iron or steel 0.5%
Parts and accessories of bicycles, motorcycles,...Parts and accessories of bicycles, motorcycles, etc 0.5%
Live bovine animalsLive bovine animals 0.5%
Auxiliary plant for boilersAuxiliary plant for boilers 0.4%
Electric transformers,static converters and...Electric transformers,static converters and rectifiers 0.4%
Milk and cream, concentrated or sweetenedMilk and cream, concentrated or sweetened 0.4%
Steam turbines and other vapour turbinesSteam turbines and other vapour turbines 0.4%
Acyclic alcohols and their derivativesAcyclic alcohols and their derivatives 0.4%
Animal feed preparations, nesAnimal feed preparations, nes 0.4%
Machinery, non-domestic, involving heating or...Machinery, non-domestic, involving heating or cooling 0.4%
Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, clad, plated or...Flat-rolled iron/steel, >600mm, clad, plated or coated 0.4%
Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel,...Structures, parts of structures of iron or steel, nes 0.4%
Synthetic rubberSynthetic rubber 0.4%
Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc,...Polyacetals, polyethers, polycarbonates, etc, primary 0.4%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, potassicMineral or chemical fertilizers, potassic 0.4%
Machinery for rubber, plastics industryMachinery for rubber, plastics industry 0.4%
Liquid, gas centrifuges, filtering, purifying...Liquid, gas centrifuges, filtering, purifying machines 0.4%
Machines nes having individual functionsMachines nes having individual functions 0.4%
Woven synthetic filament yarn, monofilament ...Woven synthetic filament yarn, monofilament >67dtex 0.3%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate, not...Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate, not dissolving 0.3%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.3%
Waste or scrap of paper or paperboardWaste or scrap of paper or paperboard 0.3%
Diodes, transistors, semi-conductors, etcDiodes, transistors, semi-conductors, etc 0.3%
Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or...Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable 0.3%
Tobacco unmanufactured, tobacco refuseTobacco unmanufactured, tobacco refuse 0.3%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.3%
Steam/vapour generating boiler(except central...Steam/vapour generating boiler(except central heating) 0.3%
Air conditioning equipment, machineryAir conditioning equipment, machinery 0.3%
Electric motors and generators, except generating...Electric motors and generators, except generating sets 0.3%
Woven cotton fabric, >85% cotton, < 200g/m2Woven cotton fabric, >85% cotton, < 200g/m2 0.3%
Refined copper and copper alloys, unwroughtRefined copper and copper alloys, unwrought 0.3%
Mixted odoriferous substances for industrial useMixted odoriferous substances for industrial use 0.3%
Food preparations, nesFood preparations, nes 0.3%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenousMineral or chemical fertilizers, nitrogenous 0.3%
Ball or roller bearingsBall or roller bearings 0.3%
Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron,...Screws, bolts, nuts, rivets, washers, etc, iron, steel 0.3%
Electrical power, etc, control and distribution...Electrical power, etc, control and distribution boards 0.3%
Rolled stainless steel sheet, width > 600mmRolled stainless steel sheet, width > 600mm 0.3%
Petroleum coke, bitumen & other oil industry...Petroleum coke, bitumen & other oil industry residues 0.3%
Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in...Medicaments, therapeutic, prophylactic use, in dosage 0.3%
Pipe fittings, of iron or steelPipe fittings, of iron or steel 0.3%
Compression-ignition engines (diesel etc)Compression-ignition engines (diesel etc) 0.3%
Tube, pipe of iron or steel, except seamless > 406...Tube, pipe of iron or steel, except seamless > 406.4mm 0.3%
Synthetic organic colouring matterSynthetic organic colouring matter 0.2%
Machinery for dish washing, bottle washing,...Machinery for dish washing, bottle washing, filling 0.2%
Heterocyclics, nitrogen hetero atom only, nucleic...Heterocyclics, nitrogen hetero atom only, nucleic acid 0.2%
Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular,...Plastic plate, sheet, film not cellular, reinforced 0.2%
Wheat or meslin flourWheat or meslin flour 0.2%
Special purpose ships, vessels, nesSpecial purpose ships, vessels, nes 0.2%
Electronic printed circuitsElectronic printed circuits 0.2%
Articles of iron or steel nesArticles of iron or steel nes 0.2%
Bar, rod, angle etc nes, hollow steel drill barsBar, rod, angle etc nes, hollow steel drill bars 0.2%
Ignition/starter equipment, internal combustion...Ignition/starter equipment, internal combustion engine 0.2%
Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, etc. fresh or...Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, etc. fresh or chilled 0.2%
Plastic articles nesPlastic articles nes 0.2%
CarbonatesCarbonates 0.2%
Derricks, cranes, straddle carriers, crane trucksDerricks, cranes, straddle carriers, crane trucks 0.2%
Woven cotton nes, >85% cotton, >200g/m2Woven cotton nes, >85% cotton, >200g/m2 0.2%
Apples, pears and quinces, freshApples, pears and quinces, fresh 0.2%
Earth or snow moving, boring or pile driving...Earth or snow moving, boring or pile driving machines 0.2%
Electric filament, discharge lampsElectric filament, discharge lamps 0.2%
Machinery for making pulp, paper, paperboardMachinery for making pulp, paper, paperboard 0.2%
Gasoline and oil additivesGasoline and oil additives 0.2%
Iron ores and concentrates, roasted iron pyritesIron ores and concentrates, roasted iron pyrites 0.2%
Polymers of styrene, in primary formsPolymers of styrene, in primary forms 0.2%
Citrus fruit, fresh or driedCitrus fruit, fresh or dried 0.2%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 0.2%
Machinery to sort, screen, wash, etc mineral...Machinery to sort, screen, wash, etc mineral products 0.2%
Ground-nuts, not roasted or otherwise cookedGround-nuts, not roasted or otherwise cooked 0.2%
Synthetic filament yarn(not sewing thread) not...Synthetic filament yarn(not sewing thread) not retail 0.2%
Aluminium plates, sheets and strip, thickness > 0...Aluminium plates, sheets and strip, thickness > 0.2 mm 0.2%
Containers, bobbins and packages, of plasticsContainers, bobbins and packages, of plastics 0.2%
Unwrought zincUnwrought zinc 0.2%
Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc (retail)Insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc (retail) 0.2%
Prepr binder for foundryPrepr binder for foundry 0.2%
Lifting, handling, loading machinery nesLifting, handling, loading machinery nes 0.2%
Aluminium oxide, hydroxide and artificial corundumAluminium oxide, hydroxide and artificial corundum 0.2%
Rolled stainless steel sheet, width < 600mmRolled stainless steel sheet, width < 600mm 0.2%
Electric equipment with heating element, domestic...Electric equipment with heating element, domestic etc 0.2%
Articles of vulcanised rubber except hard rubber,...Articles of vulcanised rubber except hard rubber, nes 0.2%
Bovine or equine leather, no hair, not chamois,...Bovine or equine leather, no hair, not chamois, patent 0.2%
Parts for electrical switches, protectors,...Parts for electrical switches, protectors, connectors 0.2%
Chemical wood pulp, dissolving gradesChemical wood pulp, dissolving grades 0.2%
Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber,...Moulds for metals (except ingot), plastic, rubber, etc 0.2%
Unsaturated acyclic, cyclic monocarboxylc acid,...Unsaturated acyclic, cyclic monocarboxylc acid, derivs 0.2%
Natural phosphates (calcium, calcium-aluminium),...Natural phosphates (calcium, calcium-aluminium), chalk 0.2%
Audio-electronic equipment, except recording...Audio-electronic equipment, except recording devices 0.2%
Flat-rolled alloy steel nes, width >600mmFlat-rolled alloy steel nes, width >600mm 0.2%
Instruments etc for medical, surgical, dental, etc...Instruments etc for medical, surgical, dental, etc use 0.2%
Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids,...Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, derivatives 0.2%
Organic surface active agent, preparation, except...Organic surface active agent, preparation, except soap 0.2%
Spark-ignition internal combustion enginesSpark-ignition internal combustion engines 0.1%
Parts, accessories of audio, video recording...Parts, accessories of audio, video recording equipment 0.1%
Yachts, pleasure, sports vessels, rowing boats,...Yachts, pleasure, sports vessels, rowing boats, canoes 0.1%
Parts for electric motors and generatorsParts for electric motors and generators 0.1%
Polyamides in primary formsPolyamides in primary forms 0.1%
Colouring matter nes, inorganic luminophoresColouring matter nes, inorganic luminophores 0.1%
Refrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nesRefrigerators, freezers and heat pumps nes 0.1%
Unwrought leadUnwrought lead 0.1%
Photo-copying apparatusPhoto-copying apparatus 0.1%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy steel 0.1%
Lubricant, oils, textile, leather work, <70%...Lubricant, oils, textile, leather work, <70% petroleum 0.1%
Warships, lifeboats, hospital ships, vessels nesWarships, lifeboats, hospital ships, vessels nes 0.1%
Organo-sulphur compoundsOrgano-sulphur compounds 0.1%
Carbon (carbon blacks and other forms of carbon,...Carbon (carbon blacks and other forms of carbon, nes) 0.1%
Fruits nes, freshFruits nes, fresh 0.1%
Artificial filament towArtificial filament tow 0.1%
Synthetic staple fibres, not processed for...Synthetic staple fibres, not processed for spinning 0.1%
Optical fibres, lenses, mirrors, prisms, etcOptical fibres, lenses, mirrors, prisms, etc 0.1%
Starch, sugar, brewing & distilling industry...Starch, sugar, brewing & distilling industry residues 0.1%
Reaction initiators, accelerators and catalysts,...Reaction initiators, accelerators and catalysts, nes 0.1%
Machine-tools for forging, die-stamping, bending...Machine-tools for forging, die-stamping, bending metal 0.1%
Acrylic polymers in primary formsAcrylic polymers in primary forms 0.1%
Household, sanitary, hospital paper articles,...Household, sanitary, hospital paper articles, clothing 0.1%
Paper, board, etc coated, impregnated, coloured,...Paper, board, etc coated, impregnated, coloured, nes 0.1%
Radio, radio-telephony receiversRadio, radio-telephony receivers 0.1%
Amino-resins, pheonolic resins, polyurethanes,...Amino-resins, pheonolic resins, polyurethanes, primary 0.1%
Electric accumulatorsElectric accumulators 0.1%
Parts of aircraft, spacecraft, etcParts of aircraft, spacecraft, etc 0.1%
Uncoated kraft paper and paperboardUncoated kraft paper and paperboard 0.1%
Electrical apparatus for voltage over 1 kvElectrical apparatus for voltage over 1 kv 0.1%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphaticMineral or chemical fertilizers, phosphatic 0.1%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film etc of plasticSelf-adhesive plates, sheets, film etc of plastic 0.1%
Electrical resistors and rheostats except for...Electrical resistors and rheostats except for heating 0.1%
Fertilizer mixtures in packs of < 10kgFertilizer mixtures in packs of < 10kg 0.1%
Pulley tackle, hoists, winches, capstans and jacksPulley tackle, hoists, winches, capstans and jacks 0.1%
Interchangeable tools and dies for hand or power...Interchangeable tools and dies for hand or power tools 0.1%
Halogenated derivatives of hydrocarbonsHalogenated derivatives of hydrocarbons 0.1%
RiceRice 0.1%
Paper, board, clay, inorganic coated at least one...Paper, board, clay, inorganic coated at least one side 0.1%
Electric lighting, signal equipment, car electrics...Electric lighting, signal equipment, car electrics nes 0.1%
Rubber tube, pipe, hose, except hard rubberRubber tube, pipe, hose, except hard rubber 0.1%
Primary cells and primary batteriesPrimary cells and primary batteries 0.1%
Fabric impregnated, coated or covered with plasticFabric impregnated, coated or covered with plastic 0.1%
Orthopaedic appliancesOrthopaedic appliances 0.1%
Hair preparationsHair preparations 0.1%
Electrical machinery and apparatus, nesElectrical machinery and apparatus, nes 0.1%
Flour etc of meat, fish or offal for animal feedFlour etc of meat, fish or offal for animal feed 0.1%
Hot rolled bar, rod of iron/steel, in irregular...Hot rolled bar, rod of iron/steel, in irregular coils 0.1%
Chain and parts thereof, of iron or steelChain and parts thereof, of iron or steel 0.1%
Paper, board containers, packing items, box files,...Paper, board containers, packing items, box files, etc 0.1%
Equipment to measure fluid flow, level, pressure,...Equipment to measure fluid flow, level, pressure, etc 0.1%
Wire of iron or non-alloy steelWire of iron or non-alloy steel 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 74.2%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
The President is both the head of the State and the head of the government. The President enjoys the executive powers and appoints the cabinet. Both the President and the Vice-President are elected through direct universal suffrage for five-year terms. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and responsible for domestic governance and policy-making and foreign affairs.
Legislative Power
The legislature in Indonesia is bicameral. The parliament called People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) consists of: DPR (House of People’s Representatives – lower house) having 550 seats with its members elected directly to serve five-year terms, and DPD (House of Regional Representatives- upper house) having 128 seats with each province electing 4 members on a non-party basis. The President cannot dissolve the parliament but the President has the power to veto bills, and in turn a supermajority of legislators may act to override the veto.The people of Indonesia have limited political rights.
Main Political Parties
Indonesia has a multi-party system where a single party does not often have a chance of gaining power alone. Thus parties need to work together to form coalition governments. The major political parties in Indonesia are:
- PD (Democratic Party) - advocates ‘Pancasila’ – the 5 principles the Constitution is based on;
- Golkar (Functional Groups Party) – initially an alliance of NGOs opposing communism, now advocates democratic and liberal values;
- PBB (Crescent Moon and Star Party) – a moderate Islamist party;
- PDI-P (Indonesian Party for the Democratic Fight) – based on ‘Pancasila’ ideology, a split-away group from the PD led by ex-President Megawati Sukarnoputri.
Current Political Leaders
President: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since October 2004) - PD
Vice-President: Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since October 2004) - Golkar
Next Election Dates
Presidential: July 2014
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
101/175
Evolution:
10 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7
Civil Liberties:
3/7

Map of freedom 2010
Source: Freedom House

 

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