Political Conditions in Japan
- Type of State
- Empire having a parliamentary democracy.
- Executive Power
- The head of state is the Emperor. His role is largely ceremonial. The leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition in the parliament (House of Representatives) is designated as the Prime Minister for a four-year term. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and enjoys the real executive powers which include implementation of the law in the country and running the day-to-day affairs. The Cabinet is appointed by the Prime Minister.
- Legislative Power
- The legislature in Japan is bicameral. The parliament called National Diet consists of: House of Councilors (the upper house) having 242 members elected through a popular vote for six year terms; and House of Representatives (the lower house) having 480 members elected through a popular vote for four-year terms. The Constitution of Japan states that the nation's "highest organ of state power" is the National Diet. The executive branch of government is directly or indirectly dependent on the support of the National Diet, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
- Main Political Parties
Conservatives, right-wing: LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) - made up of various conservative and reformist factions, the largest political party in Japan; DPJ (Democratic Party of Japan) – a liberal, social-democratic party; New Komeito – a conservative, theocratic Buddhist party.
Moderates, left-wing: - JCP (Japanese Communist Party) - a moderate communist party; SDP (Social Democratic Party) - a moderate social-democratic and populist party.
- Current Political Leaders
Emperor: AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989) – hereditary
Prime Minister: Naoto Kan, PDJ (center left), since June 2010.
- Next Election Dates
- House of Councilors: 2013
Indicator of Freedom of the Press
- World Rank:
- 12 places up compared to 2008
Indicator of Political Freedom
- Political Freedom:
- Civil Liberties:
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