Business Environment in Lebanon

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

Lebanon has a free-market economy with a strong laissez-faire (hands-off) commercial tradition. Following a drawn out civil war (1975-1990), Lebanon started to rebuild the country’s physical and social infrastructures by a massive reconstruction program in 1992. The government is continuing these structural reforms. The GDP growth rate in 2006 was 0%, due to the Israeli invasion and aerial attacks. Since this time, the country’s GDP increased by almost 23% and in 2010 by 7% according to the IMF.

The particularity of the Lebanese economy is that it finds itself opposed to the current global economic cycles, since it is in full growth and has surplus liquidity. However, this economic situation is highly contextual: Lebanon is catching up on the delay caused by both its civil war and the 2006 war. This rate cannot only be explained by the work of private agents.

Because the state is little present in the strategic market behavior, Lebanon offers very few basic utilities (water, electricity) and their cost borne directly by the final consumer, which strongly impedes potential growth.

The government’s key challenge will be reducing the national debt, which represents 150% of the GDP. Unemployment is officially at 18%, yet, in the absence of reliable statistics, it could in reality reach 20-25%. IMF estimates 2010 inflation at 5%.

The country is able to preserve its momentum in the coming years, if indeed the political situation does not worsen (regional tensions and results of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon following the assassination of Rafik Hariri)

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 34.92 39.25e 42.54 45.93e 48.74
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 8.5 7.5e 2.5 5.0e 4.0
GDP per Capita (USD) 9,054 10,044 10,747 11,456e 11,998
Inflation Rate (%) 1.2 4.5 6.5 3.0e 2.2
Current Account (billions USD) -3.72e -4.74 -5.14e -5.57e -
Current Account (in % of GDP) -11.1e -12.8 -12.8 -13.0e -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

The country’s sustained growth can be explained by the vigor of the key sectors of its economy. The banking sector saw record profits, profits of the three largest banks growing by 19% on 2009. The sustained and lucrative banking activity does not however constitute a real support to the private sector because the majority of liquidity coming from banks is used to finance the national debt.

Lebanon also has a booming real estate sector, which benefits from the burst of the real estate bubble in Dubai. Demand coming from the Arab countries is indeed very high and in the first half of 2010 the average price for m2 in the center of Bayreuth reached 7,000 UDS, equal to an annual growth of 41%.

Lebanon has fertile lands, however the agricultural sector is under-developed and only contributes up to 5% of the GDP.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) - - -
Value Added (in % of GDP) 5.3 16.5 78.2
Value Added (Annual % Change) 3.5 3.0 8.7

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Lebanese Pound (LBP) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 1,507.50 1,507.50 1,507.50 1,507.50 1,507.50

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Lebanon, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
60.1/100
Position:
Moderately free
World Rank:
84/179
Regional Rank:
9/17

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

Lebanon has strengthened its openness to international trade by signing an Association Agreement with the EU, by working toward accession to the WTO, and by signing a free-trade agreement with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in May 2004. According to half-year figures published by the Lebanese Higher Council for Customs, the total value of imports and exports reached almost 11 billion USD at the end of June 2010, an increase of around 12% compared to the level reached at the end of June 2009. The current share of foreign trade in the country’s GDP is around 65%. Its three main export partners are Iraq, Switzerland, and Syria. Lebanon mainly exports pharmaceutical products, textiles, tobacco, pearls & precious stones, electric & electronic equipment, iron & steel, salt, sulfur and machinery. Its three main import partners are Italy, France and Germany. The country mainly imports mineral fuels, oil, vehicles, machinery, pearls & precious stones, electric and electronic equipment. In the first half of 2010, the trade deficit reached 9.8 billion USD, an increase of 12% which reflects a certain vigor of domestic demand.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 9,647 12,251 16,754 16,574 18,460
Exports of Goods (million USD) 2,814 3,574 4,454 4,187 5,021
Imports of Services (million USD) 8,720 9,973 13,445 14,301 -
Exports of Services (million USD) 11,565 12,744 17,558 16,869 -
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) -3.2 18.5 16.9 6.5 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) -2.6 13.9 13.7 5.3 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 42.1 48.2 53.7 47.0 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 21.3 23.0 24.6 22.3 -
Trade Balance (million USD) -6,115 -7,880 -11,010 -11,179 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -3,304 -4,843 -5,677 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 63.4 71.2 78.3 69.3 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2009
Switzerland 22.3%
United Arab Emirates 9.6%
Iraq 7.8%
Saudi Arabia 7.0%
Syria 6.5%
Belgium 3.3%
France 3.1%
Jordan 3.0%
Turkey 3.0%
Qatar 2.3%
Kuwait 2.2%
Egypt 2.1%
South Africa 2.1%
United States 1.4%
Iran 1.4%
Nigeria 1.2%
United Kingdom 1.1%
Angola 1.1%
Spain 1.0%
China 0.9%
Other partnersClose extended list 46.9%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2009
United States 10.9%
France 9.7%
China 8.9%
Germany 7.6%
Italy 7.5%
Japan 4.1%
Turkey 4.0%
United Kingdom 3.0%
Egypt 2.6%
Russia 2.6%
Switzerland 2.5%
Brazil 2.2%
South Korea 2.0%
India 2.0%
Saudi Arabia 1.9%
Kuwait 1.8%
United Arab Emirates 1.6%
Belgium 1.6%
Spain 1.6%
Netherlands 1.5%
Other partnersClose extended list 55.4%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2009
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 24.2%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 4.3%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 3.0%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 2.6%
Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of...Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. articles > 100 years old) 2.6%
Printed books, brochures and similar printed...Printed books, brochures and similar printed matter, whether or not in single sheets (excl. periodicals and publications which are essentially devoted to advertising) 2.1%
Mineral or chemical phosphatic fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical phosphatic fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 2.1%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 2.1%
Cement, incl. cement clinkers, whether or not...Cement, incl. cement clinkers, whether or not coloured 2.1%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 1.7%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 1.6%
Tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles,...Tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles, motorized, whether or not fitted with weapons, and parts of such vehicles, n.e.s. 1.4%
Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other...Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted copper waste and scrap, ashes and residues containing copper, and waste and scrap of primary cells, primary batteries and electric accumulators) 1.4%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 1.3%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 1.2%
Diphosphorus pentaoxide; phosphoric acid;...Diphosphorus pentaoxide; phosphoric acid; polyphosphoric acids, whether or not chemically defined 1.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.9%
Fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants,...Fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants, prepared or preserved, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or spirit (excl. prepared or preserved with vinegar, preserved with sugar but not laid in syrup, and jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, fruit purée and pastes, obtained by cooking) 0.9%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.8%
Other vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise...Other vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid, not frozen (excl. preserved by sugar, and tomatoes, mushrooms and truffles) 0.8%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.8%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.7%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.7%
Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl....Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl. white chocolate 0.7%
Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing...Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing containers, of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, n.e.s.; box files, letter trays, and similar articles, of paperboard of a kind used in offices, shops or the like 0.7%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.7%
Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate...Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate), worked, and articles; mosaic cubes etc. of natural stone, incl. slate, whether or not on a backing; artificially coloured granules, chippings, powder, of natural stone, incl. slate (excl. setts, curbstones, flagstones; articles of fused basalt and of fired steatite; jewellery, clocks, lamps and parts; buttons, chalks, original sculptures and statuary) 0.7%
Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.6%
Waters, incl. mineral waters and aerated waters,...Waters, incl. mineral waters and aerated waters, containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or flavoured, and other non-alcoholic beverages (excl. fruit or vegetable juices and milk) 0.6%
Parts and accessories for motor-cycles and...Parts and accessories for motor-cycles and bicycles and for carriages for disabled persons, n.e.s. 0.6%
Citrus fruit, fresh or driedCitrus fruit, fresh or dried 0.6%
Unmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuseUnmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuse 0.5%
Registers, account books, note books, order books,...Registers, account books, note books, order books, receipt books, letter pads, memorandum pads, diaries and similar articles, exercise books, blotting pads, binders, folders, file covers, manifold business forms, interleaved carbon sets and other articles of stationery, of paper or paperboard; albums for samples or for collections and book covers, of paper and paperboard 0.5%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.5%
Preparations for use on the hairPreparations for use on the hair 0.5%
Toilet or facial tissue stock, towel or napkin...Toilet or facial tissue stock, towel or napkin stock and similar paper for household or sanitary purposes, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, whether or not creped, crinkled, embossed, perforated, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state 0.5%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.5%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.5%
Apples, pears and quinces, freshApples, pears and quinces, fresh 0.5%
Prepared foods obtained by the swelling or...Prepared foods obtained by the swelling or roasting of cereals or cereal products, e.g. corn flakes; cereals (other than maize "corn") in grain form or in the form of flakes or other worked grains (except flour, groats and meal), pre-cooked or otherwise prepared, n.e.s. 0.4%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 0.4%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.4%
Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl....Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl. sausages and similar products, and meat extracts and juices) 0.4%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 0.4%
Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable...Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable juices, unfermented, not containing added spirit, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.4%
Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and...Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and photographs, n.e.s. 0.4%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.4%
Vegetables, fruit, nuts and other edible parts of...Vegetables, fruit, nuts and other edible parts of plants, prepared or preserved by vinegar or acetic acid 0.4%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.4%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.3%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.3%
Waste and scrap, of aluminium (excl. slags, scale...Waste and scrap, of aluminium (excl. slags, scale and the like from iron and steel production, containing recoverable aluminium in the form of silicates, ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted waste and scrap, of aluminium, ashes and residues from aluminium production) 0.3%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.3%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 0.3%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.3%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.3%
Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave...Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave lotions, personal deodorants and hair lotions) 0.3%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.3%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.3%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.3%
Olive oil and its fractions obtained from the...Olive oil and its fractions obtained from the fruit of the olive tree solely by mechanical or other physical means under conditions that do not lead to deterioration of the oil, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 0.3%
Precious stones and semi-precious stones, whether...Precious stones and semi-precious stones, whether or not worked or graded, but not strung, mounted or set, ungraded precious stones and semi-precious stones, temporarily strung for convenience of transport (excl. diamonds and imitation precious stones and semi-precious stones) 0.3%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.3%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.3%
Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches,...Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches, incl. stop-watches, with case of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. with backs made of steel) 0.3%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.3%
Prefabricated buildings, whether or not complete...Prefabricated buildings, whether or not complete or already assembled 0.3%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.3%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.3%
Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in...Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, for the industrial preparation or manufacture of food or drink (other than machinery for the extraction or preparation of animal or fixed vegetable fats or oils); parts thereof 0.3%
Waters, incl. natural or artificial mineral waters...Waters, incl. natural or artificial mineral waters and aerated waters, not containing added sugar, other sweetening matter or flavoured; ice and snow 0.3%
Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl....Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl. cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes, of wood (excl. plywood panelling, blocks, strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, and pre-fabricated buildings) 0.3%
Potatoes, fresh or chilledPotatoes, fresh or chilled 0.3%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous medium; solutions of products of subheading 3901 to 3913 in volatile organic solvents, containing > 50% solvent by weight (excl. solutions of collodion) 0.3%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.3%
Unwrought lead :Unwrought lead : 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.2%
Articles of lead, n.e.s.Articles of lead, n.e.s. 0.2%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.2%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, towers, lattice masts, pillars and columns, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades", of aluminium (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406); plates, rods, profiles, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of aluminium 0.2%
Lettuce "lactuca sativa" and chicory "cichorium...Lettuce "lactuca sativa" and chicory "cichorium spp.", fresh or chilled 0.2%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.2%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.2%
Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles...Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles and toilet articles, of plastics (excl. baths, shower-baths, wash-basins, bidets, lavatory pans, seats and covers, flushing cisterns and similar sanitary ware) 0.2%
Containers of iron or steel, for compressed or...Containers of iron or steel, for compressed or liquefied gas (excl. containers specifically constructed or equipped for one or more types of transport) 0.2%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, in strips or rolls of a width <= 36 cm, in rectangular or square sheets of which no side > 36 cm in the unfolded state, or cut to shape other than rectangular or square, and articles of paper pulp, paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs or cellulose fibres, n.e.s. 0.2%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.2%
Soap; organic surface-active products and...Soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for use as soap, in the form of bars, cakes, moulded pieces or shapes, whether or not containing soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for washing the skin, in the form of liquid or cream and put up for retail sale, whether or not containing soap; paper, wadding, felt and nonwovens, impregnated, coated or covered with soap or detergent 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.2%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.2%
Jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, fruit or nut...Jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, fruit or nut puree and fruit or nut pastes, obtained by cooking, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.2%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.2%
Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments...Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments and mixed seasonings; mustard flour and meal, whether or not prepared, and mustard 0.1%
Cigarette paper, whether or not cut to size or in...Cigarette paper, whether or not cut to size or in the form of booklets or tubes 0.1%
Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85%...Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85% synthetic staple fibres by weight, other than those mixed principally or solely with cotton 0.1%
Grapes, fresh or driedGrapes, fresh or dried 0.1%
Special garments for professional, sporting or...Special garments for professional, sporting or other purposes, n.e.s., knitted or crocheted 0.1%
Bananas, incl. plantains, fresh or driedBananas, incl. plantains, fresh or dried 0.1%
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or...Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split 0.1%
Articles of asbestos-cement, cellulose...Articles of asbestos-cement, cellulose fibre-cement or the like 0.1%
Pasta, whether or not cooked or stuffed with meat...Pasta, whether or not cooked or stuffed with meat or other substances or otherwise prepared, such as spaghetti, macaroni, noodles, lasagne, gnocchi, ravioli, cannelloni; couscous, whether or not prepared 0.1%
Fixed vegetable fats and oils, incl. jojoba oil,...Fixed vegetable fats and oils, incl. jojoba oil, and their fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified (excl. soya-bean, ground-nut, olive, palm, sunflower-seed, safflower, cotton-seed, coconut, palm kernel, babassu, rape, colza and mustard oil) 0.1%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.1%
Wadding of textile materials and articles thereof;...Wadding of textile materials and articles thereof; textile fibres with a length of <= 5 mm "flock", textile dust and mill neps (excl. wadding and articles thereof impregnated or coated with pharmaceutical substances or put up for retail sale for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary purposes, and products impregnated, coated or covered with perfumes, cosmetics, soaps etc.) 0.1%
Sulphates; alums; peroxosulphates "persulphates"Sulphates; alums; peroxosulphates "persulphates" 0.1%
Carboys, bottles, flasks, jars, pots, phials,...Carboys, bottles, flasks, jars, pots, phials, ampoules and other containers, of glass, of a kind used for the conveyance or packing of goods, preserving jars, stoppers, lids and other closures, of glass (excl. glass envelopes and containers, with vacuum insulation, perfume atomizers, flasks, bottles etc. for atomizers) 0.1%
Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar...Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar substitutes prepared from fish eggs 0.1%
Table, kitchen or other household articles, and...Table, kitchen or other household articles, and parts thereof, of iron or steel; iron or steel wool; pot scourers and scouring or polishing pads, gloves and the like, of iron or steel (excl. cans, boxes and similar containers of heading 7310; waste baskets; shovels, corkscrews and other articles of the nature of a work implement; articles of cutlery, spoons, ladles, forks etc. of heading 8211 to 8215; ornamental articles; sanitary ware) 0.1%
Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens,...Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens, non-electric, incl. incinerators (excl. drying ovens and ovens for cracking operations) 0.1%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.1%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.1%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape,...Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls (excl. floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in an aqueous medium 0.1%
Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches,...Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches, incl. stop-watches (excl. of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal) 0.1%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.1%
Woven fabrics of cotton, containing >= 85% cotton...Woven fabrics of cotton, containing >= 85% cotton by weight and weighing <= 200 g/m² 0.1%
Apricots, cherries, peaches incl. nectarines,...Apricots, cherries, peaches incl. nectarines, plums and sloes, fresh 0.1%
Flour, meal, powder, flakes, granules and pellets...Flour, meal, powder, flakes, granules and pellets of potatoes 0.1%
Machinery parts not specified or included...Machinery parts not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter (excl. parts containing electrical connectors, insulators, coils, contacts or other electrical features) 0.1%
Marble, travertine, ecaussine and other calcareous...Marble, travertine, ecaussine and other calcareous monumental or building stone of an apparent specific gravity of >= 2,5, and alabaster, whether or not roughly trimmed or merely cut, by sawing or otherwise, into blocks or slabs of a square or rectangular shape (excl. in the form of granules, chippings or powder) 0.1%
Shoe polish, furniture wax and floor waxes,...Shoe polish, furniture wax and floor waxes, polishes and creams for coachwork, glass or metal, scouring pastes and powders and similar preparations, whether or not in the form of paper, wadding, felt, nonwovens, sponge plastics, cellular plastics or cellular rubber, impregnated, coated or covered with such preparations (excl. artificial and prepared waxes of heading 3404) 0.1%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.1%
Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen...Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen of all types of textile materials (excl. floor-cloths, polishing-cloths, dish-cloths and dusters) 0.1%
Tanks, casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar...Tanks, casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar containers, of iron or steel, for any material "other than compressed or liquefied gas", of a capacity of <= 300 l, not fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment, whether or not lined or heat-insulated, n.e.s. 0.1%
Articles of iron or steel, cast, n.e.s.Articles of iron or steel, cast, n.e.s. 0.1%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.1%
Other vegetables, fresh or chilled (excl. potatoes...Other vegetables, fresh or chilled (excl. potatoes, tomatoes, alliaceous vegetables, edible brassicas, lettuce "lactuca sativa" and chicory "cichorium spp.", carrots, turnips, salad beetroot, salsify, celeriac, radishes and similar edible roots, cucumbers and gherkins, and leguminous vegatables) 0.1%
Aluminium foil, "whether or not printed or backed...Aluminium foil, "whether or not printed or backed with paper, paperboard, plastics or similar backing materials", of a thickness "excl. any backing" of <= 0,2 mm (excl. stamping foils of heading 3212, christmas tree decorating material) 0.1%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.1%
Birds' eggs, in shell, fresh, preserved or cookedBirds' eggs, in shell, fresh, preserved or cooked 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 63.3%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2009
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 18.6%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 9.0%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 4.2%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 2.8%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 2.8%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 1.9%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 1.6%
Live bovine animalsLive bovine animals 1.3%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 1.1%
Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of...Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes 1.1%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 1.0%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.8%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 0.8%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.8%
Meat of bovine animals, fresh or chilledMeat of bovine animals, fresh or chilled 0.7%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.7%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.7%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 0.7%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 0.6%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.6%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 0.6%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.6%
Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall...Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall tiles; glazed ceramic mosaic cubes and the like, whether or not on a backing (excl. of siliceous fossil meals or similar siliceous earths, refractory ceramic goods, tiles made into stands, ornamental articles and tiles specifically manufactured for stoves) 0.5%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.5%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.5%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 0.5%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.5%
Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added...Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.5%
Maize or cornMaize or corn 0.5%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.5%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.5%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.4%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.4%
Waters, incl. mineral waters and aerated waters,...Waters, incl. mineral waters and aerated waters, containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or flavoured, and other non-alcoholic beverages (excl. fruit or vegetable juices and milk) 0.4%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.4%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 0.4%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.4%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.4%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.4%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.4%
Other nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled...Other nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled (excl. coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts) 0.4%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.4%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.4%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.3%
Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and...Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and fractions thereof, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 0.3%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.3%
Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not...Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.3%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.3%
Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of...Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal (excl. articles > 100 years old) 0.3%
Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other...Petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other residues of petroleum oil or of oil obtained from bituminous minerals, n.e.s. 0.3%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.3%
Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats,...Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats, meal, starch or malt extract, not containing cocoa or containing < 40% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s.; food preparations of milk, cream, butter milk, sour milk, sour cream, whey, yoghourt, kefir, and similar goods of heading 0401 to 0404, not containing cocoa or containing < 5% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s. 0.3%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.3%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.3%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.3%
Live sheep and goatsLive sheep and goats 0.3%
RiceRice 0.3%
Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel,...Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils 0.3%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.3%
Natural calcium phosphates and natural aluminium...Natural calcium phosphates and natural aluminium calcium phosphates, natural and phosphatic chalk 0.3%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.3%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.3%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.3%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 0.3%
Potatoes, fresh or chilledPotatoes, fresh or chilled 0.3%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.3%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.2%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.2%
Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate...Monumental or building stone, natural (excl. slate), worked, and articles; mosaic cubes etc. of natural stone, incl. slate, whether or not on a backing; artificially coloured granules, chippings, powder, of natural stone, incl. slate (excl. setts, curbstones, flagstones; articles of fused basalt and of fired steatite; jewellery, clocks, lamps and parts; buttons, chalks, original sculptures and statuary) 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.2%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 0.2%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.2%
Printed books, brochures and similar printed...Printed books, brochures and similar printed matter, whether or not in single sheets (excl. periodicals and publications which are essentially devoted to advertising) 0.2%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.2%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 0.2%
Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials,...Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic bonding agents (excl. particle board, whether or not bonded with one or more sheets of fibreboard; laminated wood with a layer of plywood; composite panels with outer layers of fibreboard; paperboard; furniture components identifiable as such) 0.2%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.2%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.2%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.2%
Stoves, ranges, grates, cookers, incl. those with...Stoves, ranges, grates, cookers, incl. those with subsidiary boilers for central heating, barbecues, braziers, gas-rings, plate warmers and similar non-electric domestic appliances, and parts thereof of iron or steel (excl. boilers and radiators for central heating, geysers and hot water cylinders) 0.2%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.2%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.2%
Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by...Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children, dolls' carriages and dolls representing only human beings); reduced-size "scale" recreational models, working or not; puzzles of all kinds 0.2%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.2%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.2%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy steel, n.e.s. 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of < 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, whether or...Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, whether or not broken (excl. edible nuts, olives, soya beans, ground-nuts, copra, linseed, rape or colza seeds and sunflower seeds) 0.2%
Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or...Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, whether or not skinned or split 0.2%
Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl....Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl. machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof 0.2%
Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl....Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl. sausages and similar products, and meat extracts and juices) 0.2%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.2%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.2%
Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with...Motor-cycles, incl. mopeds, and cycles fitted with an auxiliary motor, with or without side-cars; side-cars 0.2%
Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and...Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.2%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 0.2%
Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches,...Wrist-watches, pocket-watches and other watches, incl. stop-watches (excl. of precious metal or of metal clad with precious metal) 0.2%
Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.2%
Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and...Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses (excl. knitted or crocheted and vests) 0.2%
Preparations for use on the hairPreparations for use on the hair 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.2%
Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those...Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those principally designed for the transport of persons or goods), e.g. breakdown lorries, crane lorries, fire fighting vehicles, concrete-mixer lorries, road sweeper lorries, spraying lorries, mobile workshops and mobile radiological units 0.2%
Glassware of a kind used for table, kitchen,...Glassware of a kind used for table, kitchen, toilet, office, indoor decoration or similar purposes (excl. goods of heading 7018, glass preserving jars "sterilizing jars", mirrors, leaded lights and the like, lighting fittings and parts thereof, atomizers for perfume and the like, vacuum flasks and other vacuum vessels) 0.2%
Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and...Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and other fats and oils derived from milk; dairy spreads 0.2%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.2%
Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing,...Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing, prepared diagnostic or laboratory reagents whether or not on a backing, and certified reference materials (excl. compound diagnostic reagents designed to be administered to the patient, blood-grouping reagents, animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses and vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms and similar products) 0.2%
Particle board and similar board "e.g. oriented...Particle board and similar board "e.g. oriented strand board and waferboard" of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic binding substances (excl. fibreboard, veneered particle board, hollow-core composite panels and board of ligneous materials agglomerated with cement, plaster or other mineral bonding agents) 0.2%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.2%
Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons,...Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons, incl. driver 0.2%
Yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports;...Yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports; rowing boats and canoes 0.1%
Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed...Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed beam lamp units and ultra-violet or infra-red lamps; arc-lamps; parts thereof 0.1%
Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles...Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles and toilet articles, of plastics (excl. baths, shower-baths, wash-basins, bidets, lavatory pans, seats and covers, flushing cisterns and similar sanitary ware) 0.1%
Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar...Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar substitutes prepared from fish eggs 0.1%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.1%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.1%
Soya-bean oil and its fractions, whether or not...Soya-bean oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 0.1%
Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee,...Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee, tea or mate and preparations with a basis of these products or with a basis of coffee, tea or mate; roasted chicory and other roasted coffee substitutes, and extracts, essences and concentrates thereof 0.1%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.1%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.1%
Pasta, whether or not cooked or stuffed with meat...Pasta, whether or not cooked or stuffed with meat or other substances or otherwise prepared, such as spaghetti, macaroni, noodles, lasagne, gnocchi, ravioli, cannelloni; couscous, whether or not prepared 0.1%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.1%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.1%
Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for...Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the manufacture of products from these materials, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, parts thereof 0.1%
Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and...Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and after-shave products, personal deodorants, bath and shower preparations, depilatories and other perfumery, toilet or cosmetic preparations, n.e.s.; prepared room deodorizers, whether or not perfumed or having disinfectant properties 0.1%
Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave...Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave lotions, personal deodorants and hair lotions) 0.1%
Bituminous mastics, cut-backs and other bituminous...Bituminous mastics, cut-backs and other bituminous mixtures based on natural asphalt, on natural bitumen, on petroleum bitumen, on mineral tar or on mineral tar pitch 0.1%
Soap; organic surface-active products and...Soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for use as soap, in the form of bars, cakes, moulded pieces or shapes, whether or not containing soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for washing the skin, in the form of liquid or cream and put up for retail sale, whether or not containing soap; paper, wadding, felt and nonwovens, impregnated, coated or covered with soap or detergent 0.1%
Seeds, fruits and spores, for sowing (excl....Seeds, fruits and spores, for sowing (excl. leguminous vegetables and sweetcorn, coffee, tea, mate and spices, cereals, oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, and seeds and fruit used primarily in perfumery, medicaments or for insecticidal, fungicidal or similar purposes) 0.1%
Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound...Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound or other similarly recorded phenomena, incl. matrices and masters for the production of records (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.1%
Carboys, bottles, flasks, jars, pots, phials,...Carboys, bottles, flasks, jars, pots, phials, ampoules and other containers, of glass, of a kind used for the conveyance or packing of goods, preserving jars, stoppers, lids and other closures, of glass (excl. glass envelopes and containers, with vacuum insulation, perfume atomizers, flasks, bottles etc. for atomizers) 0.1%
Marble, travertine, ecaussine and other calcareous...Marble, travertine, ecaussine and other calcareous monumental or building stone of an apparent specific gravity of >= 2,5, and alabaster, whether or not roughly trimmed or merely cut, by sawing or otherwise, into blocks or slabs of a square or rectangular shape (excl. in the form of granules, chippings or powder) 0.1%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.1%
Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or...Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled 0.1%
Printing ink, writing or drawing ink and other...Printing ink, writing or drawing ink and other inks, whether or not concentrated or solid 0.1%
Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl....Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl. monofilament of >= 67 decitex and with a cross sectional dimension of <= 1 mm 0.1%
Precious stones and semi-precious stones, whether...Precious stones and semi-precious stones, whether or not worked or graded, but not strung, mounted or set, ungraded precious stones and semi-precious stones, temporarily strung for convenience of transport (excl. diamonds and imitation precious stones and semi-precious stones) 0.1%
Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments...Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments and mixed seasonings; mustard flour and meal, whether or not prepared, and mustard 0.1%
Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood...Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood (excl. sheets of compressed wood, hollow-core composite panels, parquet panels or sheets, inlaid wood and sheets identifiable as furniture components) 0.1%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.1%
Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated olefins, in primary forms 0.1%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.1%
Table, kitchen or other household articles, and...Table, kitchen or other household articles, and parts thereof, of iron or steel; iron or steel wool; pot scourers and scouring or polishing pads, gloves and the like, of iron or steel (excl. cans, boxes and similar containers of heading 7310; waste baskets; shovels, corkscrews and other articles of the nature of a work implement; articles of cutlery, spoons, ladles, forks etc. of heading 8211 to 8215; ornamental articles; sanitary ware) 0.1%
Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85%...Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85% synthetic staple fibres by weight, mixed principally or solely with cotton and weighing <= 170 g/m² 0.1%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.1%
Float glass and surface ground or polished glass,...Float glass and surface ground or polished glass, in sheets, whether or not having an absorbent, reflecting or non-reflecting layer, but not otherwise worked 0.1%
Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl....Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl. white chocolate 0.1%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.1%
Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements,...Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements, caulking compounds and other mastics; painters' fillings; non-refractory surfacing preparations for façades, indoor walls, floors, ceilings or the like 0.1%
Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85%...Woven fabrics containing predominantly, but < 85% synthetic staple fibres by weight, other than those mixed principally or solely with cotton 0.1%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 62.7%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
The President is the head of the state and is elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President in consultation with the National Assembly and acts as the head of the government, to serve a four year term. Though the Prime Minister enjoys the executive powers which include implementation of the law in the country and running the day-to-day affairs, the President also holds a strong and influential position which includes promulgation of laws passed by parliament and ratification of treaties. The Cabinet is chosen by the Prime Minister in consultation with the President and members of the National Assembly. As per the constitution of the country, the President must be a Maronite Catholic Christian and the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim.
Legislative Power
The legislature in Lebanon is unicameral. The parliament called National Assembly consists of 128 seats; with its members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation, with quotas according to religion,  to serve four-year terms. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament. The executive branch of the government is directly or indirectly dependent on the support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. The Prime Minister cannot dissolve the parliament nor can he veto its enactments. The Speaker of the Parliament must be a Shi'a Muslim.
Main Political Parties
Lebanon has numerous political parties, but they play a much less significant role in the country’s politics than they do in most parliamentary democracies. Coalitions usually exist only for contesting elections, and rarely form a cohesive bloc in the National Assembly after the election. Some of the major political parties in Lebanon are:

- Current for the Future – a political movement and a major political party in Lebanon;
- Progressive Socialist Party – ideologically secular and officially non-sectarian, but in practice follows the Druze faith;
- Hope Movement – advocates greater respect and resources for Lebanon's Shi'ite population;
- Party of God (Hezbollah) - Shi'a Islamist militant organization, supported by Iran;
- LF (Lebanese Forces) – a former militia but now a secular political party, supported mainly by Christians;
- The Lebanese Phalanges (Amine Gemayel);
- The National Liberal Party (Dory Chamoun);
- The Democratic Renewal Movement (Nassib Lahoud);
- The Movement of the Democratic Left (Atallah Elias);
- The Syrian Nationalist Social Party (Ali Qanso);
- The Free Patriotic Movement (Michel Aoun).
Current Political Leaders
President: Michel SULAYMAN (as of 25 May 2008)
Prime Minister: Najib MIQATI (since 25 January 2011).
Next Election Dates
National Assembly elections in 2014.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
61/175
Evolution:
6 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Partly Free
Political Freedom:
5/7
Civil Liberties:
3/7

Map of freedom 2010
Source: Freedom House

 

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