Sales in Norway
Reaching the Consumers
- Consumer Behavior
- Norwegians are very patriotic and often choose domestic products. Environmental issues are also important for consumers. Norwegian consumers are interested in new products (especially ICT-products and consumer electronics) and are willing to pay for quality. Compared with the Danish or Swedish consumers, Norwegians are not as price sensitive and are willing to spend more, especially when buying durable goods. The right price-quality relationship is usually more important than just the low price. In many regards, the consumer behavior is similar to other West-European countries
- Consumer Profile and Purchasing Power
Norwegians are wealthy and purchasing power is very high. Norway's
own production consists mostly of raw materials and semi-manufactured
products, so many consumer products are imported. The wealth in Norway
is also evenly distributed, so every Norwegian is an enabled consumer.
Due to these opportunities, the competition is strict, especially with
Three quarters of Norwegians live in the southern parts of Norway. The rest of the population is dispersed to small centers around the country. Therefore, because of the long distances and high transportation costs, it might be wise to focus the sales efforts to the southern areas of the country.
Distributing a Product
- Evolution of the Sector
Norway's retail and wholesale trade sector produces about 15 % of GDP and employs over 300 000 people. Total retail trade in 2003 was valued at 17,7 billion Euros, which is an increase of 3,3 % over 2002. There were approximately 10700 retail outlets in Norway in 2003. Mass market sales accounted for 84% of total turnover, the service sector represented 13%, and the grocery trade represented 3% of total turnover.
Norwegian retail trade is focused around main commercial centers, such as Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, and Stavanger. Mergers or close collaborations between two or more companies have driven the structural change over the past few years, mostly in the grocery sector. Retailers aim to enlarge their operations in order to gain more negotiation power at the expense of producers and wholesalers. Because of the small domestic market, the Norwegian retailers are small compared even with other Scandinavian countries, and are not very active internationally.
Price levels in Norway are infamously high: groceries cost 50 % more than what is the EU average. Prices of alcohol and tobacco are even higher.
- Market Shares
The Norwegian distribution system is quite organized and consolidated. It is characterized by a fewer number of intermediaries, sensible margins, a diversity of trends, and dynamic professional syndicates. Distribution chains dominate the market, and some chains have strengthened their position by taking on the role of wholesaler as well, such as NorgesGruppen. The German discount chain Lidl decided to pull back from Norway and sell all its shops to Rema 1000 chain after poor results.
The principal Norwegian stores are:
- NorgesGruppen with 2,760 retail outlets and a 32% market-share with a turnover of 4,43 billion euros in 2004. It is Norway's largest trading enterprise and the leader in the distribution market.
- Coop with 910 retail outlets, a 19,9% market share, and turnover of 3,3 billion euros.
- ICA is a Swedish company with 1032 retail outlets, 19,5% market-share, and turnover of 2,85 billion euros.
Shopping centers have also known great success, reaching a total turnover of 1,5 billion euros in 2004 in 4 principal zones: Oslo, Akershus, Osdtfold and Vestfold; thus registering a growth of 6,3% as compared to 2003.
- Organizations in the Retail Sector
The federation of Norwegian commercial and service enterprises
Market Access Procedures
- International Conventions
Member of World Trade Organisation
Member of OECD
Party to the Kyoto Protocol
Party to the Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Party to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
Wassenaar arrangement on export controls for conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies
Party of the International Coffee Agreement 2001
- Main International Economic Cooperation
- Norway is a Member of the EEA (European Economic Area) and applies the whole acquis communautaire except for agriculture and fisheries. Norway seeks to conclude bilateral trade agreements in the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) framework.
- Non Tariff Barriers
- Norway is a member of the European Economic Area and applies the European Union trade policy rules, except for agriculture and fisheries. Norway does not have many import restrictions, except for agricultural sector, which remains highly protected with high tariffs, quantitative restrictions and technical barriers. Numbers of products require an import license, for example clothes and textiles. Genetically modified products and biotech products face more restrictive legislation than in EU countries.
- Customs Duties and Taxes on Imports
- Norwegian tariffs for industrial goods are low, usually between 3 % and 6 %. Goods imported from an EEA country are free from import duty. Any import of products is subject to Value Added Tax, which is currently levied at 25%. The VAT is deductible if the goods are intended for use in a VAT chargeable business. Before sending a shipment of considerable value, it might be wise to obtain an official ruling on customs treatment from the Norwegian Customs and Excise Authority.
- Customs Classification
- Harmonized custom system.
- Import Procedures
- The Norwegian Customs Authority collects the import duties and taxes for goods from abroad. Commercial invoice plus a bill of lading or an airway bill are required general import documentation. A certificate of origin is not required unless specified. For more information, please contact the Norwegian Excise and Customs Authority.
- Importing Samples
- Norway is a member of the international convention to facilitate the importation of commercial samples and advertising matter. Samples can be imported if they have been made unfit for use or if they have little or no commercial value. Samples intended exclusively for obtaining orders in Norway may be temporarily exempted from duty payment if a bond is posted upon entry. Upon re-exportation, this bond is cancelled.
Organizing Goods Transport
- Main Useful Means of Transport
Sea transport is the dominant form of international transport: about
90 % of freight volume to and from Norway is done by shipping. Port of
Oslo is the Norway's largest cargo port and the main gateway for
containers and passengers. The port is located at the end of the Oslo
Fjord with good transport connections to the rest of the country. In
2007 cargo throughput of the port of Oslo was 6,3 million tons. Overall
Norway's merchant fleet is the fifth largest in the world
Road transport accounts for almost 50 % of cargo transport in Norway. 44 percent is done by ships and the rest occurs in railways. The road and rail infrastructure is mostly in very good condition. A list of Norwegian cargo agents can be found here.
Port of Oslo
Port of Bergen
Port of Stavanger
Oslo International Airport (Gardermoen)
- Sea Transport Organizations
Norwegian Coastal Administration
Norwegian Ports Federation
- Air Transport Organizations
- Road Transport Organizations
Norwegian Public Roads Administration
- Rail Transport Organizations
Norwegian National Rail Administration
Identifying a Supplier
- Type of Production
Industry accounts for 41,4 percent of the GDP. Oil and gas field machinery, food processing, offshore industry, fishing, shipbuilding, metals and mechanical engineering are the most significant forms of industry. Of the 50 largest companies in Norway, 10 are oil companies and numerous others are associated with the offshore industry.
Mechanical engineering is a major sector in terms of turnover, number of employees and exports. The sector has about 4000 firms and produces about 6 % of the GDP. Forest Industry employs over 20 000 people and is a major exporter. The biggest companies are Moelven and Norske Skog. Food processing industry produces about 2 % of the GDP and mostly sells its products in domestic markets. Firms are mostly small or mid-size. Metal industry is dominated by few big corporations, such as HydroStatoil, Elkem and Fesil, and exports over 80 % of its production.
Norway is one of the leading countries in the world in shipbuilding. Norwegian corporations have a 25 % market share in cruise ship production and a 20 % market share in the production of liquefied gas tankers and chemical tankers. 30 % of all publically traded shipping companies in the world are listed in the Oslo stock exchange.
- Business Directories
Business Guide to Oslo Region
Kvasir - Business search engine (in Norwegian)
Norwegian trade portal
- Manufacturers Associations of the Main Industries
Federation of Norwegian Industry
The Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise
- Trade Agencies and Their Representations Abroad
Oslo Chamber of Commerce
Ministry of Trade and Industry
- Enterprises Federation
The Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry
The Federation of Norwegian Commercial and Service Enterprises
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