Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil

An Expert's View about Business Administration in Brazil

Posted on: 17 Nov 2011

This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts by country.

Globalization Partners International White Paper | June 2008 Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil 1 of 16 www.globalizationpartners.com The Website Globalization and E-Business Brazil The Website Globalization and E-Business Series includes a series of brief reports on country-specific paper was researched and written by: website globalization and e-business topics. The series includes: Martin Spethman ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? China Managing Partner ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Japan Globalization Partners International ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Germany mspethman@globalizationpartners.com ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? US Hispanic Market Phone: 866-272-5874 ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Brazil ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? India Stacy Lee Bersbach ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Russia Global Marketing Specialist ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Argentina Globalization Partners International ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? France slbersbach@globalizationpartners.com ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? United Kingdom Phone: 866-272-5874 ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? United Arab Emirates Nitish Singh, PhD, This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture Author of ?The Culturally Customized Website?, and website globalization facts by country. These reports are by no means a complete coverage of and Assistant Professor of International Business, these topics. For more comprehensive or customized reports on country-specific Website Globalization Boeing Institute of International Business, John and E-Business topics, please email mspethman@globalizationpartners.com. Cook School of Business, Saint Louis University. singhn2@slu.edu No material contained in this report may be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written Phone: 314-977-7604 permission of Globalization Partners International. The information contained in this White Paper has been obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, but neither its completeness nor accuracy can be guaranteed. Copyright 2008 Globalization Partners International. ® All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All graphics used in this report were provided by Flikr, Google Images and other free internet resources for pictures Globalization Partners International helps companies communicate and conduct business in any language and in any locale by providing an array of globalization services including: ? Translation ? Multilingual Desktop Publishing ? Software Internationalization & Localization ? Website Internationalization & Localization ? Software and Website Testing ? Interpretation (Telephonic, Consecutive, Simultaneous) ? Globalization Consulting To learn more about Globalization Partners International, please visit us at www.globalizationpartners.com. 2 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com I. Market Introduction and Stats Source Online Activities Fast Facts Numbers Usage Statistics ? 6.417 million users connect via GDP $1,067.4 billion (www.eiu.com, 2007) General Stats broadband (internetworldstas.com, 2007) GDP Growth 3.7% (www.eiu.com, 2007) Top Web ? Videolog.tv: This is similar to Population 186.8 million (www.eiu.com, 2007) Applications YouTube and is popular with Population Growth 1.008% (Cia World Factbook, 2007) teenagers (readwriteweb.com, ? Gazzag: This is a social 2006) Internet population 45.6 million (internetworldstats.com, 2007) Internet networking site ? Flogão: This is a community Future Internet Population Estimates 9% Growth Rate through 2011 (Aun, 2007) photo sharing site ? Camisteria: This is a t-shirt store Summary Sheet has been compiled through the use of sources from academia and community that allows some co-creation from users ? BlogBlogs: This is a blog L Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and seventh largest in terms of internet usage directory and community building tool similar to (internetworldstats.com, 2007) Technorati. ? Overmundo: Backed by the Brazilian Government, this is L Brazil is a federative republic consisting of 26 states and a federal district called Brazilla,which is a collaborative blog about the the capital. (www.eiu.com, 2007) Brazilian culture. Top Brazil Online ? www.americanas.com.br Marketplaces ? www.livrariasaraiva.com.br L The majority of internet users in Brazil are from the upper and upper-middle classes. ? www.webmotors.com (www.export.gov/ (Albernaz, 2002) ? www.marketplace.com.br sellingonline/ Internet_Environment/ ? www.mercadolivre.com.br Brazil.asp) L Brazilian society has evolved from succeeding waves of migration both from Europe and African The Brazilian Online Consumer slaves. (www.eiu.com, 2007) L From 2000 ? 2005 credit card usage doubled as the result of partnerships with big retailers. The number of credit card transactions also increased 166.7% in the same period. (euromonitor, 2006) L The retail sector of Brazil is considered the largest in Latin America and has continued to expand rapidly since 2004. (www.eiu.com, 2007) L Television is the most popular type of media in Brazil as it is less expensive than other types of media, including magazines and newspapers. Television viewing is considered a leisure activity. (euromonitor, 2006) L The government has been working on digital inclusion programs such as funding internet cafés to help the lower income groups gain access to the internet. (euromonitor, 2006) (Albernaz, 2002) 3 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com II. Brazil Culture and the Online Consumer Cultural Values Brazil Culture and Values Collectivism: This value indicates how closely a society is knit. In collectivist cultures like Brazil, the Brazil is a heterogeneous society full of symbols, rituals, traditional values and contextual elements needs, values and goals of the family and societal from Native Tribes, Portugal and other European influences. At a macro-level, the culture of Brazil can unit take precedence over individual goals. Group be described using five cultural values based on the work of Hofstede (1980). Professor Geert Hofstede consciousness and family are major values that guide conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by people?s behavior. culture. He is also the author of several books including, Culture?s Consequences (2nd, fully revised Power Distance: This is a belief in authority and edition, 2001), and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind (2nd fully revised edition 2005). hierarchy (high power distance). Cultures like Brazil that are high on power distance accept power and Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior hierarchy in society and are low on egalitarianism. In of societies and organizations that are very persistent across time. Hofstede?s research showed that such cultures, less powerful citizens are accepting of cultural values like Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, and unequal power distribution in society. Uncertainty Avoidance can be used to categorize various national cultures. Uncertainty Avoidance: This is the importance of predictability, structure, and order (high uncertainty Although the Hofstede research showed 5 cultural values, each country uses a different set of these. avoidance), versus a willingness for risk-taking and For example, Brazil rates significantly on 4 values and shows a preference for masculinity. an acceptance of ambiguity and limited structure (low uncertainty avoidance.) People from cultures high on uncertainty avoidance like Brazil tend to have Insights into Brazilian Consumer Values: low tolerance for uncertainty and avoid ambiguous situations. Conflict and competition as threatening. L Vanity: Brazilians put high value on appearance. Looking good is an integral and important aspect Security is valued over adventure and risk. of their culture. (Euromonitor, 2006) Masculinity-Femininity: This is a belief in achievement and ambition (masculine), versus a belief L National Goods: Whenever possible, Brazilians prefer to purchase products made within their in nurturing and caring for others (feminine). Masculine own country. (TGI, 2006) cultures like Brazil value achievement orientation, material possessions and success. L Frugality: Brazilians enjoy saving money for larger purchases, such as a house. Therefore, they High-Low Context: To communicate effectively often look for a deal when purchasing other items. (TGI, 2006) across cultures, the correct level of context must be determined. This context can be labeled as high or low on a sliding scale. High context societies, like Brazilian Consumer Decision Making: Brazil, have close connections among group members. Everyone has a similar, intrinsic knowledge-base. € Women: The decision-making power of women in Brazil has increased which has resulted in There is little information that is explicit. High context many companies tailoring products and services to the interests and needs of this new group. cultures use more symbols and nonverbal clues (Euromonitor, 2006) to communicate, with meaning embedded in the situational context. € Price: Brazilians will often choose a product based on the price of the product, looking for the least expensive or the best deal that they can find. Brazilian consumers often shop on budgets. (Hofstede, Geert. Culture?s Consequences, Comparing Values, (Euromonitor, 2007) Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001) 4 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com II. Brazil Culture and the Online Consumer Demographics Definitions Brazilian Consumer Segments: Ì Geographics: The geographical distribution of the market being Market segmentation is an exercise in carefully identifying profitable and accessible consumer analyzed. The criteria used to segment segments based on socio-demographics, geographics, and psychographics. Segmentation is unique to these consumers can be country, region, each company and product. Some general insights into the Brazilian consumer segments have been town, etc. For example, consumers can divided into demographic and specific consumer segments. be segmented by residence or work. (about.com) Ì Psychographics: The criteria used to ” Tweenagers: These consumers are between the ages of 10 ? 13 and are the most profitable for segment consumers based on lifestyle, marketers as they have substantial purchasing power. They are highly influenced by the media attitudes, personality, buying motives, and very loyal to brand names. In addition, they are interested in a wide variety of products which and/or extent of product usage. include leisure, electronics, fashion and cosmetics. (about.com) ” Teenagers: This consumer segment is between 14 ? 19 year old and represents one of the largest groups in Brazilian Society. They are responsible for purchases equaling more than $34 million dollars per year. Teenagers are extremely loyal to brand names and have a strong influence on purchasing decisions of their families and parents. They are primarily interested in technology, and products/services to enhance appearance. ” Studying Age: This consumer segment is between 18 ? 22 years old. Although, the level of disposable income varies between students who continue to live at home and those who attend college away from home, both groups have similar interests. Furthermore, this population represents 8-9% of the total population of Brazil. They are interested in leisure and technology products, as well as services and products that will help them to attain their education. ” Young Adults: This consumer segment is between 23 ? 29 and usually has just started their first job and beginning their independent lifestyle. The primary purchasing interests of this segment are household items, furniture, electrical appliances, as well as leisure and technology items. In addition, young adults usually explore and develop new interests and enjoy going out with friends to the movies, clubs and pubs. ” Middle-Aged Adults: This consumer segment is aged 30 ? 59 years old and usually has children. Their purchasing is usually focused on the family, which include food, travel, leisure and technology. This group is also focused on appearance and will spend income on products and services designed for enhancing beauty. ” Baby Boomers: These consumers are between the 40 ? 59 years old. They are settled into life, occupy key jobs, might still be supporting a family and children, and are attempting to keep up with technology trends in order to maintain their job. They are interested in technology, continuing education courses for career advancement and business-related travel. Also, they are interested in financial planning and healthcare. ” Pensioners: This consumer segment is 60 years and older and is the fastest growing segment. They prefer traditional forms of payment, namely cash. Approximately 25% are responsible for maintaining a household and 68% decide on what to purchase for the family. Pensioners consider shopping to be a leisure activity and like to spend their time making choices. Consumer Segments of Brazil (Euromonitor, 2006) 5 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com III. The Brazilian Portuguese Language Tips for Translating into Brazilian Portuguese is considered a Romance language like French and Italian. Brazilian Portuguese, a dialect, Portuguese is the official language of Brazil and is spoken by 154 million people. (answers.com, 2008) Brazilian Portuguese has been influenced by the languages that it displaced in Brazil, primarily in terms of Ì Diacritics: These marks, placed above or below letters usually represent vowel vocabulary, but also in the phonology and grammar. There are words that are used today in Brazilian sounds or other modifiers. Portuguese that originated from the Tupi-guarani and Yoruba languages. Ì Verb Tense: There are several verb tenses in Brazilian Portuguese that differ from European Portuguese including você and seu. Ì Pronouns: The use of pronouns in Brazilian Portuguese is different than those of European Portuguese and the usage depends on the sentence and the use of possessive pronouns. Portuguese Pronouns European Brazilian Portuguese Portuguese Eu Canto Eu canto Unlike other Romance languages, Portuguese has maintained the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin Tu cantas Você canto which make it unique. In addition, Brazilian Portuguese is written using the Latin alphabet and utilizes Ele (a) canta Ele (a) canta several accent marks. These include the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, the cedilla and Nós cantamos Nós cantamos the dieresis mark. There are also spelling differences between European and Brazilian Portuguese. Vós cantais Vocês cantam Some examples of the differences in spelling and writing varieties are: Eles(as) cantam Eles (as) cantam Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Brazilian Portuguese Translation Teu livro Your book Anómíno Anômíno Anonymous Seu livro Your /hi/her book Facto Fato Fact O livro dele His book Ideía Idéia Idea O livro dela Her book Direcção Direção Direction O livro deles Their (masc.) book Óptimo Ótimo Great O livro delas Their (fem.) book Frequente Freqüente Frequent Voo Vôo flight 6 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com IV. Website Globalization Whether you are trying to launch a multilingual website in order to expand the markets for your products and services, or you are trying to increase your company?s global operational efficiencies by developing multilingual extranets and intranets, Website Globalization is a requirement to make either a reality. In order to enable your web presence to communicate, conduct and complete international e-Business, you need to translate (globalize) your website. Website translation is also known as ?Website Globalization?. In order to truly ?translate? a website into other languages you may need both Internationalization (I18n) and Localization (L10n) services. + Internationalization (I18n) involves enabling the backend of a website to handle different languages, character sets, currencies, submit form data, site search capabilities, etc? and involves understanding what database and content management systems you are using to author, store and publish your site?s content. Localization (L10n) involves translating and localizing the front end of your website into different languages ensuring all content (text and graphics) is translated in an accurate and culturally correct manner. The next two pages detail the steps that may be performed in a typical website globalization project. The tables list the team members, tasks and standard quality assurance steps utilized in translating a website. 7 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com Quality Tasks Team Assurance IV. Website Globalization Subject Matter Cultural Translation, Formatting of Source File Project Glossary Localization of Localization of Delivery Final Edits and SEO and Internet Training and Correctness Editing and Language QA / Testing Review Kick-Off Development all Graphics Multimedia to Client Archiving of Files Marketing Research Assessment Proofreading Documents GO! t Account Manager t Account Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Desktop Publishers t Lead Translators t Localization Engineers t Lead Translators t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Localization Engineers t Global SEM Specialists t Internationalization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Desktop Publishers t Desktop Publishers t Desktop Publishers t Localization Engineers t Web CMS Specialists t Internationalization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Internationalization Engineers t Web Designers t Web CMS Specialists t Web Designers t Web Designers t Web Designers t QA-Testers t Web Developers t Web Designers t Web Developers t Web CMS Specialists t Global SEM Specialists t Web Developers t Web Designers t Global SEM Specialists t Web Developers t Companies wanting to translate t A Project ?Kick-Off? includes t A Globalization Services t Translation teams develop t Before the actual translation t Translation is performed t All embedded translatable t Many websites have an array t Many websites incorporate various t GPI provides basic Online Localization t After the website and all components t Client provides any final comments for t GPI recommends the client plan on and their website put together all of and confirms the following: Team (GST) will review/study and maintains client specific begins, the source web by a base translation/copy text commonly found in of linked documents which may multimedia components which may Quality Assurance (QA) as a standard have been localized, final draft sets of the translation and formatting. conduct some form of global internet the source files from their site any reference materials glossaries leveraging any content and overall site writing team, and editing/ navigation buttons, web art require localization. require localization. line item for all website projects. the source files in all target language marketing (IM) and/or search engine (called a?Localization Kit?) for a ? provided, including source existing client glossaries design and feature set proofreading by a second and other web graphics are versions are provided to the client. t Comments are incorporated and final marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic The project team globalization services provider ? files, demos and general and the latest industry- is reviewed for basic linguistic team. pulled from graphics and t Formatting or desktop publishing (DTP) t Multimedia must be analyzed t This QA checks the language versions websites and documents are produced. to your new language sites. Project schedules to analyze. client information. specific dictionaries. cultural correctness and translated using the standard of these documents includes formatting individually for numerous items. These of your site under selected browser-OS t Client may review and approve all web ? Project specifications t The files are prepared in order customizations that may t All translations are completed translation workflow. the target language documentation to items range from determining word combination for any cosmetic or content for both translation accuracy t GPI ensures the client?s Translation t This may include global search engine to utilize a translation memory ? Workflow requirements t In addition, there may be be required. by human translators, match the original source documents counts in screen text, audio scripts and linguistic issues, and will help identity and design correctness. Memories and Glossaries are updated optimization of the localized web tool workflow and preserve ? Communication any mark-up/formatting code client-specific training for utilizing translation t The translated text is then in terms of layout, fonts, graphics, and graphics, to the analysis of the types of basic functionality issues as well. with any final linguistic changes and content, submission of pages to key channels in order to save time and costs translation teams related t An array of issues are memory technologies that incorporated into the overall design. assets and how they were digitized and t Another round of QA is performed once the final project folder, including all country (locale) search engines and ? Review & approval with desktop publishing the to the subject matter of reviewed ranging from the ensure an efficient and original graphic, adjusting as included in your multimedia. t Typically all testing is client-driven and language versions of a website are in source files are securely stored for pay-per-click marketing campaigns opportunities language versions. the website. need to culturally customize consistent translation. required, to create a language t Adobe PDF?s can be created and GPI?s professionals can work side by their final hosting environment future revisions if required. through services like Google AdWords ? Review current t A proposal is generated based on graphics and adding or ?localized? version of optimized for screen or print and linked t All multimedia can be localized and side with your expert users to perform or Overture. an array of factors including word web authoring and local phone numbers to the graphic. off of the new website. tested to play in any target languages. Internationalization (I18N), Localization counts, localizable graphics, publishing workflow. comprehensive customization (L10N) and/or Functionality Testing, target languages and any content of website features based on onsite or offsite. management systems and workflows to be used. locale specific cultural values. GPI follows a comprehensive, customizable and fully documented Quality Control Process. Each step in our translation workflow includes a series of checklist-based quality audits to ensure the accuracy of the translation and desktop publishing. Our client?s Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to review and Clients are given an opportunity to review and QA and workflow processes can also be easily review and approve at several stages in review and approve at several stages in approve at several stages in the documentation approve at several stages in the documentation incorporated into our workflow. the documentation translation process. the documentation translation process. translation process. translation process. 8 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com Quality Tasks Team Assurance IV. Website Globalization Subject Matter Cultural Translation, Formatting of Source File Project Glossary Localization of Localization of Delivery Final Edits and SEO and Internet Training and Correctness Editing and Language QA / Testing Review Kick-Off Development all Graphics Multimedia to Client Archiving of Files Marketing Research Assessment Proofreading Documents GO! t Account Manager t Account Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Project Manager t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Lead Translators t Desktop Publishers t Lead Translators t Localization Engineers t Lead Translators t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Editors & Copy Writers t Localization Engineers t Global SEM Specialists t Internationalization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Desktop Publishers t Desktop Publishers t Desktop Publishers t Localization Engineers t Web CMS Specialists t Internationalization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Localization Engineers t Internationalization Engineers t Web Designers t Web CMS Specialists t Web Designers t Web Designers t Web Designers t QA-Testers t Web Developers t Web Designers t Web Developers t Web CMS Specialists t Global SEM Specialists t Web Developers t Web Designers t Global SEM Specialists t Web Developers t Companies wanting to translate t A Project ?Kick-Off? includes t A Globalization Services t Translation teams develop t Before the actual translation t Translation is performed t All embedded translatable t Many websites have an array t Many websites incorporate various t GPI provides basic Online Localization t After the website and all components t Client provides any final comments for t GPI recommends the client plan on and their website put together all of and confirms the following: Team (GST) will review/study and maintains client specific begins, the source web by a base translation/copy text commonly found in of linked documents which may multimedia components which may Quality Assurance (QA) as a standard have been localized, final draft sets of the translation and formatting. conduct some form of global internet the source files from their site any reference materials glossaries leveraging any content and overall site writing team, and editing/ navigation buttons, web art require localization. require localization. line item for all website projects. the source files in all target language marketing (IM) and/or search engine (called a?Localization Kit?) for a ? provided, including source existing client glossaries design and feature set proofreading by a second and other web graphics are versions are provided to the client. t Comments are incorporated and final marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic The project team globalization services provider ? files, demos and general and the latest industry- is reviewed for basic linguistic team. pulled from graphics and t Formatting or desktop publishing (DTP) t Multimedia must be analyzed t This QA checks the language versions websites and documents are produced. to your new language sites. Project schedules to analyze. client information. specific dictionaries. cultural correctness and translated using the standard of these documents includes formatting individually for numerous items. These of your site under selected browser-OS t Client may review and approve all web ? Project specifications t The files are prepared in order customizations that may t All translations are completed translation workflow. the target language documentation to items range from determining word combination for any cosmetic or content for both translation accuracy t GPI ensures the client?s Translation t This may include global search engine to utilize a translation memory ? Workflow requirements t In addition, there may be be required. by human translators, match the original source documents counts in screen text, audio scripts and linguistic issues, and will help identity and design correctness. Memories and Glossaries are updated optimization of the localized web tool workflow and preserve ? Communication any mark-up/formatting code client-specific training for utilizing translation t The translated text is then in terms of layout, fonts, graphics, and graphics, to the analysis of the types of basic functionality issues as well. with any final linguistic changes and content, submission of pages to key channels in order to save time and costs translation teams related t An array of issues are memory technologies that incorporated into the overall design. assets and how they were digitized and t Another round of QA is performed once the final project folder, including all country (locale) search engines and ? Review & approval with desktop publishing the to the subject matter of reviewed ranging from the ensure an efficient and original graphic, adjusting as included in your multimedia. t Typically all testing is client-driven and language versions of a website are in source files are securely stored for pay-per-click marketing campaigns opportunities language versions. the website. need to culturally customize consistent translation. required, to create a language t Adobe PDF?s can be created and GPI?s professionals can work side by their final hosting environment future revisions if required. through services like Google AdWords ? Review current t A proposal is generated based on graphics and adding or ?localized? version of optimized for screen or print and linked t All multimedia can be localized and side with your expert users to perform or Overture. an array of factors including word web authoring and local phone numbers to the graphic. off of the new website. tested to play in any target languages. Internationalization (I18N), Localization counts, localizable graphics, publishing workflow. comprehensive customization (L10N) and/or Functionality Testing, target languages and any content of website features based on onsite or offsite. management systems and workflows to be used. locale specific cultural values. GPI follows a comprehensive, customizable and fully documented Quality Control Process. Each step in our translation workflow includes a series of checklist-based quality audits to ensure the accuracy of the translation and desktop publishing. Our client?s Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to review and Clients are given an opportunity to review and QA and workflow processes can also be easily review and approve at several stages in review and approve at several stages in approve at several stages in the documentation approve at several stages in the documentation incorporated into our workflow. the documentation translation process. the documentation translation process. translation process. translation process. 9 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com V. Brazilian Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Cultural Customization: Key Issues The basis for cultural customization of websites is a theoretically-sound, empirically-validated framework built on five unique cultural values that account for similarities and differences across global cultures. Research studies indicate that attitude towards websites, interactivity and usability of web sites, as well as purchase intentions at web sites are enhanced when sites are congruent with the target customers? cultural predispositions. (See The Culturally Customized Web Site, Elsevier, 2005) The cultural customization framework is drawn from established research and is based on five unique values: Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low-High Context. (See page 4 of this report) These five predominant country cultural values can be represented in comparison to other countries using the maps below: Masculinity -Femininity vs. Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance vs. Individualism -Collectivism 100 100 Ì Brazil 50 50 Ì Brazil Masculinity -Femininity Index Power Distance Index 0 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Arab World Argentina Australia Austria Brazil Arab World Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark East A frica Ecuador Colombia Costa Rica Czech Republic Denmark East A frica El S alvador Finland France Germany Greece El Salvador Finland France Germany Guatemala Guatemala Hong K ong Hungary India Indonesia Hungary Hong K ong India Indonesia Ireland Iran Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Norway Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Poland Poland Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa South Korea South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Turkey Thailand Turkey U.S. Hispanic Market United A rab Emirates United K ingdom U.S. Hispanic Market United A rab Emirates United Kingdom United S tates Uruguay United S tates Uruguay Venezuela West A frica Venezuela West A frica Cultural Maps for Brazil Tables and section based on the book, ?The Culturally Customized Website: Customizing Web Sites for the Global Marketplace? ? by Nitish Singh and Arun Pereira. Cultural maps are from Hofstede, Geert. Culture?s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organization Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001) 10 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com Uncertainty Avoidance Index Individualism - Collectivism Index V. Brazilian Cultural Correctness and Web Customization The Cultural Customization Scorecard Once we have identified the country?s predominant cultural values using the cultural maps, the next step is to evaluate the website on the relevant cultural values. This can be done using the Cultural Customization Scorecard. The scorecard is produced by analyzing the site on the features that conform to the cultural values of that market The cultural values for Brazil are Collectivism, Masculinity, High Context, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. These are carefully derived based on emic knowledge. (For a detailed cultural analysis of your web site please contact mspethman@globalizationpartners.com) The cultural values of interest for the UAE are Collectivism, Masculinity, High Context, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. These are carefully derived based on emic knowledge. The Cultural Customization Scorecard? - Brazil Grading Scale: Values Individualism Collectivism Uncertainty Power Masculinity Low High Avoidance Distance Context Context > 90% Excellent Customization on Cultural Value Cultural 70-89% Good Customization on Cultural Value Scores < 70% Poor Customization on Cultural Value Cultural Customization (Examples)  Collectivism: Brazil is a collectivist culture. Websites may be culturally customized by emphasizing collective themes like family and community. For example, Häagen-Dazs has a section entitled, ?Imprensa? in which they feature pictures of their customers enjoying Häagen-Dazs at their own social gatherings.  Masculinity ? Femininity: Brazil is a masculine culture. There are numerous ways that masculinity can be depicted on a website, including highlighting achievement orientation, success, product durability, as well as adventure and fun. For example, Colgate has a colorful page that is dedicated to their special promotions. 11 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com V. Brazil Cultural Correctness and Web Customization  High-Low Context: When customizing a site for a high-context culture like Brazil, elements like harmony and aesthetics should be considered.t For example, LG emphasizes harmony on their website in their choice of colors and images. Furthermore, on their Brazilian website they have a special multimedia section on ?experience LG?. This is an interactive section which enables the user to choose different multimedia commercials and advertisements, giving them a unique experience.  Power Distance: Brazil scores high on Power Distance. Some ways to customize a site for this value is to highlight awards and honors that the company, its employees or brand has received. For example, Colgate has a page dedicated to their executive management team containing a professional picture and brief biography of each member.  Uncertainty Avoidance: As Brazil is a very risk-averse society, it is important to reduce risk, anxiety and uncertainty that these consumers might have shopping online. For example, Motorola Brazil has the product features of the phone clearly listed along with a picture of the product so the consumer knows exactly what they are buying. Stating the company?s business practices and offering online or live customer support are other ways to build online shopping confidence. 12 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com V. Brazil Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Web Site Customization Considerations Symbols and Icons There are many symbols and icons that carry special cultural meaning in Brazil. It is important to be aware of them to avoid inappropriate use or cultural blunder. Some examples: L The Fig: This is a good luck sign that is made by placing the thumb between the index and middle fingers while making a fist. It is also considered a national symbol of Brazil). L Handkerchiefs: In the Brazilian culture, handkerchiefs symbolize grief and mourning, especially when given to a person. L Owls: If an owl circles directly overhead while walking, it is considered a bad omen. L Bad Luck: It is considered bad luck to walk under a ladder. In addition, it is considered bad luck to either cross paths with a black cat or to see a black cat through the rungs of a ladder. L Money: If a purse or wallet is left on the floor, the owner?s money will disappear. If sugar is put in the cup before coffee or tea, the person will become rich. If lentils are eaten on January 1st, the person will make good money throughout the next year. L Vulgar Symbols: The O.K. sign made by a circle of the first finger and thumb is considered a vulgar symbol. Colors In Brazil, certain colors carry specific meaning and symbolize aspects of their culture. € Purple: The color of mourning € Black: The color of mourning, grief or formality € Red: Strength, reliability, happiness and prosperity Spatial Orientation: Spatial Orientation means how the web content is structured. According to Barber and Badre (1998), spatial orientation has a direct effect on website usability because it effects the visual perception. The spatial orientation for Brazil needs to take into account the complex usage of accent marks so that they are clearly displayed. They prefer a clear, concise navigation that clearly shows products. In addition, the navigation bars should be detailed, with ?fly- out? navigational menus. Both the top and left navigation panes should be utilized. Text Length: In traditional print media, text length determines the number of pages in a publication. However in a website, text length is less of an issue as web pages can be as long as desired. It becomes an issue when planning to use graphics or images with imbedded text. When designing images or graphics to be used in a localized website, text expansion should be considered. Pre-planning can help cut formatting and other modification costs. Brazilian Portuguese can expand up to 25% when translated from English. 13 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com VI. Internet and Search Engine Marketing for Brazil Brazil Commerce Payment Options The key to promoting a website internationally is to create localized content, localized keywords, register local domain names and then promote it through local search engines, affiliate marketing, Brazilians prefer to have multiple payment options when purchasing online. It is online and offline branding and positions. advisable to include credit card and Boleto (a local bank invoicing system), instead of A search engine marketing campaign for Brazil should be multi-dimensional, including not only the standard PayPal. (Crowell, 2007) localized organic search content, but also localized pay-per-click campaign advertisements. Ì Banco de Brazil Furthermore, landing pages in Brazilian Portuguese can be a useful tool in an overall search engine Ì Banco Itaú marketing strategy. Ì Caixa Econômica Federal Ì Banco Bradesco Long-term search engine marketing plans should include the use of keywords in both Brazilian Ì ABN Amro Real Portuguese and English. Brazilian Portuguese may be the primary language of business in Brazil, but Ì Unibanco many Brazilian internet users visit English language websites for content. Ì Santander Banespa Ì Banca Safra The top level domain in Brazil is .br. Other domains that are popular in Brazil are .com, .org, .net, .info, Ì HSBC and .biz. It is advisable to have a local legal representative if a non-Brazilian company would like to Ì Votorantim obtain a local domain, such as .com.br. The domain needs to be registered at registro.br. (www.export. gov/sellingonline/Internet_Environment/Brazil.asp) Most Popular Search Engines (www.export.gov/sellingonline/Internet_ Enviroment/Brazil.asp) Ì Google Ì Uol Ì Terra Ì Aol Ì Yahoo! Most Popular Online Market Places (www.export.gov/sellingonline/Internet_ Enviroment/Brazil.asp) Ì www.americanas.com.br Ì www.livrariasaraiva.com.br Ì www.webmotors.com Ì www.marketplace.com.br Ì www.mercadolivre.com.br Americanas.com.br utilizes a layout that is easily navigated by utilizing the contrasting colors of red and white to separate the navigation panes from their commerce section. In addition, their commerce section clearly displays the items by type, ? showing a brief product description with price. Additional information is available, if the item is clicked on. 14 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com Resources Search Engines ß Yahoo! Cade ß Brujula ß Ondeachar br.cade.yahoo.com www.brujula.net/brazil www.ondeachar.com.br ß GuiaWeb ß Buscador ß Ponteiro www.guiaweb.com www.uol.com.br/busca www.ponteiro.com ß Zeek ß Buscapique ß Radaruol www.zeek.com.br www.buscapique.com/busqueda www.radaruol.com.br ß Achei ß Buscar ß Sobresites (Portugese) powered-by.achei.com.br www.buscar.com.br www.sobresites.com/todos.htm ß Aonde (Portugese) ß Busca Site ß Star Media www.aonde.com www.buscasite.com.br www.starmedia.com.br ß Argos ß DMOZ ß Terra www.argos.com.br dmoz.org/Regional/South_America/Brazil www.terra.com.br/busca ß Boibaeo (Portugese) ß Exploora ß Todobr www.boibao.com.br www.exploora.com.br www.todobr.com.br ß Brazil Crawler ß Gigabusca (Portugese) ß UOL www.brazilcrawler.com www.gigabusca.com.br www.uol.com.br/erros/index.htm ß Brazil Studies Guide ß Guiaweb ß Yahoo! Brazil www.umich.edu/~port150 www.guiaweb.com dir.yahoo.com/Regional/Countries/Brazil ß Brazil Travel ß Google Brazil ß Zarp brazil.start4all.com www.google.com.br www.zarp.net ß Brazilis ß Ondeir www.brazilis.com.br www.ondeir.com.br Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the ?Allow? button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser 15 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com Resources Useful Links ß Delta Translator ß BBC News, Country Profile: Brazil ß Portals of the World - Brazil www.deltatranslator.com/delta/accents_.htm news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_ www.loc.gov/rr/international/hispanic/brazil/ ß Orbilat: Brazilian Portuguese Grammar profiles/1227110.stm brazil.html www.orbilat.com/Languages/Portuguese- ß Brazilian Government ß Country Studies - Brazil Brazilian/Brazilian-Grammar.htm www.brasil.gov.br/ingles countrystudies.us/brazil ß Languages on the Web: Brazilian Portuguese ß U.S. State Department - Brazil ß Internet Public Library - Brazil www.lonweb.org/link-brasilian.htm www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm www.ipl.org/div/news/browse/BR ß Topics Magazine: Brazilian Superstitions ß Economist.com, Country Briefings: Brazil ß ICL - Brazil www.topics-mag.com/internatl/superstitions/ www.economist.com/countries/Brazil www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/br__indx.html brazil.htm ß GSM World - Brazil ß Doing Business - Brazil ß Wikipedia: Brazilian Culture www.gsmworld.com/roaming/gsminfo/ www.doingbusiness.org/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Brazil cou_br.shtml ExploreEconomies/?economyid=28 ß Search Engines Worldwide - Brazil ß Brazil: Virtual Tour ß Brazil Internet Access Providers home.inter.net/takakuwa/search/search.html www.v-brazil.com herbison.com/iap_meta_list/ ß Brazil Search Engines ß Top Web Application in Brazil iap_meta_list_br.html www.philb.com/cse/brazil.htm www.readwriteweb.com/archives/top_web_ ß Export.gov - Brazil Internet E-Commerce FAQ ß Internet World Stats - Brazil apps_in_brazil.php www.export.gov/sellingonline/Internet_ www.internetworldstats.com/south.htm ß Brazzil Magazine Environment/Brazil.asp ß Internet Law Library - Brazil www.brazzil.com ß Linked Words: Brazil SEO Marketing www.lawmoose.com/index. ß World Travel Guide: Brazil www.linkedwords.com/local-search/local. cfm?Action=SearchEngine. www.worldtravelguide.net/country/39/ php?REQ=Brazil%20SEO%20internet%20 Search&New=Yes&CKS=WorldLaw country_guide/South-America/Brazil.html marketing ß Viva Brazil ß World Newspapers - Brazil ß Search Engine Roundtable - Latino Market www.vivabrazil.com www.world-newspapers.com/brazil.html www.seroundtable.com/archives/cat_search_ ß CIA World Factbook - Brazil ß Gazeta Mercantil engine_strategies_2007_latino.html https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the- www.gazetamercantil.com.br ß Sun Microsystems: Brazil Project world-factbook/geos/br.html ß Gringoes research.sun.com/brazil ß InfoPlease - Brazil www.gringoes.com ß Brazil Travel www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html ß Info Brazil www.v-brazil.com/science/internet.html ß Lonely Planet - Brazil www.infobrazil.com ß Wikipedia: Internet in Brazil www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html ß Busy Trade - Brazil en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_in_Brazil ß Geographia - Brazil brazil.busytrade.com www.geographia.com/brazil/ ß Brazil Facts ß The Library of Congress, Country brazil.busytrade.com Studies: Brazil lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/brtoc.html Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the ?Allow? button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser 16 of 16 Website Globalization and E-Business | Brazil www.globalizationpartners.com
Posted: 17 November 2011

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