Despite slow growth economic conditions, the Caribbean continues to gobble up U.S. agricultural
products at record levels ($1.4 billion in 2012).
THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY
USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT
GAIN Report Number: CB1303
Post: Miami ATO
Caribbean Environment for U.S. Agricultural Exports
Agriculture in the Economy
Market Development Reports
Omar Gonzalez & Katherine Nishiura
Despite slow growth economic conditions, the Caribbean continues to gobble up U.S. agricultural
products at record levels ($1.4 billion in 2012). This report outlines the political, economic, agricultural
policy, trade, and SPS regulatory environment faced by U.S. agricultural suppliers in this vast and
General Political Situation and Trends:
The Caribbean is one of the most fragmented and diverse regions in the world. This vast geographic
area is covered by two regional FAS offices, the Office of Agricultural Affairs (OAA) in Santo
Domingo and the Caribbean Basin Agricultural Trade Office (CBATO) in Miami. The OAA in Santo
Domingo covers the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Haiti. The CBATO covers practically all other
island markets. Specifically, CBATO islands of coverage include: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda,
Aruba, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Caribbean Netherlands or BES
Islands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba), Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Montserrat, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Maarten, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands.
* * * * *
Politically speaking, the CBATO’s region of coverage is a mix of independent states, overseas
departments or dependencies of European countries, and islands that are part of a European kingdom.
Practically all of the islands have some sort of democratic parliamentary system or internal self-
government, and they maintain political, economic and cultural ties with Europe of varying degrees of
Countries in the region also have generally good relations, including close commercial and social ties,
with the United States. In islands where there is a high dependence on U.S. tourism as the principal
source of income (e.g., The Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Aruba, and Turks and Caicos) this is
more evident than in those that retain close ties with Europe, particularly in the French Antilles. Canada
has close relations with its many Commonwealth partners in the region. Cuba, the largest and most
populated country in the region, maintains diplomatic relations with most of its Caribbean neighbors.
Within our region there are several political and economic alliances. The most notable are:
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is made up of 15 Member States and five associate members.
It comprises most CBATO islands of coverage as well as Belize, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica and Suriname.
Upon obtaining their new autonomous country status, in 2011 Sint Maarten and Curacao expressed
interest in joining CARICOM as Associate Members. In February 2012 CARICOM set up a working
group to study matters pertaining to associate membership, including that of Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
CARICOM’s Single Market and Economy (CSME) provides for free intra-regional movement of goods
and a 40 percent common external tariff (CET) for extra-regional goods, among other things.
The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is made up of nine small, mostly developing
nations in its region. In January 2011, the OECS’ Economic Union entered into force, creating a single
financial and economic space among six OECS countries. Many elements of the OECS Economic
Union were already in place under CARICOM’s CSME. All OECS countries, with the exception of the
British Virgin Islands, use a single currency, the Eastern Caribbean Dollar, the existence of which
predates the creation of the Economic Union. The exchange rate with the U.S. Dollar is fixed (US$1.00
= EC$2.70). As a practical matter, trade in goods between OECS countries is very low.
The Caribbean Forum of African, Caribbean, and Pacific States (CARIFORUM) is made up of 16
Caribbean countries, all former colonies of European countries. They are: the CARICOM countries
(with the exception of Montserrat), Cuba and the Dominican Republic. The 2008 European Union
(EU)-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) helps to bind this group together. (Cuba
is the only CARIFORUM country which is not part of the EPA with the EU.) In 2011 a joint
Caribbean-EU Strategy was developed, which aimed at laying the groundwork for a more mature
relationship encompassing political dialogue and development cooperation over a five–year period
which began in 2012. More recently, however, CARIFORUM countries have expressed publicly their
concern at the implications of EU development policy decisions in 2012 that will direct assistance move
toward lower income countries and reduce aid for middle income countries, such as the majority of the
Venezuela’s prominence in the Caribbean Basin has risen over the past five years. Dominica, Antigua
and Barbuda, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are members of the Venezuela-led Bolivarian
Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA). St. Lucia and Suriname, which were guests at the
February 2012 ALBA meeting in Caracas, have expressed interest in becoming full members. ALBA
has provided considerable economic assistance to its Caribbean members in areas such as infrastructure,
agriculture, and education (including scholarships for study in Cuba). Many Caribbean countries,
including the ALBA members and The Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Lucia, are
also part of PetroCaribe, an alliance with Venezuela that allows signatory countries to purchase oil from
the South American country at preferential terms (up-front payment of 50 to 60 percent of the cost of
the petroleum shipment and low interest 25-year terms to pay the balance).
See Appendix IV for a listing of CBATO island representation in selected international organizations.
Macroeconomic Situation and Trends:
According to the UN’s Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), real
GDP for the English and Dutch-speaking Caribbean (which makes up most of the CBATO’s region of
coverage) grew by 1.1 percent in 2012, following 0.4 percent growth in 2011. The economic situation
in the United States and Europe has dampened demand for goods and services from the Caribbean. This
is especially troubling for the tourism sector, the economic engine of most Caribbean economies, which
draws roughly 50 percent of its visitors from the United States and 20 percent from Europe. While
tourist arrivals to the region continue to inch upward, , Caribbean Tourism Organization data show
aggregate spending by visitors is just now catching up to levels prior to the global crisis in 2008-09.
This has kept the sector’s revenues (and thus economic growth) in check.
A second factor affecting the recovery is the high debt burden that many Caribbean islands face, which
according to the IMF by the close of 2012 was projected to average nearly 95 percent of GDP for the
tourism-dependent countries of the region. This represents a 15 percent swelling of public debt since
the 2008-09 global financial crisis. Saint Kitts & Nevis and Grenada have debt-to-GDP ratios in excess
of 100 percent, while several others in the CBATO region have ratios between 50 and 100 percent.
These countries are trying to address the problem through a combination of revenue-raising and
expenditure-cutting measures, as they face pressure from the IMF and credit rating agencies. In 2012
Barbados saw its credit rating downgraded by both Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s Investors Services.
Also in 2012, Moody’s downgraded The Bahamas and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, while
Standard & Poor’s downgraded Bermuda.
In addition, the health of the region’s financial sector has suffered due to the aftermath of the collapse of
insurance and banking entities in recent years. According to the IMF, bank non-performing loans are
also on the ascent.
Given these circumstances, economic performance for the region is expected to improve only
marginally in 2013, with IMF and ECLAC real GDP growth projections ranging from 1.4 to 2.0
percent, respectively. However, an economic slowdown in the United States or a deepening of the
recession in Europe could cut demand for Caribbean products and services (including tourism), curtail
remittances, and exacerbate the already heavy public debt situation. The future of PetroCaribe in a post-
Chavez Venezuela may also be a source of uncertainty for participating islands.
Agriculture in the Economy:
The total land area of the CBATO islands is 23,783 square kilometers (9,183 square miles), roughly the
size of New Hampshire. Only about seven percent of this land is arable and an even smaller percentage
is actually utilized for farming. Other challenges include: scant water resources in some islands; few
economies of scale; labor shortfalls due to poor returns or wages compared to the services sector;
disease and pest issues; inadequate post harvest handling and cold chain facilities; and hurricanes
ripping through the region every year.
Due to these many constraints, agriculture’s contribution to GDP ranges from 1 percent or less in
Aruba, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Saint Martin, Sint Maarten, Trinidad
and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands to 13.2 percent in Dominica. In most other islands,
agriculture’s contribution to GDP is between one and five percent. Commercial farming is concentrated
in bananas and sugarcane. However, deterioration of preferential market access to the EU has
negatively impacted production of these crops in islands such as Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint
Kitts & Nevis, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Many of the islands produce tropical fruits,
vegetables, root crops, coconuts, and spices. A few islands also produce dairy, poultry, pigs, goats, and
sheep. See Appendix II for agricultural statistics by island.
Domestic Agricultural Policy Overview:
While most Caribbean governments devote some resources and efforts toward agriculture and rural
development, budget and staff limitations generally constrain large-scale or long-term focus on the
sector. Many islands have small extension programs. In the case of local produce, several islands have
seasonal price supports, short-lived seasonal import bans on selected items, and/or quasi-government
organizations which operate retail outlets aimed at helping farmers market their production and obtain
“fair” prices. Governments are expressing greater interest in agriculture, however, driven since the late
2000s by food security concerns (see the Food Security section for more) and the desire to reduce food
Trinidad and Tobago is perhaps the country which has been most active in this regard. In March 2012,
the Government of Trinidad and Tobago (GOTT) unveiled an ambitious plan to expand its agricultural
sector and cut the country’s estimated $700 million food import bill in half by 2015. The National Food
Production Action Plan 2012-2015 focuses on boosting production of basic staples, vegetables, fruits
and livestock, as well as developing the aquaculture sector. The size of the Action Plan’s budget is not
known and its impact remains to be seen. Reportedly, the GOTT is also exploring collaboration with
the Government of Guyana (GOG) to facilitate an arrangement that would see Trinbagonian businesses
investing in farming in Guyana, namely in rice. The idea of Guyana capitalizing on its farming
resources (ample land and water) to boost its food production and help ameliorate the region’s food
security situation is not a new one. The Jagdeo Initiative, a plan originally proposed in 2003 by the
former Guyanese President, Bharrat Jagdeo, called (among other things) for the establishment of
“megafarms” in Guyana that could supply neighboring Caribbean countries with rice and other crops.
GOTT and GOG recent efforts, if successful, would be a step in this direction.
A United Nations Environment Programme/Global Environment Facility (UNEP/GEF) four-year, $13
million Regional Project for Implementing National Biosafety Frameworks (NBFs) in the Caribbean
formally got underway in 2012. The project aims to assist 12 CARICOM countries (nine of which are
part of the CBATO’s region of coverage) to comply with their obligations under the Cartagena Protocol
on Biosafety (CPB). This project may result in the implementation of new regulations affecting trade in
Agricultural Trade Environment:
In terms of agricultural products, the United States posted a $1.3 billion positive trade balance with the
CBATO islands in 2012. The United States imported $116 million in agricultural, fish and forestry
products from the region, with seafood from The Bahamas and Trinidad and Tobago accounting for the
lion’s share (over two-thirds) of these imports. By contrast, the United States exported a record-high
$1.4 billion in agricultural, fish, and forestry products to the region (see Appendix III), up 5.7 percent
from 2011. Consumer-oriented products alone, which account for over 60 percent of these exports, set a
new high of $874 million in the process. The top five export markets within our region are Trinidad &
Tobago, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, and Aruba. Top export products are poultry meat, red
meats (fresh, chilled & frozen), snack foods, dairy products, and wheat. Overall U.S. market share is
estimated at 55 percent, ranging from single digits in the French Antilles to as much as 95 percent in
U.S. Agricultural Exports to the Caribbean Basin
Source: Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics
As the data demonstrate, the CBATO’s region of coverage is quite open and receptive to agricultural
imports from the United States. Practically all the CBATO’s islands of coverage are WTO and Codex
members, or are represented in these organizations by way of being overseas territories of either the
U.K. or France. A WTO Working Party has been established to consider The Bahamas’ request to
accede to the body. The current government has announced its intent to complete its accession by the
end of 2014. See Appendix IV for a listing of CBATO Island Representation in Selected International
The Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union is scheduled over the next 25 years to
gradually reduce Caribbean tariffs to zero for a large share of agricultural goods from the EU. The
CARIFORUM countries first and second rounds of EPA tariff reductions were scheduled for January 1,
2011 and January 1, 2013, respectively. Media reports, however, indicate that implementation of these
cuts has been uneven.
CARICOM is a party to trade agreements with Colombia, Cuba, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic,
and Venezuela. In addition, CARICOM is negotiating a free trade agreement with Canada. So far the
two sides have concluded four rounds of negotiations, with an aim at having an agreement in place by
the end of 2013. In 2011 Canada exported $130.8 million in agricultural products to CARICOM-
member countries. Canada’s major exports to the region include wheat, fresh/frozen pork and other
meat products, pulses, potatoes and French fries, flour, malt, and dairy products.
In the medium term, China, India, Argentina and Chile are other countries with the potential to become
significant trading competitors in the Caribbean. The expansion of the Panama Canal, which is
expected to conclude by 2014, bears watching. Larger, post-Panamax vessels from Asia transiting
through the canal could possibly find it advantageous to make a strategic stop at a Caribbean port or a
southern U.S. port, from which Asian products could be distributed to the rest of the Caribbean.
Whether international distribution channels in the Caribbean Basin will be affected by the Panama
Canal expansion remains to be seen.
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Issues and Regulatory Systems:
Sanitary product registration, laboratory testing, special certification, and pre-market approval are not
required to import the vast majority of foodstuffs into most islands. For products that do require import
approval or certification (mainly meat and poultry, dairy, seafood, and produce), most countries try to
follow international standards and guidelines. U.S. labels are generally accepted without a problem,
although occasionally U.S. exporters run into problems with local authorities over U.S. products not
fully complying with country of origin and expiration date requirements. These problems can usually
be resolved, at least temporarily, with stick-on labels.
In most islands, food safety responsibilities fall under the Ministry of Public Health or its equivalent.
The Ministry of Agriculture may also play a role with plant and animal products, both in terms of public
health and in terms of plant and animal health. The fragmented nature of the Caribbean has contributed
to the development of a number of differences from country to country in SPS and other regulatory
requirements and procedures. Resources available to fund regulatory systems, including enforcement,
vary widely as well.
Hurricanes are the number one threat to the region’s food security, and thus emergency preparedness
and response are essential to ensuring the uninterrupted flow of food trade. Other factors, such as
interruptions in transportation in the aftermath of 9/11, the 2007/2008 global spike in food prices, and
the economic crisis of 2008-2009 have heightened food security concerns in some islands.
Many island governments are making efforts, within their resource limitations, to promote greater food
production. There is also interest in addressing the food security issue at the regional level. Regional
efforts in 2010-11 resulted in CARICOM approval in October 2011 of a five-year action plan to set in
motion its Regional Food and Nutrition Security Policy. The policy identifies four overarching
Food Availability – Promote the sustainable production, processing, preparation, commercialization
and consumption of safe, affordable, nutritious, high quality Caribbean food commodities/products.
Food Access – Ensure regular access of Caribbean households, especially the poor and vulnerable, to
sufficient quantities of safe, affordable, quality foods at all times, particularly in response to diverse
socioeconomic and natural shocks.
Food Utilization/Nutritional Adequacy – Improve the nutritional status of the Caribbean population,
particularly with respect to non-communicable diseases including diabetes, hypertension and obesity.
Stability of the Food Supply – Improve the resilience of the region’s national communities and
households to natural and socio-economic crises.
While CARICOM’s Regional Food and Nutrition Security Policy and some island-specific efforts are
noteworthy, there is broad recognition in the region that efforts to boost farm output will not lead to
food self-sufficiency. Still, the objective of improving production of select priority items that can be
effectively produced and traded within the region enjoys policy and political appeal. The Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is focusing its efforts upon: small ruminants
(sheep and goats), papaya, hot pepper, poultry, sweet potato, aquaculture, vegetables, coconut, cassava,
golden apple, red pea, cow pea, and marine fish. Individual islands with commercial poultry operations
are also prioritizing poultry production. To a lesser extent, meat and dairy production are also being
prioritized in some islands.
Advantages & Challenges for U.S. Suppliers:
W In some markets, such as the French West Indies, ith little arable land and food production,
traditional ties with Europe are a constraint. Chefs
the islands of the Caribbean must import most
in many islands are European trained and thus
of their food needs.
prefer European products.
Tourism continues to regain momentum and Caribbean economic well-being relies heavily on
remains a key factor in generating demand for tourism. Hence, economies remain very
U.S. products, particularly in the food service susceptible to factors that may disrupt tourism.
sector. The Caribbean is visited by
approximately six to seven million stop-over
The United States is the source of over 50 Ocean transportation rates from the United States
percent of all tourists visiting the region,
can be more expensive than those from Europe.
boosting demand for U.S. foods.
Political interest in attaining “regional food
Proximity and frequent transportation service security” or “food sovereignty” has strengthened in
to the region work to the advantage of U.S. recent years, and many islands are actively
suppliers. attempting to boost domestic production and
diversify food supplies.
The nature of individual island markets requires
Exposure to U.S. media as well as language, special effort from U.S. exporters: dealing with
cultural, and commercial ties with the United several small accounts; consolidation of small
States all contribute to consumers having a orders; complying with different import
positive attitude toward U.S. products. requirements for select products; ascertaining
different market characteristics in every island.
U.S. exporters, particularly south Florida The 2008 trade agreement between the Caribbean
consolidators, service the market very well and the EU has set the stage for increased
and are in many ways better positioned to competition from Europe. CARICOM is also
supply the Caribbean than competitors. negotiating a free trade agreement with Canada.
Other competitors are also targeting the Caribbean.
The United States has a dominant market
The expansion of the Panama Canal, which is
share in the vast majority of Caribbean
expected to be completed in 2014, may open the
islands (estimated at 55 percent overall).
door to greater competition from Asia.
Certain products, particularly meat and poultry,
The regulatory environment at present is may be restricted in selected markets due to either
fairly open to U.S. products.
EU or island-specific requirements.
Appendix I. Caribbean Islands at a Glance
(2012 Statistics, except where noted)
Stop-Over Real GDP Per Public
Population Tourist GDP GDP Capita Inflation Gross
Island / (Mid-year Arrivals (Purchasing Growth (ppp) (Consumer Debt (%
Country estimate) (2011) Power Parity) (%) Prices, %) of GDP)
Anguilla 15,423 65,783 $175.4 m 3ill 8.53 $12,2004 4.5 n/a
Antigua & 89,018 241,331 $1.535 bill 1 $17,500 1.4 97.8
Arub 6 7a 107,635 871,316 $2.258 b 6ill 2.4 $21,800 2.3 n/a
The Bahamas 316,182 1,344,189 $11.04 bill 2.5 $31,300 2.5 52.6
Barbados 287,733 567,724 $7.091 bill 0.7 $25,500 6.1 70.4
Bermuda 69,080 236,038 $4.5 b 7ill 4.67 $69,9007 2.7 n/a
British Virgin 31,148 337,773 $853 7.4 mill -0.64 $38,5007 4 n/a
Caribbean 21,1332 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Cayman 52,560 309,091 $2.25 b 4ill 1.14 $43,8007 1.2 n/a
Curaçao 145,8342 390,297 $2.838 b 4ill 3.54 $15,0007 2.31 n/a
Dominica 73,126 75,546 $1.035 bill 0.4 $14,600 2 72.3
Grenada 109,011 118,295 $1.471 bill 0.5 $14,100 3.2 105.4
Guadeloupe 466,400 407,300 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Martinique 408,700 489,000 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Montserrat 5,146 5,396 $43.78 5 mill 3.54 $8,5005 3.3 n/a
Saint 7,332 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Saint Kitts & 50,726 94,000 $890 million 0 $15,500 0.7 144.9
Saint Lucia 162,178 312,404 $2.234 bill 0.7 $13,300 4.4 78.7
Saint Martin 30,959 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Saint Vincent 103,537 73,866 $1.301 bill 1.2 $11,900 5.1 68.3
Sint Maarten 39,0882 424,340 4 $794.7 mill 1.64 $15,4004 0.73 n/a
Trinidad & 1,226,383 427,900 $27.12 bill 0.7 $20,400 8.7 35.7
Turks & 46,335 n/a $216 mi 8ll 4.99 $11,5008 2.5 n/a
TOTAL 3,864,685 6,791, 589 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
1. 2011 estimate; 2. 2010 estimate; 3. 2009 estimate; 4. 2008 estimate; 5. 2006 estimate; 6. 2005 estimate; 7. 2004
estimate; 8. 2002 estimate; 9. 2000 estimate.
Source: Population data from CIA World Factbook, Euromonitor, and Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands
Antilles; Tourist arrival data from Caribbean Tourism Organization and Euromonitor; GDP & inflation data from CIA World
Factbook, debt figures from IMF, Regional Economic Outlook: Western Hemisphere.
Appendix II. Caribbean Agriculture at a Glance
Land Area % of Crop Prod. Food
Island / Country (sq. km.) / Ag % Labor Index 2010 Prod.
% Arable of Force in (’04-’06 Index Agricultural Products
GDP Ag. =100)
Anguilla 91 / 0 2.2 4 n/a n/a Small quantities of tobacco,
Antigua 443 / 18.2 2.1 7 101.2 106.1 Cotton, fruits, vegetables,
Aruba 180 / 10.5 0.4 n/a n/a n/a Aloes; livestock; fish
The Bahamas 10,010 / 2.1 5 110 110.6 Citrus, vegetables; poultry
Barbados 430 / 37.2 3.1 10 94.7 100.1 Sugarcane, vegetables, cotton
Bermuda 54 / 20 0.7 3 115 110.9 Bananas, vegetables, citrus,
flowers, dairy products, honey
British Virgin 151 / 20 1 0.6 n/a n/a Fruits, vegetables; livestock,
Islands poultry; fish
Caribbean 322 / n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Very limited agriculture
Cayman Islands 264 / 3.9 0.2 1.9 102.2 103.2 Vegetables, fruit; livestock;
Curaçao 444 / 10 0.7 1.2 n/a n/a Aloe, sorghum, peanuts,
vegetables, tropical fruits
Dominica 751 / 6.7 13.2 40 112.5 108.6 Bananas, citrus, mangoes, root
crops, coconuts, cocoa
Guadeloupe 1,628 / 15 15 n/a n/a Sugarcane, bananas,
n/a vegetables, plantain, cocoa,
flowers, root crops
Grenada 344 / 5.9 5.2 11 88.4 93.5 Bananas, cocoa, nutmeg,
mace, citrus, avocados, root
crops, sugarcane, corn, veg.
Martinique 1,128 / 6 n/a n/a n/a Sugarcane, bananas,
n/a pineapples, cut flowers,
avocados, citrus, vegetables;
Montserrat 102 / 20 1.6 n/a n/a n/a Cabbages, carrots, cucumbers,
tomatoes, onions, peppers;
St. Barthélemy 21 / n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a No significant agriculture
St. Kitts & Nevis 261 / 19.4 1.6 n/a 19.1 29.3 Sugarcane, rice, yams,
vegetables, bananas; fish
St. Lucia 606 / 6.5 2.7 21.7 108.4 110.9 Bananas, coconuts,
vegetables, citrus, root crops,
St. Martin 54 / n/a 1 n/a n/a n/a No significant agriculture,
St. Vincent & 389 / 18 6.5 26 124.2 116 Bananas, coconuts, sweet
the Grenadines potatoes, spices; cattle, sheep,
pigs, goats; fish
Sint Maarten 34 / 10 0.4 1.1 n/a n/a Sugar
Trinidad & 5,128 / 0.3 3.8 64.1 89 Cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee,
Tobago 14.6 vegetables; poultry
Turks & Caicos 948 / 2.3 1 20 n/a n/a Corn, beans, cassava (tapioca),
citrus fruits; fish
1. Crop production index includes all crops except fodder crops.
2. Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are
excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value.
Source: CIA World Factbook, World Bank (World Development Indicators), Euromonitor & CBATO research.
Appendix III. U.S. Agricultural Exports to the Caribbean, CY2012
(Thousands of Dollars)
D.R., Jamaica All Caribbean
CBATO Islands Cuba & Haiti Islands
Bulk 171,881 199,824 705,029 1,076,734
Intermediate 167,665 79,465 477,316 724,446
Consumer 874,337 181,123 681,358 1,736,818
Forest Prod. 151,059 0 89,795 240,854
Seafood 35,942 0 17,048 52,990
Total 1,400,884 460,412 1,970,546 3,831,842
Source: Derived from U.S. Bureau of the Census trade data.
Appendix IV. CBATO Island Representation in Selected International Organizations
Codex CARICOM OECS CARIFORUM IICA
Country/Island WTO Commission Member Member Member Member
Anguilla 1/ 1/ Associate Associate
Antigua & Barbuda Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Aruba 2/ 2/ Observer
The Bahamas Observer Yes Yes Yes Yes
Barbados Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bermuda 1/ 1/ Associate
British Virgin 1/ 1/ Associate Associate
Islands member member
Caribbean 3/ 3/
Cayman Islands 1/ 1/ Associate
Curaçao 2/ 2/
Dominica Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Grenada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Guadeloupe 5/ 5/
Martinique 5/ 5/
Montserrat 1/ 1/ Yes Yes
Saint Barthélemy 6/ 6/
Saint Kitts & Nevis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Saint Lucia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Saint Martin 6/ 6/
Saint Vincent & The Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sint Maarten 2/ 2/
Trinidad & Tobago Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Turks and Caicos 1/ 1/ Associate
1/ - As an overseas territory of the U.K., it is indirectly represented thru the U.K.; 2/ - As an autonomous country within
the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it is indirectly represented thru the Kingdom; 3/- As overseas municipalities of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Caribbean Netherlands are represented by the Kingdom; 4/ - The Bahamas is in the
process of WTO accession. The first accession Working Party meeting for The Bahamas was held on September 14,
2010; 5/ - As an overseas Department of France, it is represented by France; 6/ - As an overseas collectivity of France, it
is represented by France.
Source: CBATO research.