Caribbean Environment for U.S. Agricultural Exports

An Expert's View about Sales in the Dominican Republic

Posted on: 21 Mar 2013

Despite slow growth economic conditions, the Caribbean continues to gobble up U.S. agricultural products at record levels ($1.4 billion in 2012).

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary Public - Date: 3/1/2013 GAIN Report Number: CB1303 Caribbean Basin Post: Miami ATO Caribbean Environment for U.S. Agricultural Exports Report Categories: Agricultural Situation Agriculture in the Economy Market Development Reports Market Promotion/Competition Promotion Opportunities Exporter Guide Approved By: Katherine Nishiura Prepared By: Omar Gonzalez & Katherine Nishiura Report Highlights: Despite slow growth economic conditions, the Caribbean continues to gobble up U.S. agricultural products at record levels ($1.4 billion in 2012). This report outlines the political, economic, agricultural policy, trade, and SPS regulatory environment faced by U.S. agricultural suppliers in this vast and fragmented region. General Information: General Political Situation and Trends: The Caribbean is one of the most fragmented and diverse regions in the world. This vast geographic area is covered by two regional FAS offices, the Office of Agricultural Affairs (OAA) in Santo Domingo and the Caribbean Basin Agricultural Trade Office (CBATO) in Miami. The OAA in Santo Domingo covers the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Haiti. The CBATO covers practically all other island markets. Specifically, CBATO islands of coverage include: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Caribbean Netherlands or BES Islands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba), Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Maarten, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands. * * * * * Politically speaking, the CBATO’s region of coverage is a mix of independent states, overseas departments or dependencies of European countries, and islands that are part of a European kingdom. Practically all of the islands have some sort of democratic parliamentary system or internal self- government, and they maintain political, economic and cultural ties with Europe of varying degrees of closeness. Countries in the region also have generally good relations, including close commercial and social ties, with the United States. In islands where there is a high dependence on U.S. tourism as the principal source of income (e.g., The Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Aruba, and Turks and Caicos) this is more evident than in those that retain close ties with Europe, particularly in the French Antilles. Canada has close relations with its many Commonwealth partners in the region. Cuba, the largest and most populated country in the region, maintains diplomatic relations with most of its Caribbean neighbors. Within our region there are several political and economic alliances. The most notable are: The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is made up of 15 Member States and five associate members. It comprises most CBATO islands of coverage as well as Belize, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica and Suriname. Upon obtaining their new autonomous country status, in 2011 Sint Maarten and Curacao expressed interest in joining CARICOM as Associate Members. In February 2012 CARICOM set up a working group to study matters pertaining to associate membership, including that of Curaçao and Sint Maarten. CARICOM’s Single Market and Economy (CSME) provides for free intra-regional movement of goods and a 40 percent common external tariff (CET) for extra-regional goods, among other things. The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is made up of nine small, mostly developing nations in its region. In January 2011, the OECS’ Economic Union entered into force, creating a single financial and economic space among six OECS countries. Many elements of the OECS Economic Union were already in place under CARICOM’s CSME. All OECS countries, with the exception of the British Virgin Islands, use a single currency, the Eastern Caribbean Dollar, the existence of which predates the creation of the Economic Union. The exchange rate with the U.S. Dollar is fixed (US$1.00 = EC$2.70). As a practical matter, trade in goods between OECS countries is very low. The Caribbean Forum of African, Caribbean, and Pacific States (CARIFORUM) is made up of 16 Caribbean countries, all former colonies of European countries. They are: the CARICOM countries (with the exception of Montserrat), Cuba and the Dominican Republic. The 2008 European Union (EU)-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) helps to bind this group together. (Cuba is the only CARIFORUM country which is not part of the EPA with the EU.) In 2011 a joint Caribbean-EU Strategy was developed, which aimed at laying the groundwork for a more mature relationship encompassing political dialogue and development cooperation over a five–year period which began in 2012. More recently, however, CARIFORUM countries have expressed publicly their concern at the implications of EU development policy decisions in 2012 that will direct assistance move toward lower income countries and reduce aid for middle income countries, such as the majority of the Caribbean countries. Venezuela’s prominence in the Caribbean Basin has risen over the past five years. Dominica, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are members of the Venezuela-led Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA). St. Lucia and Suriname, which were guests at the February 2012 ALBA meeting in Caracas, have expressed interest in becoming full members. ALBA has provided considerable economic assistance to its Caribbean members in areas such as infrastructure, agriculture, and education (including scholarships for study in Cuba). Many Caribbean countries, including the ALBA members and The Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Saint Lucia, are also part of PetroCaribe, an alliance with Venezuela that allows signatory countries to purchase oil from the South American country at preferential terms (up-front payment of 50 to 60 percent of the cost of the petroleum shipment and low interest 25-year terms to pay the balance). See Appendix IV for a listing of CBATO island representation in selected international organizations. Macroeconomic Situation and Trends: According to the UN’s Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), real GDP for the English and Dutch-speaking Caribbean (which makes up most of the CBATO’s region of coverage) grew by 1.1 percent in 2012, following 0.4 percent growth in 2011. The economic situation in the United States and Europe has dampened demand for goods and services from the Caribbean. This is especially troubling for the tourism sector, the economic engine of most Caribbean economies, which draws roughly 50 percent of its visitors from the United States and 20 percent from Europe. While tourist arrivals to the region continue to inch upward, , Caribbean Tourism Organization data show aggregate spending by visitors is just now catching up to levels prior to the global crisis in 2008-09. This has kept the sector’s revenues (and thus economic growth) in check. A second factor affecting the recovery is the high debt burden that many Caribbean islands face, which according to the IMF by the close of 2012 was projected to average nearly 95 percent of GDP for the tourism-dependent countries of the region. This represents a 15 percent swelling of public debt since the 2008-09 global financial crisis. Saint Kitts & Nevis and Grenada have debt-to-GDP ratios in excess of 100 percent, while several others in the CBATO region have ratios between 50 and 100 percent. These countries are trying to address the problem through a combination of revenue-raising and expenditure-cutting measures, as they face pressure from the IMF and credit rating agencies. In 2012 Barbados saw its credit rating downgraded by both Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s Investors Services. Also in 2012, Moody’s downgraded The Bahamas and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, while Standard & Poor’s downgraded Bermuda. In addition, the health of the region’s financial sector has suffered due to the aftermath of the collapse of insurance and banking entities in recent years. According to the IMF, bank non-performing loans are also on the ascent. Given these circumstances, economic performance for the region is expected to improve only marginally in 2013, with IMF and ECLAC real GDP growth projections ranging from 1.4 to 2.0 percent, respectively. However, an economic slowdown in the United States or a deepening of the recession in Europe could cut demand for Caribbean products and services (including tourism), curtail remittances, and exacerbate the already heavy public debt situation. The future of PetroCaribe in a post- Chavez Venezuela may also be a source of uncertainty for participating islands. Agriculture in the Economy: The total land area of the CBATO islands is 23,783 square kilometers (9,183 square miles), roughly the size of New Hampshire. Only about seven percent of this land is arable and an even smaller percentage is actually utilized for farming. Other challenges include: scant water resources in some islands; few economies of scale; labor shortfalls due to poor returns or wages compared to the services sector; disease and pest issues; inadequate post harvest handling and cold chain facilities; and hurricanes ripping through the region every year. Due to these many constraints, agriculture’s contribution to GDP ranges from 1 percent or less in Aruba, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Saint Martin, Sint Maarten, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands to 13.2 percent in Dominica. In most other islands, agriculture’s contribution to GDP is between one and five percent. Commercial farming is concentrated in bananas and sugarcane. However, deterioration of preferential market access to the EU has negatively impacted production of these crops in islands such as Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts & Nevis, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Many of the islands produce tropical fruits, vegetables, root crops, coconuts, and spices. A few islands also produce dairy, poultry, pigs, goats, and sheep. See Appendix II for agricultural statistics by island. Domestic Agricultural Policy Overview: While most Caribbean governments devote some resources and efforts toward agriculture and rural development, budget and staff limitations generally constrain large-scale or long-term focus on the sector. Many islands have small extension programs. In the case of local produce, several islands have seasonal price supports, short-lived seasonal import bans on selected items, and/or quasi-government organizations which operate retail outlets aimed at helping farmers market their production and obtain “fair” prices. Governments are expressing greater interest in agriculture, however, driven since the late 2000s by food security concerns (see the Food Security section for more) and the desire to reduce food import bills. Trinidad and Tobago is perhaps the country which has been most active in this regard. In March 2012, the Government of Trinidad and Tobago (GOTT) unveiled an ambitious plan to expand its agricultural sector and cut the country’s estimated $700 million food import bill in half by 2015. The National Food Production Action Plan 2012-2015 focuses on boosting production of basic staples, vegetables, fruits and livestock, as well as developing the aquaculture sector. The size of the Action Plan’s budget is not known and its impact remains to be seen. Reportedly, the GOTT is also exploring collaboration with the Government of Guyana (GOG) to facilitate an arrangement that would see Trinbagonian businesses investing in farming in Guyana, namely in rice. The idea of Guyana capitalizing on its farming resources (ample land and water) to boost its food production and help ameliorate the region’s food security situation is not a new one. The Jagdeo Initiative, a plan originally proposed in 2003 by the former Guyanese President, Bharrat Jagdeo, called (among other things) for the establishment of “megafarms” in Guyana that could supply neighboring Caribbean countries with rice and other crops. GOTT and GOG recent efforts, if successful, would be a step in this direction. A United Nations Environment Programme/Global Environment Facility (UNEP/GEF) four-year, $13 million Regional Project for Implementing National Biosafety Frameworks (NBFs) in the Caribbean formally got underway in 2012. The project aims to assist 12 CARICOM countries (nine of which are part of the CBATO’s region of coverage) to comply with their obligations under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB). This project may result in the implementation of new regulations affecting trade in biotech products. Agricultural Trade Environment: In terms of agricultural products, the United States posted a $1.3 billion positive trade balance with the CBATO islands in 2012. The United States imported $116 million in agricultural, fish and forestry products from the region, with seafood from The Bahamas and Trinidad and Tobago accounting for the lion’s share (over two-thirds) of these imports. By contrast, the United States exported a record-high $1.4 billion in agricultural, fish, and forestry products to the region (see Appendix III), up 5.7 percent from 2011. Consumer-oriented products alone, which account for over 60 percent of these exports, set a new high of $874 million in the process. The top five export markets within our region are Trinidad & Tobago, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, and Aruba. Top export products are poultry meat, red meats (fresh, chilled & frozen), snack foods, dairy products, and wheat. Overall U.S. market share is estimated at 55 percent, ranging from single digits in the French Antilles to as much as 95 percent in The Bahamas. U.S. Agricultural Exports to the Caribbean Basin (U.S. Dollars) Source: Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics As the data demonstrate, the CBATO’s region of coverage is quite open and receptive to agricultural imports from the United States. Practically all the CBATO’s islands of coverage are WTO and Codex members, or are represented in these organizations by way of being overseas territories of either the U.K. or France. A WTO Working Party has been established to consider The Bahamas’ request to accede to the body. The current government has announced its intent to complete its accession by the end of 2014. See Appendix IV for a listing of CBATO Island Representation in Selected International Organizations. The Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union is scheduled over the next 25 years to gradually reduce Caribbean tariffs to zero for a large share of agricultural goods from the EU. The CARIFORUM countries first and second rounds of EPA tariff reductions were scheduled for January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2013, respectively. Media reports, however, indicate that implementation of these cuts has been uneven. CARICOM is a party to trade agreements with Colombia, Cuba, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela. In addition, CARICOM is negotiating a free trade agreement with Canada. So far the two sides have concluded four rounds of negotiations, with an aim at having an agreement in place by the end of 2013. In 2011 Canada exported $130.8 million in agricultural products to CARICOM- member countries. Canada’s major exports to the region include wheat, fresh/frozen pork and other meat products, pulses, potatoes and French fries, flour, malt, and dairy products. In the medium term, China, India, Argentina and Chile are other countries with the potential to become significant trading competitors in the Caribbean. The expansion of the Panama Canal, which is expected to conclude by 2014, bears watching. Larger, post-Panamax vessels from Asia transiting through the canal could possibly find it advantageous to make a strategic stop at a Caribbean port or a southern U.S. port, from which Asian products could be distributed to the rest of the Caribbean. Whether international distribution channels in the Caribbean Basin will be affected by the Panama Canal expansion remains to be seen. Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Issues and Regulatory Systems: Sanitary product registration, laboratory testing, special certification, and pre-market approval are not required to import the vast majority of foodstuffs into most islands. For products that do require import approval or certification (mainly meat and poultry, dairy, seafood, and produce), most countries try to follow international standards and guidelines. U.S. labels are generally accepted without a problem, although occasionally U.S. exporters run into problems with local authorities over U.S. products not fully complying with country of origin and expiration date requirements. These problems can usually be resolved, at least temporarily, with stick-on labels. In most islands, food safety responsibilities fall under the Ministry of Public Health or its equivalent. The Ministry of Agriculture may also play a role with plant and animal products, both in terms of public health and in terms of plant and animal health. The fragmented nature of the Caribbean has contributed to the development of a number of differences from country to country in SPS and other regulatory requirements and procedures. Resources available to fund regulatory systems, including enforcement, vary widely as well. Food Security: Hurricanes are the number one threat to the region’s food security, and thus emergency preparedness and response are essential to ensuring the uninterrupted flow of food trade. Other factors, such as interruptions in transportation in the aftermath of 9/11, the 2007/2008 global spike in food prices, and the economic crisis of 2008-2009 have heightened food security concerns in some islands. Many island governments are making efforts, within their resource limitations, to promote greater food production. There is also interest in addressing the food security issue at the regional level. Regional efforts in 2010-11 resulted in CARICOM approval in October 2011 of a five-year action plan to set in motion its Regional Food and Nutrition Security Policy. The policy identifies four overarching objectives:  Food Availability – Promote the sustainable production, processing, preparation, commercialization and consumption of safe, affordable, nutritious, high quality Caribbean food commodities/products.  Food Access – Ensure regular access of Caribbean households, especially the poor and vulnerable, to sufficient quantities of safe, affordable, quality foods at all times, particularly in response to diverse socioeconomic and natural shocks.  Food Utilization/Nutritional Adequacy – Improve the nutritional status of the Caribbean population, particularly with respect to non-communicable diseases including diabetes, hypertension and obesity.  Stability of the Food Supply – Improve the resilience of the region’s national communities and households to natural and socio-economic crises. While CARICOM’s Regional Food and Nutrition Security Policy and some island-specific efforts are noteworthy, there is broad recognition in the region that efforts to boost farm output will not lead to food self-sufficiency. Still, the objective of improving production of select priority items that can be effectively produced and traded within the region enjoys policy and political appeal. The Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is focusing its efforts upon: small ruminants (sheep and goats), papaya, hot pepper, poultry, sweet potato, aquaculture, vegetables, coconut, cassava, golden apple, red pea, cow pea, and marine fish. Individual islands with commercial poultry operations are also prioritizing poultry production. To a lesser extent, meat and dairy production are also being prioritized in some islands. Advantages & Challenges for U.S. Suppliers: Advantages Challenges W In some markets, such as the French West Indies, ith little arable land and food production, traditional ties with Europe are a constraint. Chefs the islands of the Caribbean must import most in many islands are European trained and thus of their food needs. prefer European products. Tourism continues to regain momentum and Caribbean economic well-being relies heavily on remains a key factor in generating demand for tourism. Hence, economies remain very U.S. products, particularly in the food service susceptible to factors that may disrupt tourism. sector. The Caribbean is visited by approximately six to seven million stop-over tourists annually. The United States is the source of over 50 Ocean transportation rates from the United States percent of all tourists visiting the region, can be more expensive than those from Europe. boosting demand for U.S. foods. Political interest in attaining “regional food Proximity and frequent transportation service security” or “food sovereignty” has strengthened in to the region work to the advantage of U.S. recent years, and many islands are actively suppliers. attempting to boost domestic production and diversify food supplies. The nature of individual island markets requires Exposure to U.S. media as well as language, special effort from U.S. exporters: dealing with cultural, and commercial ties with the United several small accounts; consolidation of small States all contribute to consumers having a orders; complying with different import positive attitude toward U.S. products. requirements for select products; ascertaining different market characteristics in every island. U.S. exporters, particularly south Florida The 2008 trade agreement between the Caribbean consolidators, service the market very well and the EU has set the stage for increased and are in many ways better positioned to competition from Europe. CARICOM is also supply the Caribbean than competitors. negotiating a free trade agreement with Canada. Other competitors are also targeting the Caribbean. The United States has a dominant market The expansion of the Panama Canal, which is share in the vast majority of Caribbean expected to be completed in 2014, may open the islands (estimated at 55 percent overall). door to greater competition from Asia. Certain products, particularly meat and poultry, The regulatory environment at present is may be restricted in selected markets due to either fairly open to U.S. products. EU or island-specific requirements. Author Defined: Appendix I. Caribbean Islands at a Glance (2012 Statistics, except where noted) Stop-Over Real GDP Per Public Population Tourist GDP GDP Capita Inflation Gross Island / (Mid-year Arrivals (Purchasing Growth (ppp) (Consumer Debt (% Country estimate) (2011) Power Parity) (%) Prices, %) of GDP) Anguilla 15,423 65,783 $175.4 m 3ill 8.53 $12,2004 4.5 n/a Antigua & 89,018 241,331 $1.535 bill 1 $17,500 1.4 97.8 Barbuda Arub 6 7a 107,635 871,316 $2.258 b 6ill 2.4 $21,800 2.3 n/a The Bahamas 316,182 1,344,189 $11.04 bill 2.5 $31,300 2.5 52.6 Barbados 287,733 567,724 $7.091 bill 0.7 $25,500 6.1 70.4 Bermuda 69,080 236,038 $4.5 b 7ill 4.67 $69,9007 2.7 n/a British Virgin 31,148 337,773 $853 7.4 mill -0.64 $38,5007 4 n/a Islands Caribbean 21,1332 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Netherlands Cayman 52,560 309,091 $2.25 b 4ill 1.14 $43,8007 1.2 n/a Islands Curaçao 145,8342 390,297 $2.838 b 4ill 3.54 $15,0007 2.31 n/a Dominica 73,126 75,546 $1.035 bill 0.4 $14,600 2 72.3 Grenada 109,011 118,295 $1.471 bill 0.5 $14,100 3.2 105.4 Guadeloupe 466,400 407,300 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Martinique 408,700 489,000 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Montserrat 5,146 5,396 $43.78 5 mill 3.54 $8,5005 3.3 n/a Saint 7,332 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Barthélemy Saint Kitts & 50,726 94,000 $890 million 0 $15,500 0.7 144.9 Nevis Saint Lucia 162,178 312,404 $2.234 bill 0.7 $13,300 4.4 78.7 Saint Martin 30,959 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Saint Vincent 103,537 73,866 $1.301 bill 1.2 $11,900 5.1 68.3 & The Grenadines Sint Maarten 39,0882 424,340 4 $794.7 mill 1.64 $15,4004 0.73 n/a Trinidad & 1,226,383 427,900 $27.12 bill 0.7 $20,400 8.7 35.7 Tobago Turks & 46,335 n/a $216 mi 8ll 4.99 $11,5008 2.5 n/a Caicos TOTAL 3,864,685 6,791, 589 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1. 2011 estimate; 2. 2010 estimate; 3. 2009 estimate; 4. 2008 estimate; 5. 2006 estimate; 6. 2005 estimate; 7. 2004 estimate; 8. 2002 estimate; 9. 2000 estimate. Source: Population data from CIA World Factbook, Euromonitor, and Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands Antilles; Tourist arrival data from Caribbean Tourism Organization and Euromonitor; GDP & inflation data from CIA World Factbook, debt figures from IMF, Regional Economic Outlook: Western Hemisphere. Appendix II. Caribbean Agriculture at a Glance Land Area % of Crop Prod. Food Island / Country (sq. km.) / Ag % Labor Index 2010 Prod. % Arable of Force in (’04-’06 Index Agricultural Products GDP Ag. =100) 1 2010 (’04-’06 = 100)2 Anguilla 91 / 0 2.2 4 n/a n/a Small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle Antigua 443 / 18.2 2.1 7 101.2 106.1 Cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock Aruba 180 / 10.5 0.4 n/a n/a n/a Aloes; livestock; fish The Bahamas 10,010 / 2.1 5 110 110.6 Citrus, vegetables; poultry 0.6 Barbados 430 / 37.2 3.1 10 94.7 100.1 Sugarcane, vegetables, cotton Bermuda 54 / 20 0.7 3 115 110.9 Bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers, dairy products, honey British Virgin 151 / 20 1 0.6 n/a n/a Fruits, vegetables; livestock, Islands poultry; fish Caribbean 322 / n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Very limited agriculture Netherlands Cayman Islands 264 / 3.9 0.2 1.9 102.2 103.2 Vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming Curaçao 444 / 10 0.7 1.2 n/a n/a Aloe, sorghum, peanuts, vegetables, tropical fruits Dominica 751 / 6.7 13.2 40 112.5 108.6 Bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts, cocoa Guadeloupe 1,628 / 15 15 n/a n/a Sugarcane, bananas, n/a vegetables, plantain, cocoa, flowers, root crops Grenada 344 / 5.9 5.2 11 88.4 93.5 Bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, veg. Martinique 1,128 / 6 n/a n/a n/a Sugarcane, bananas, n/a pineapples, cut flowers, avocados, citrus, vegetables; fish Montserrat 102 / 20 1.6 n/a n/a n/a Cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers; livestock products St. Barthélemy 21 / n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a No significant agriculture St. Kitts & Nevis 261 / 19.4 1.6 n/a 19.1 29.3 Sugarcane, rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fish St. Lucia 606 / 6.5 2.7 21.7 108.4 110.9 Bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root crops, cocoa St. Martin 54 / n/a 1 n/a n/a n/a No significant agriculture, limited fish St. Vincent & 389 / 18 6.5 26 124.2 116 Bananas, coconuts, sweet the Grenadines potatoes, spices; cattle, sheep, pigs, goats; fish Sint Maarten 34 / 10 0.4 1.1 n/a n/a Sugar Trinidad & 5,128 / 0.3 3.8 64.1 89 Cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, Tobago 14.6 vegetables; poultry Turks & Caicos 948 / 2.3 1 20 n/a n/a Corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), citrus fruits; fish 1. Crop production index includes all crops except fodder crops. 2. Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value. Source: CIA World Factbook, World Bank (World Development Indicators), Euromonitor & CBATO research. Appendix III. U.S. Agricultural Exports to the Caribbean, CY2012 (Thousands of Dollars) D.R., Jamaica All Caribbean CBATO Islands Cuba & Haiti Islands Bulk 171,881 199,824 705,029 1,076,734 Intermediate 167,665 79,465 477,316 724,446 Consumer 874,337 181,123 681,358 1,736,818 Forest Prod. 151,059 0 89,795 240,854 Seafood 35,942 0 17,048 52,990 Total 1,400,884 460,412 1,970,546 3,831,842 Source: Derived from U.S. Bureau of the Census trade data. Appendix IV. CBATO Island Representation in Selected International Organizations Codex CARICOM OECS CARIFORUM IICA Country/Island WTO Commission Member Member Member Member Member Member Anguilla 1/ 1/ Associate Associate member member Antigua & Barbuda Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Aruba 2/ 2/ Observer The Bahamas Observer Yes Yes Yes Yes 4/ Barbados Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Bermuda 1/ 1/ Associate member British Virgin 1/ 1/ Associate Associate Islands member member Caribbean 3/ 3/ Netherlands Cayman Islands 1/ 1/ Associate member Curaçao 2/ 2/ Dominica Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Grenada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Guadeloupe 5/ 5/ Martinique 5/ 5/ Montserrat 1/ 1/ Yes Yes Saint Barthélemy 6/ 6/ Saint Kitts & Nevis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Saint Lucia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Saint Martin 6/ 6/ Saint Vincent & The Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Grenadines Sint Maarten 2/ 2/ Trinidad & Tobago Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Turks and Caicos 1/ 1/ Associate Islands member 1/ - As an overseas territory of the U.K., it is indirectly represented thru the U.K.; 2/ - As an autonomous country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it is indirectly represented thru the Kingdom; 3/- As overseas municipalities of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Caribbean Netherlands are represented by the Kingdom; 4/ - The Bahamas is in the process of WTO accession. The first accession Working Party meeting for The Bahamas was held on September 14, 2010; 5/ - As an overseas Department of France, it is represented by France; 6/ - As an overseas collectivity of France, it is represented by France. Source: CBATO research.
Posted: 21 March 2013

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Caribbean Environment for U.S. Agricultural Exports   By Foreign Agricultural Service