Industrial Costs in Mexico

An Expert's View about Setting up a Business in Mexico

Posted on: 18 Jan 2012

If you are a small or medium sized business and you know there’s a market for your products in Mexico but don’t have the resources to have a presence in Mexico, we can help.

Industrial Costs in Mexico By Ed Juline +1 (956) 242-742 Introduction • In 2006 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) around the world continued to recuperate from a four-year decline • By the end of 2006, FDI in Mexico was between 18 and 20 billion dollars • Recovery from the 2008/2009 financial crisis is complete and FDI for 2010 should equal 2006/07 levels • T. Kearney Confidence Index and KPMG Competitive Alternatives report identified Mexico to be one of the best alternatives for investment • Mexico rated among the five developing countries receiving the most foreign investment • Mexico should continue to adapt its policies in energy, fiscal, legal, labor and transparency areas to offer genuine incentives for necessary productivity, markets, opportunities, security, efficiency, assistance, infrastructure and capacity Toddler-Democracy in Open Market Economy Industrial Parks Maquiladoras Labor & Auto Industry Logistics US Market “Floating” & Expatriate Exchange Loca Remittancestion Rate US-Like Practices Oil Domestic NAFTA Ma Free-Traderket Agreements Tax ndustrial Fiscal Loans Reform Is Incentives P Suppliersolicy Rules Product – Country Fit MEXICO CHINA • Product Characteristics • Product Characteristics – Customized – Commodity type – High mix – Low volume – Labor intensive – Technological turnover – Low cost of logistics – JIT products / short cycle – Low mix – high volume – Big or heavy – Domestic market – NAFTA advantages • Industry – IP protection – Footwear – Domestic market – Toys • Industry – Furniture – Aerospace – Textile & apparel – Automotive – Computers & peripherals – Medical – Small appliances – Software – Automotive – Design & engineering – Information technology – Data management – Repair & maintenance Source: MexicoNow Foreign Expansion Objectives Reduce Operating Costs 23% Access New Markets 22% Add Top Line Revenue 18% Improve Productivity 8% Develop New Technologies 8% Develop New Product Lines 7% Improve access to Labor / Skills 6% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Source: National Association of Manufacturers The LLC Labor Cost Advantage Did Not Shrink But Expanded In the Last Several Years 0.39 Indonesia 0.70 2003 Ch 0.80ina 1.27 2009 1.12 India 1.68 Ma 2.09laysia 2.80 Mex 2.45ico 3.28 Po 2.70land 3.83 B 2.75razil 3.90 Ta 5.67iwan 7.40 Ko 9.99rea 13.01 Spa 12.32in 14.29 Canada 18.44 21.38 Japan 20.68 22.61 Un 21.86ited States 25.34 Ge 30.60rmany 34.46 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Average hourly compensation of production workers, including benefits (US$) Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit; Euromonitor; S&PDRI; US Department of Labor; BCG Analysis Net Landed Manufacturing Cost 100% 90% Labor 80% 37% 70% 100% Hidden 3%Duties 2% 60% Hour Managemently 6% 8% Assets 3% Logistics 50% Incentives 3% 8% Loca Mov 68%l Sourcing 3% ing Cost 3% 40% 46% 30% HCC Cost Savings LCC Gross Cost Additional Costs LCC Net Landed Cost Source: Hypothetical case based on data of the Boston Consulting Group Most Important Location Factors Ability to Hire General, Skilled & 73% Technical Labor Operating Costs 66% Access to New Markets 50% Ease of Doing Business 46% Favorable Tax Environment 31% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Source: National Association of Manufacturers What is a Maquiladora? • The term "maquiladora" originally referred to the payment millers received from farmers for grinding corn into meal, or adding value. • Today the term refers to manufacturing plants in Mexico, to which foreign materials and parts are shipped, value added processes are conducted, and finished product is returned to the original market, usually duty free. • Enclave economy Maquiladora History and Trends • History – Began in 1964 – Mexico’s border industrialization program – Goal was to bring jobs to the border area – Limited to simple product assembly – Limited to the border area – Purchasing authority remained in the USA Maquiladora History and Trends • Trends / Today – Major source of employment for Mexico – Complex products and manufacturing processes – Allowed to move into the Interior of Mexico – Enjoys strong political support in Mexico – Most international industry operates as a Maquila – Purchasing authority is being established in Mexico Conditions to Qualify for the Maquiladora Program • Legal persons resident in Mexico • No restrictions on foreign investment • No restrictions on geographic location Importation by Maquiladoras • Term for temporary importations by Maquiladoras – Up to 18 months • Raw materials, parts and components • Fuels, lubricants and other materials consumed in production process • Packing and packaging materials • Labels and brochures – Life of the program • Machinery and equipment • Upon cancellation of program, Maquiladoras have two options – Export the imported machinery and equipment – Change the customs regime to definitive importation by paying corresponding taxes Recognized Forms of Incorporation There are three forms for conducting investment projects that are recognized in Mexican legislation: 1. Through the establishment of a foreign company in Mexican territory, which may take place through one of two modalities: a) As a company branch or office of representation, in which income is generated. These are companies legally constituted in foreign territory and legally recognized in Mexico. In order for these foreign companies to become established and regularly conduct commercial transactions in Mexico, authorization is required from the Ministry of the Economy for the purpose of enrollment in the Public Registry of Commerce. Foreign companies legally established in the country will not be allowed to conduct any activities or acquisitions that are reserved or subject to specific regulations under the Law on Foreign Investment. b) As an office of representation, in which income is not generated. These foreign companies may not carry out commercial transactions and are, instead, only entities representing foreign companies. Their sole purpose is to provide information and consultation services regarding the activities, products or services provided by their headquarter offices abroad. This type of office may only be established in national territory with authorization from the Ministry of the Economy; enrollment is not required and such an office must only request to be registered (in zeros) with the Treasury Ministry. 2. Through the incorporation of a Mexican company in which foreign investors may own up to 100% of capital. Mexican commercial legislation recognizes six types of companies. Foreign companies must prove they fall within one of these categories, and must obtain the corresponding authorization and registration with the Ministry of Foreign Relations and the Ministry of the Economy. The most common type is the Business Corporation, which may be constituted as a company with variable capital. It has a specific name and is composed exclusively of partners, whose obligation is limited to the payment of their shares. According to the Law on Foreign Investment (LIE), foreign investors may participate without restrictions in a Mexican commercial company, except when it involves activities or acquisitions that are reserved or subject to specific regulations. Since March 2002, reforms have been carried out with the aim of simplifying the process of initiating a business and making it more agile, as demonstrated in the diagram on the following page. 3. Through a Mexican company that is subject to specific regulations. Minority shareholdings or investments using the Neutral Investment scheme conducted by foreign individuals or companies is an option when the economic activity involved is subject to maximum limits of participation. NAFTA • Since this agreement was implemented in 1994, tariffs have been eliminated on 84.5% of all of Mexico’s non-oil and agricultural exports to the United States, and 79% of those to Canada. • Ten years after NAFTA entered into effect, only 1% of products remained subject to tariffs. • Therefore, the focus is now on other areas, such as the liberalization of rules of origin established in the Agreement. • As of June 2004, a preliminary agreement was reached for liberalizing rules of origin on a wide range of products, such as food products and industrial and consumer goods, with implementation January 1, 2005. • Current administrations committed to revamp NAFTA Source: GE Capital Source: Roche Industries Labor Relevant Aspects • Regulatory Framework – Federal Labor Law and Social Security Law • Basic Principles – No employment at will – Just causes defined by FLL: exhaustive list – Severance pay • 3 months salary • 20 days salary per year of employment • Capped seniority premium • Accrued and unpaid benefits • Mandatory Benefits – Profit sharing: 10% of pretax profit – Year-end bonus (Aguinaldo) – Vacation premium – Social security benefits – Overtime pay; Sunday rest Tax Laws in Mexico • Fiscal code • Income tax law and regulations covers corporations and individuals • Other taxes – Asset tax – backs up the income tax – income tax payments offset asset tax liability – Value Added Tax – Payroll taxes – “Miscellanea Fiscal” – temporary tax regulations • Income tax rate: – 30% in 2005 – 29% in 2006 – 28% in 2007 • Tax on net taxable income – Gross income as defined, less allowable deductions • Tax loss carry forwards allowed for 10 years • Withholding tax on gross amount of certain payments to foreign parties Investment Incentives • General policy – eliminate tax incentives • Big exception: Maquiladora presidential subsidy • No special incentives for foreign business enterprises locating in Mexico • Generally available tax incentives • Immediate deduction for purchases of fixed assets, in lieu of normal depreciation • Income tax credit for amounts spent on certain approved research and development programs Nuevo Leon Monterrey/Apodaca • Federal Incentives: – Reduction in payroll taxes. – Up to 96% deductions in specific assets. – Fiscal incentives in Research and Development. • State Incentives: – Development of a Business Agenda designed according to needs of companies. – Inter-governmental relations. – Program for Developing Suppliers. – Labor Training Program. – Reduction in payroll taxes. – Business connections between government, companies and academic systems. • Municipal Incentives: – Reduction in tax on real estate acquisition. – Reduction in property tax. • Sectors offering special opportunities – Automotive, software, aerospace and appliances. Tamaulipas Reynosa/Nuevo Laredo • State and municipal incentives: – Incentives and fiscal exemption from the 2% of payroll taxes. – Discounts and exemptions from tax payments and permits. – Financing and APP schemes. • Real estate: – Discounts in purchasing or rent of land plots and buildings. – Assistance for construction and developments. • Science and technology: – Tecno TAM Program. – Technologically-based business start-up programs. – Software Development Program. – Non-returnable funding for 50% of investment in Technological Research and Development. – Obtaining 30% fiscal credits for ISR (income tax) on total investment in Technological Research and Development activities. • Education and training: – Scholarships for training of up to 90 days and for up to three minimum wages. – Cooperative agreements with universities and technical schools to adapt study programs according to company needs. • Accompaniment programs – Certification and training in quality of processes. – Strategic alliances firm/firm for technology and knowledge transfer. – Regional center for competitiveness and economic development. – Suppliers development and productive chain program. • Sectors offering special opportunities – Autoparts, textile, electric-electronics, chemical and petrochemical, tourism, agroindustry and software. Jalisco Guadalajara • The state of Jalisco has a Law on Economic Promotion, which stipulates that the state government, through the State Council on Economic Promotion (CEPE), as a decentralized public entity of the Ministry of Economic Promotion, will be responsible for administering funds allocated to provide incentives for all types of productive projects in which local, national and foreign capital is invested and which lead to the creation of new sources of employment. • State incentives are non-returnable and can be used for: – Training for the labor force: including costs associated with upper middle level training for the company. Costs of sending Jalisco residents abroad for training, or bringing foreign experts to Jalisco to provide training. – Basic infrastructure: including costs associated with installation of electricity, drainage and other types of infrastructure up to the company site, to facilitate the initiation of productive project operations. Also included is the construction of roads and entrance lanes for facilitating access (not available within Guadalajara metropolitan area). – Infrastructure for protecting the environment: costs associated with building and installing water treatment plants, as well as environment protection systems. – 100% discount on payroll taxes for newly created businesses. – 50% discount on payroll taxes for businesses creating new jobs. • Sectors offering special opportunities – Electronic, software industry, automotive products, agroindustry, biotechnology and food sectors. San Luis Potosi San Luis Potosi • Incentives for newly-created companies: – Designation of account executive by the Ministry of Economic Development, for handling and following up on the company project. – Coordinated process for complying with requirements: service for municipal, state and federal permits and requirements, through the Ministry of Economic Development. – Training scholarships: Training Scholarships for workers, through an agreement with the Ministry of Labor of the San Luis Potosí state government. – Payroll tax: 2% discount applicable for the first year of operations. – Productive supplying and chaining: Service for locating suppliers and assistance provided by the Ministry of Economic Development, to create links with suppliers of raw materials, and direct and indirect materials for company processes. Service provided covers suppliers located in San Luis Potosí and in Mexico’s central region. • Other incentives: – There is a possibility of granting extraordinary assistance applicable to infrastructure for services that are required for the project. (Example: natural electricity, water, treated water, railway sidings). • Sectors offering special opportunities – Specialized mechanical metallurgy, stamping and die-casting, injected plastics, repairing and manufacturing of molds and die-casting equipment. Responsibilities under a Shelter Maquiladora Mexico Shelter Maquila Client – Directly manages the plant in Mexico like it is their own Machinery Equipmen w & Finishedt Processes Qua Rality Materials Legal General HR Accounting Import En Legal Facilitiestity Mgt Staffing Tax Export Solid Manufacturing Expertise ▲ Mexico Shelter Responsibilities ▲ The Benefits of a Shelter The Bottom line A Shelter Maquiladora takes the confusion out of establishing an operation in Mexico at a cost which is less than having your own operation thus helping you to achieve the benefits faster and allowing you to focus on what you do best; MANUFACTURE YOUR PRODUCTS The Benefits of a Shelter TYPICAL MEXICO COST PER FACTORY HOUR WHOLLY OWNED VS SHELTER 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 W 10 20 30 40 50holly Owned She NUMBER OF FACTORY STAFFlter Source: Roche Industries COST PER FACTORY . HOUR US$ . Why ? • Experience on the supplier and customer sides of the Mexican manufacturing industry.  We know NAFTA inside and out and have intimate understanding of the Mexican supply chains and its players. • Extensive portfolio of contacts in a variety of industries. Whether it's the electronics, appliance, automotive or medical industries, we are one phone call away from finding the right person for our client's needs. • US/European knowledge of Mexican risk mitigation. Unfortunately for us and fortunately for our clients, we have lived through years of the challenges and pitfalls of doing business in Mexico and can protect our clients. What can provide • Your team on the ground in Mexico • Savings of travel dollars • 24/7 coverage of projects and problems • No communication problems • No language/culture barriers • Objective analysis of various options • No real estate/shelter/broker/logistics bias • Complete transparency • Ongoing representation in sales and supplier search
Posted: 18 January 2012

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