Ease of Doing Business in Mexico 2011

A Lastest News about Trade Policy and Regulations in Mexico

Last updated: 31 Aug 2011

Annual report investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. for 183 countries. Courtesy of The World Bank and The International Finance Corporation.

Mexico © 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone 202-473-1000 Internet www.worldbank.org All rights reserved. 1 2 3 4 08 07 06 05 A copublication of The World Bank and the International Finance Corporation. This volume is a product of the staff of the World Bank Group. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. Rights and Permissions The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone 978-750-8400; fax 978-750-4470; Internet www.copyright.com. All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher,The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax 202-522-2422; e-mail pubrights@worldbank.org. Additional copies of Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs, Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times, Doing Business 2009, Doing Business 2008, Doing Business 2007: How to Reform, Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs, Doing Business in 2005: Removing Obstacles to Growth and Doing Business in 2004:Understanding Regulations may be purchased at www.doingbusiness.org. ISBN: 978-0-8213-7960-8 E-ISBN: 978-0-8213-8630-9 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7960-8 ISSN: 1729-2638 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for. Printed in the United States Current features News on the Doing Business project http://www.doingbusiness.org Rankings How economies rank-from 1 to 183 http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings/ Contents Business reformers Short summaries of DB2011 business reforms, lists of reformers Introduction since DB2004 and a ranking simulation tool and Aggregate Rankings http://www.doingbusiness.org/reforms/ 5 - Year Measure of Historical data Cumulative Change Customized data sets since DB2004 http://www.doingbusiness.org/custom-query/ Starting a Business Methodology and research Dealing with The methodologies and research papers underlying Doing Business Construction Permits http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/ Registering Property Download reports Access to Doing Business reports as well as subnational and regional Getting Credit reports, reform case studies and customized country and regional profiles Protecting Investors http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/ Paying Taxes Subnational and regional projects Differences in business regulations at the subnational and regional Trading Across Borders level http://www.doingbusiness.org/subnational-reports/ Enforcing Contracts Law library Closing a Business Online collection of business laws and regulations relating to business and gender issues Doing Business 2011 http://www.doingbusiness.org/law-library/ Business Reforms http://wbl.worldbank.org/ Contributors More than 8,200 specialists in 183 economies who participate in Doing Business http://www.doingbusiness.org/contributors/Doing-Business/ Business Planet Interactive map on the ease of doing business http://rru.worldbank.org/businessplanet Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs is the eighth in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. A set of regulations affecting 9 stages of a business?s life are measured: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in Doing Business 2011 are current as of June 1, 2010*. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where, and why. The Doing Business methodology has limitations. Other areas important to business such as an economy ?s proximity to large markets, the quality of its infrastructure services (other than those related to trading across borders), the security of property from theft and looting, the transparency of government procurement, macroeconomic conditions or the underlying strength of institutions, are not studied directly by Doing Business. To make the data comparable across economies, the indicators refer to a specific type of business, generally a local limited liability company operating in the largest business city. Because standard assumptions are used in the data collection, comparisons and benchmarks are valid across economies. The data not only highlight the extent of obstacles to doing business; they also help identify the source of those obstacles, supporting policymakers in designing reform. The data set covers 183 economies: 46 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 32 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 25 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 24 in East Asia and Pacific, 18 in the Middle East and North Africa and 8 in South Asia, as well as 30 OECD high-income economies. The following pages present the summary Doing Business indicators for Mexico. The data used for this economy profile come from the Doing Business database and are summarized in graphs. These graphs allow a comparison of the economies in each region not only with one another but also with the ?good practice? economy for each indicator. The good-practice economies are identified by their position in each indicator as well as their overall ranking and by their capacity to provide good examples of business regulation to other countries. These good-practice economies do not necessarily rank number 1 in the topic or indicator, but they are in the top 10. More information is available in the full report. Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs presents the indicators, analyzes their relationship with economic outcomes and recommends reforms. The data, along with information on ordering the report, are available on the Doing Business website (www.doingbusiness.org). * Except for the Paying Taxes indicator, which covers the period January to December of 2009. Note: Doing Business 2010 data and rankings have been recalculated to reflect changes to the methodology. 1 Economy Rankings - Ease of Doing Business Mexico is ranked 35 out of 183 economies. Singapore is the top ranked economy in the Ease of Doing Business. Mexico - Compared to global good practice economy as well as selected economies: Mexico's ranking in Doing Business 2011 Rank Doing Business 2011 Ease of Doing Business 35 Starting a Business 67 Dealing with Construction Permits 22 Registering Property 105 Getting Credit 46 Protecting Investors 44 Paying Taxes 107 Trading Across Borders 58 Enforcing Contracts 81 Closing a Business 23 2 Summary of Indicators - Mexico Starting a Business Procedures (number) 6 Time (days) 9 Cost (% of income per capita) 12.3 Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita) 9.2 Dealing with Construction Permits Procedures (number) 11 Time (days) 105 Cost (% of income per capita) 117.0 Registering Property Procedures (number) 5 Time (days) 74 Cost (% of property value) 5.2 Getting Credit Strength of legal rights index (0-10) 5 Depth of credit information index (0-6) 6 Public registry coverage (% of adults) 0.0 Private bureau coverage (% of adults) 71.6 Protecting Investors Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 8 Extent of director liability index (0-10) 5 Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 5 Strength of investor protection index (0-10) 6.0 Paying Taxes Payments (number per year) 6 Time (hours per year) 404 Profit tax (%) 23.1 Labor tax and contributions (%) 26.1 Other taxes (%) 1.3 Total tax rate (% profit) 50.5 Trading Across Borders Documents to export (number) 5 Time to export (days) 12 Cost to export (US$ per container) 1420 Documents to import (number) 4 Time to import (days) 12 Cost to import (US$ per container) 18803 Enforcing Contracts Procedures (number) 38 Time (days) 415 Cost (% of claim) 32.0 Closing a Business Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 66.7 Time (years) 1.8 Cost (% of estate) 18 The 5-year measure of cumulative change illustrates how the business regulatory environment has changed in 174 economies* from Doing Business 2006 to Doing Business 2011. Instead of highlighting which economies currently have the most business friendly environment, this new approach shows the extent to which an economy?s regulatory environment for business has changed compared with 5 years ago. This snapshot reflects all cumulative changes in an economy?s business regulation as measured by the Doing Business indicators -- such as a reduction in the time to start a business thanks to a one-stop shop or an increase in the strength of investor protection index thanks to new stock exchange rules that tighten disclosure requirements for related-party transactions. This figure shows the distribution of cumulative change across the 9 indicators and time between Doing Business 2006 and Doing Business 2011. DB change score 0.24 0.20 Doing business has become 0.16 easier 0.12 0.08 Doing 0.04 business has become more difficult 0.00 or more costly -0.04 China Mexico India Japan Chile Argentina Note: This year's DB change score ranges from -0.1 to 0.54. More details on how the DB change score is constructed can be found in the methodology section of the website. * Bahrain, The Bahamas, Brunei, Cyprus, Kosovo, Liberia, Luxembourg, Montenegro and Qatar do not feature in the new metric because they were included in the Doing Business report in years subsequent to the Doing Business 2005 report and hence, 5 years of data are not yet available. 6 1. Benchmarking Starting a Business Regulations Mexico is ranked 67 overall for Starting a Business. Ranking of Mexico in Starting a Business - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 7 The following table shows Starting a Business data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Procedures Time (days) Cost (% of Paid-in Min. Economies (number) income per Capital (% of capita) income per capita) Denmark 0.0 New Zealand 1 1 0.0 Selected Economy Mexico 6 9 12.3 9.2 Comparator Economies Argentina 14 26 14.2 2.7 Chile 8 22 6.8 0.0 China 14 38 4.5 118.3 India 12 29 56.5 188.8 Japan 8 23 7.5 0.0 8 2. Historical data: Starting a Business in Mexico Starting a Business data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 90 67 Procedures (number) 8 9 8 6 Time (days) 27 28 13 9 Cost (% of income per capita) 13.3 12.5 11.7 12.3 Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita) 11.6 11.0 8.9 9.2 3. Starting a Business sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 9 4. Overview of the steps to Starting a Business in Mexico It requires 6 procedures, takes 9 days, and costs 12.35 % GNI per capita to start a business in Mexico. No: Time to complete Procedure Cost to complete (days) 1 Obtain the authorization of using the company name online 1 MXN 965 and file the draft deed of incorporation with the notary online 2 Sign the deed of incorporation before a notary public, obtain 2 MXN 10500 (notary Tax Registry Number (RFC) and file online the deed of fees)+ MXN 1520 incorporation with the Public Register of Commerce (registration fees) 3 Register with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) 3 no charge 4 Register with the local tax administration (Secretaría de 1 no charge Finanzas del Gobierno del Distrito Federal) for payroll tax 5 Notice of opening a mercantile establishment before local 1 no charge government (Delegación) 6 Register with the National Business Information Registry 1 The costs can vary (Sistema de Information Empresarial, SIEM) from MXN $100 to MXN $670 10 5. Details on Starting a Business in Mexico This table summarizes the procedures and costs associated with setting up a business in Mexico. STANDARDIZED COMPANY Legal Form: Sociedad Anónima (S.A.) - Corporation Paid-in Minimum Capital: 9.2 (% of income per capita) City: Mexico City Procedure Obtain the authorization of using the company name online and file the draft deed of 1 incorporation with the notary online Time to complete(days): 1 Cost to complete: MXN 965 Comment: Applicant can obtain authorization of using the company name online from the following website tuempresa.gob.mx. After the name is reserved, the entrepreneur can choose the notary public that will grant the deed of incorporation and then file the draft deed of incorporation online to the notary. The notary informs the enterepreuner by email of the appointment date to sign the deed of incorporation. Procedure Sign the deed of incorporation before a notary public, obtain Tax Registry Number 2 (RFC) and file online the deed of incorporation with the Public Register of Commerce Time to complete(days): 2 Cost to complete: MXN 10500 (notary fees)+ MXN 1520 (registration fees) Comment: If the notary public drafts or provides expert advice on the company bylaws, notary fees are generally high, from MXN 5,000 to MXN 11,000. The company charter and bylaws must be drafted before appearing before a notary public. 11 Certain notaries in Mexico City have signed an agreement with the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público) (through the Sistema de Administración Tributaria, SAT) to grant the tax registration number. The notary who issues the tax registration number must also issue the deed of incorporation. The notary files the notarized deed of incorporation with the Public Registry of Commerce through the online portal - tuempresa.gob.mx - and obtain the tax number online as well. It usually takes the notary 2-3 days to review the documents and process the final incorporation deed for execution by the relevant parties. Procedure Register with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) 3 Time to complete(days): 3 Cost to complete: no charge Comment: The company must register with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) and the National Workers? Housing Fund Institute (INFONAVIT) and open individual retirement savings accounts for employees. The registration is conducted before the IMSS delegation (delegación) in the company?s jurisdiction. On average, the delegations take 2?5 days but some take a week or longer. Procedure Register with the local tax administration (Secretaría de Finanzas del Gobierno del 4 Distrito Federal) for payroll tax Time to complete(days): 1 Cost to complete: no charge Comment: The company must register with the local tax administration after registering with the IMSS. The local office can be found at www.finanzas.df.gob.mx. The tax registration number and the company?s postal code are required to register. Procedure Notice of opening a mercantile establishment before local government (Delegación) 5 Time to complete(days): 1 Cost to complete: no charge Comment: The notice has to be given after receiving the tax registration number. Since February 2004, notice can be given via the Internet (through SAEM www.apertura.df.gob.mx) Procedure Register with the National Business Information Registry (Sistema de Information 6 Empresarial, SIEM) Time to complete(days): 1 Cost to complete: The costs can vary from MXN $100 to MXN $670 Comment: Mandatory registration with the National Business Information Registry (Sistema de Information Empresarial, SIEM) has been in effect since January 1997. The company will be registered with the specific chamber corresponding to its corporate purpose or activities. The cost varies with the number of employees and the company?s activities as shown below. Fees for industry related activities (maximum fees) -6 or more employees $ 670 -3 to 5 employees $ 350 -Up to 2 employees $ 150 Fees for commercial and services related activities (maximum fees) -4 or more employees $ 640 -3 o less employees $ 300 -Up to 2 employees $ 100 12 The costs can vary from MXN $100 to MXN $670 13 14 1. Benchmarking Dealing with Construction Permits Regulations Mexico is ranked 22 overall for Dealing with Construction Permits. Ranking of Mexico in Dealing with Construction Permits - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 15 The following table shows Dealing with Construction Permits data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Procedures Time (days) Cost (% of Economies (number) income per capita) Denmark 6 Qatar 0.8 Singapore 25 Selected Economy Mexico 11 105 117.0 Comparator Economies Argentina 28 338 133.9 Chile 18 155 93.8 China 37 336 523.4 India 37 195 2143.7 Japan 15 187 20.8 16 2. Historical data: Dealing with Construction Permits in Mexico Dealing with Construction Permits data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 35 22 Procedures (number) 12 12 12 11 Time (days) 138 138 138 105 Cost (% of income per capita) 103.5 131.0 113.1 117.0 3. Dealing with Construction Permits sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 17 4. Overview of the steps to Building a Warehouse in Mexico It requires 11 procedures, takes 105 days, and costs 117.05 % GNI per capita to build a warehouse in Mexico. No: Time to complete Procedure Cost to complete (days) 1 Request and obtain the alignment certificate (alineamiento) 15 days MXN 660 and official number (número official) 2 Request and obtain a single zoning certificate stating 43 days MXN 752 specific land use and feasibility 3 * Register construction statement type B 1 day MXN 123,545 4 Request and connect to water and sewerage services 30 days no charge 5 * Request and connect to electrical power service 20 days MXN 470 6 * Request and connect to a regular telephone line 4 days MXN 1,300 7 Notify the municipal authority on construction work 1 day no charge completion 8 Receive inspection on construction work completion by the 1 day no charge Directorate of General Works 9 Request and obtain use and occupancy clearance 6 days no charge 18 10 Request and obtain authorization from civil protection 7 days no charge 11 Update the building record at the Tax Ministry 1 day no charge * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure. 19 5. Details on Building a Warehouse in Mexico The table below summarizes the procedures, time, and costs to build a warehouse in Mexico. BUILDING A WAREHOUSE Estimated warehouse value:MXN 2,796,270 City: Mexico City Procedure 1 Request and obtain the alignment certificate (alineamiento) and official number (número official) Time to complete: 15 days Cost to complete: MXN 660 Agency: Delegational One-Stop Shop (Ventanilla Única Delegacional), Urban Development and Housing Ministry (Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda), and Federal District Department (Gobierno del Distrito Federal) Comment: The relevant agencies for this procedure are the Delegational One-Stop Shop (Ventanilla Única Delegacional), the Urban Development and Housing Ministry (Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda), and the Federal District Department (Gobierno del Distrito Federal). Either a simple original copy or a certified one is acceptable. For the official number, the Federal District Department will assign, at the request of the interested party, a single official number for each property that has a front facing the public pathway. For the official alignment: The plot across the land indicates the restrictions or expropriation lines to be respected in the interaction between the property and the public pathway. Obtaining the single zoning certificate stating specific land use and feasibility is required. Requirements: - Proof of payment of applicable real estate taxes (copy). - Public deed certifying property or title ownership (original and copy). 20 - Payment of all fees. - Application form (original). - Identification of the person completing the procedure and document certifying the respective identity (original and copy). Payment is made the same day when the certificate is requested. At the same time, a date is set for the taxpayer to return to receive the certificate, generally within 3 or 4 working days. The certificate is valid for 2 years. The cost is established by the Financial Code of the Federal District, Articles 255 and 256: The official cost, official cost, as amended in December 2009 is the sum of the alignment at MXN 23.00 per linear meter of the front of the building plus a general fee for the official number at MXN 142.00. In this case, the front of building is assumed to be 22.5 meters, so the total cost would be MXN 659.50. The official time limit is 8 days, but in practice, the process can take 1?2 weeks. Procedure 2 Request and obtain a single zoning certificate stating specific land use and feasibility Time to complete: 43 days Cost to complete: MXN 752 Agency: Subdirección de Ventanilla Única of the Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda attached to the Dirección del Registro de los Planes y Programas de Desarrollo Urbano of the Dirección General de Desarrollo Urbano. Comment: At this stage, BuildCo obtains the document that certifies whether a specific use of a given building is authorized. This certificate reflects the technical opinion of the competent administrative units and indicates whether water supply and sewage and rainwater drainage services are feasible. This procedure precedes the application for drinking water supply. The Financial Code of the Federal District, Article 257, Section V, was amended in December 2008. Procedure 3 Register construction statement type B Time to complete: 1 day Cost to complete: MXN 123,545 Agency: Ventanilla Única Delegacional Comment: Construction Statement Type B applies to nonresidential or mixed uses of up to 5,000 square meters or up to 10,000 square meters for residential use or for single-family dwelling units within a risk zone. Requirements: - Valid alignment certificate and official number (simple original copy or certified one). - Single zoning certificate for specific land use and feasibility (simple original copy or certified copy for collation). - Four copies of the architectural project for the construction work on duly outlined scale maps and containing all specifications regarding materials, finishes, and equipment to be used, signed by the owner, the director responsible for the construction work, and the co-responsible party for urban and architectural design and installations, as the case may be. - Project descriptive report. - Calculation report. - Registration and identification card of the director responsible for the construction work 21 and the co-responsible party for structural safety, urban and architectural design, and installations as appropriate (simple original copy or certified copy for collation). - Two copies of the structural design signed by the director responsible for the construction work and the co-responsible party for structural safety. - Proof of payment of improvement taxes for potable water and sewerage works provided by the Federal District Department and license issuance fees if the application is required (simple original copy or certified copy for collation). Because the building considered here requires installation or modification of the water main and hook-up to the sewage system, the application and proof of payment of the corresponding fees are attached. After registration of the construction statement, the one-stop shop (Ventanilla Única Delegacional) reviews the submitted data and documents and verifies the progress of the construction work under the terms stated in the Administrative Verification Rules (Reglamento de Verificación Administrativa) for the Federal District. The director responsible for the construction work undertakes to post at the construction work site, in a visible place and legible from the public pathway, a signboard showing the registration number in the construction work statement and the general construction work data, including the location and statement validity. Statement validity (for construction work completion): Up to 300 square meters: 1 year 300?1,000 square meters: 2 years More than 1,000 square meters: 3 years The cost is MXN$62.00 per square meter, according to The Financial Code of the Federal District, Article 206, Section B, Fraction I, in this case, if the total area of warehouse is 1,300.6 m2, the total cost of the Construction Statement Type B is MXN$81,063.20. Before commencement of construction work, the company must notify the water company (Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México) in writing. Since mid-2004, electronic notifications are acceptable. The cost for the water connection includes the installation of the main pipeline (51 millimeters), board, and meter. Cost will be included in the same form use to Register construction statement type B. The cost is established by the Financial Code of the Federal District, Article 202. Procedure 4 Request and connect to water and sewerage services Time to complete: 30 days Cost to complete: no charge Agency: Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México Comment: If there is no need to perform additional work, hydraulic network hook-up can be obtained within approximately 2 weeks. The power company (Compañía de Luz y Fuerza del Centro) performs the work for the constructor to be able to connect the building to the hydraulic network. Procedure 5 Request and connect to electrical power service Time to complete: 20 days Cost to complete: MXN 470 Agency: Compañía de Luz y Fuerza del Centro 22 Comment: The assumed power supply is 140 kilowatts. Article 23 of the Public Electrical Power Service Law states, ?if no specific works need to be completed, the supplier shall provide the service within the following five working days as of the date of application filing.? The 5-day time frame is valid if the user has made the necessary arrangements to receive power supply in accordance with the provisions in the corresponding official Mexican regulations. If the supplier had to complete specific works, whether for a new supply or to change supply voltage at the request of the user, the supply should be provided within the terms stated by the supplier when the application is filed. Requirements: - User name, denomination, or trade name; and if applicable, a copy of the Federal Taxpayer Registry. - Domicile address. - Telephone number. - Load and demand to be contracted. - Officially validated legal agent?s personal identification or power of attorney (original and photocopy). - Photocopy of articles of incorporation. - Photocopy of private purchase, sale document, public deed of the purchase, and sale agreement, if the interested party is the owner of the real estate. If not, a photocopy of the lease contract is needed. - In the case of electrical installations for high-tension voltage services or supply in densely populated locations, certification issued by a Verification Unit (Unidad de Verificación) approved by the Ministry of Energy (Secretaría de Energía). - Check or cash in the amount of the security deposit. The applicant pays a security deposit, according to the effective applicable tariffs, that amounts to USD 377.16. Procedure 6 Request and connect to a regular telephone line Time to complete: 4 days Cost to complete: MXN 1,300 Agency: Telmex Comment: For commercial telephone line installations, Telmex has established the following costs: - Total installation cost: MXN 1299.5 The telephone line is requested and paid for at Telmex offices or through the Internet. Procedure 7 Notify the municipal authority on construction work completion Time to complete: 1 day Cost to complete: no charge Agency: Municipality Comment: The notification of completion is made in writing after the electricity connection has been completed. Once notified, inspectors may visit the location within a week, but this does not stop construction. 23 Procedure 8 Receive inspection on construction work completion by the Directorate of General Works Time to complete: 1 day Cost to complete: no charge Agency: Directorate of General Works (Municipality) Comment: Procedure 9 Request and obtain use and occupancy clearance Time to complete: 6 days Cost to complete: no charge Agency: Delegational One-Stop Shop Comment: Building use clearance is granted by the one-stop shop. Procedure 10 Request and obtain authorization from civil protection Time to complete: 7 days Cost to complete: no charge Agency: Secretaria de Protección civil Comment: An inspection from the civil protection agency (Secretaria de Protección civil) will not be necessary - only for more complex installations. After the form and the emergency plan are filed, the civil protection authority will issue a certificate in 7 days. Procedure 11 Update the building record at the Tax Ministry Time to complete: 1 day Cost to complete: no charge Agency: Tax Ministry Comment: The time and cost of updating the building record are established by the Financial Code of the Federal District, Article 217. The building is not actually registered with the Property Registry. Once built, a cadastral actualization document (manifestacion de actualisacion del valor cadastral) is filed, for tax purposes, with the Tax Ministry. The information in the new deed is updated only when the property (with the building included) is sold. In Mexico, the owner of the land is automatically the owner of the building unless otherwise specified. Only in cases where the owner of the building and the owner of the property are two different people would the building be registered. The Property Registry claims to have made some organizational changes that have reduced the time required for registration by 30 to 40 calendar days. The registry has reorganized its personnel and created specializations by transaction (transfer of deed, company registration, and the like). 24 25 1. Benchmarking Registering Property Regulations Mexico is ranked 105 overall for Registering Property. Ranking of Mexico in Registering Property - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 26 The following table shows Registering Property data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Procedures Time (days) Cost (% of Economies (number) property value) New Zealand 2 Norway 1 Saudi Arabia 0.0 Selected Economy Mexico 5 74 5.2 Comparator Economies Argentina 6 52 7.0 Chile 6 31 1.3 China 4 29 3.6 India 5 44 7.4 Japan 6 14 5.5 27 2. Historical data: Registering Property in Mexico Registering Property data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 99 105 Procedures (number) 5 5 5 5 Time (days) 74 74 74 74 Cost (% of property value) 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 3. Registering Property sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 28 4. Overview of the steps to Registering Property in Mexico It requires 5 procedures, takes 74 days, and costs 5.22 % of property value to register the property in Mexico. No: Time to complete Procedure Cost to complete (days) 1 * Obtain the alignment and official number of the property at 11 days (simultaneous MXN 200 (official the corresponding Federal District Department with procedures 2 and 3) number) + MXN 30 for each meter of the front of the real estate (alignment)It is assumed that the front of the property has 23.6 meters (the square root of the total surface of the land plot, 557.4 square meters) in order to calculate the cost of the Alignment. 2 * Obtain the cadastral plan from the Cadastre Department at 7 days (simultaneous MXN 360 the Public Registry of Property with procedures 1 and 3) 3 * The notary public obtains a no-encumbrance certificate 7 days (simultaneous MXN 341 with procedures 1 and 2) 29 4 The notary public formalizes the sale purchase agreement 3 days Acquisition tax according to the following scale, from Art 135, Federal District Financial code: Lower ValueHigher ValueFixed FeeRate over excess 0.1277,627.01146.34 0.00000 77,627.02124,203.16 146.350.03163 124,203.17186,304.5 61,619.550.03261 186,304.57372,609.2 33,644.680.03261 372,609.24931,523.0 89,270.070.03696 931,523.091,863,046 .1630,377.540.04565 1,863,046.179,999,9 99,999,999.9972,901 .560.04565 (4.565%) The new table for the calculation of Notarial fees, which are calculated considering the amount of the transfer operation, is as follows: In operations representing MXN 111,062.or more a fixed fee of MXN 4,039.00 applies plus the additional progressive cummulative factor obtained from the following notarial fee schedule: A. From the lower limit of MXN 111,062.01 to $222,125.00 = (1.125%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) B. From the lower limit of MXN 222,125.01 to $444,249.00= (0.975%)* (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) C. From the lower limit of MXN 444,249.01 to $888,498.00= (0.825%)*(the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) 30 D. From the lower limit of MXN 888,498.01 to $1,776,997.00= (0.675%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) E. From the lower limit of MXN 1,776,997.01 to $3,553,994.00= (0.525%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) F. From the lower limit of MXN 3,553,994.01 to $7,107,987.00= (0.375%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) G. From the lower limit of MXN 7,107,987.01 to $14,215,974.00 = (0.225%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) H. From the lower limit of MXN 14,215,974.01 and above (0.075%)* (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) 5 Registration of the transfer of title at the Public Registry of 30 - 90 days MXN 12, 772 Property of the Federal District * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure. 31 5. Details on Registering Property in Mexico This topic examines the steps, time, and cost involved in registering property in Mexico. STANDARDIZED PROPERTY Property Value: MXN 5,413,527.21 City: Mexico City Procedure 1 Obtain the alignment and official number of the property at the corresponding Federal District Department Time to complete: 11 days (simultaneous with procedures 2 and 3) Cost to complete: MXN 200 (official number) + MXN 30 for each meter of the front of the real estate (alignment)It is assumed that the front of the property has 23.6 meters (the square root of the total surface of the land plot, 557.4 square meters) in order to calculate the cost of the Alignment. Agency: Municipality ("Delegacion") Comment: The seller has to obtain at the corresponding Municipality ("Delegacion") (part of Federal District Department) the alignment and official number (?Alineamiento y número oficial?) of the real estate that is being purchased. The documentation shall include: a) Application in the format provided by the Federal District Department (original and 3 copies); b) The power of attorney granted to the seller?s representative; and c) Copies of the public deed containing the title ownership of the real estate Fees are updated each year with the Federal District financial code Procedure 2 Obtain the cadastral plan from the Cadastre Department at the Public Registry of Property 32 Time to complete: 7 days (simultaneous with procedures 1 and 3) Cost to complete: MXN 360 Agency: Cadastre Department at the Public Registry of Property ("Finanzas del D.F.") Comment: The seller must go to the corresponding Cadastre Department at the Public Registry of Property in order to obtain the corresponding cadastre of its property (the ?cadastral?). Procedure 3 The notary public obtains a no-encumbrance certificate Time to complete: 7 days (simultaneous with procedures 1 and 2) Cost to complete: MXN 341 Agency: Public Registry of Property of the Federal District ("Registro Público de la Propiedad y del Comercio del Distrito Federal") Comment: Prior to the transaction and pursuant to Article 3016 of the Civil Code of the Federal District, a no-liens certificate must be obtained by the notary public with respect to the real estate that will be purchased. Likewise, said request will be considered by the Public Registry of Property as a preventive notice of the purchase operation. Procedure 4 The notary public formalizes the sale purchase agreement Time to complete: 3 days 33 Cost to complete: Acquisition tax according to the following scale, from Art 135, Federal District Financial code: Lower ValueHigher ValueFixed FeeRate over excess 0.1277,627.01146.340.00000 77,627.02124,203.16146.350.03163 124,203.17186,304.561,619.550.03261 186,304.57372,609.233,644.680.03261 372,609.24931,523.089,270.070.03696 931,523.091,863,046.1630,377.540.04565 1,863,046.179,999,999,999,999.9972,901.560.04565 (4.565%) The new table for the calculation of Notarial fees, which are calculated considering the amount of the transfer operation, is as follows: In operations representing MXN 111,062.or more a fixed fee of MXN 4,039.00 applies plus the additional progressive cummulative factor obtained from the following notarial fee schedule: A. From the lower limit of MXN 111,062.01 to $222,125.00 = (1.125%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) B. From the lower limit of MXN 222,125.01 to $444,249.00= (0.975%)* (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) C. From the lower limit of MXN 444,249.01 to $888,498.00= (0.825%)*(the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) D. From the lower limit of MXN 888,498.01 to $1,776,997.00= (0.675%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) E. From the lower limit of MXN 1,776,997.01 to $3,553,994.00= (0.525%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) F. From the lower limit of MXN 3,553,994.01 to $7,107,987.00= (0.375%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) G. From the lower limit of MXN 7,107,987.01 to $14,215,974.00 = (0.225%) * (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) H. From the lower limit of MXN 14,215,974.01 and above (0.075%)* (the difference of the operation value and the lower limit) Comment: Once the notary public has been provided with all the required documents, he will proceed with the formalization of the sale purchase agreement. The buyer is subject to pay the acquisition tax ("Impuesto sobre Adquisiciones o Transmisión de Dominio"). In this respect, on the date of execution of the real estate purchase agreement before the notary public, said notary public will retain the above mentioned taxes and pay them before Treasury Department. The scale of notary tariffs is with respect to the Notary Publics of the Federal District only. Other Mexican states have varying scales. The seller will also have to pay the income tax and the value added tax as follows: The applicable Income Tax for transferors resident in Mexico is 29% on the gain (the excess of the sale price over the adjusted tax basis). The tax basis of real estates is in general terms the original cost of acquisition as updated for inflation. The value added tax (15%) is applicable only with respect to the constructions that conform to the property and therefore an allocation of the price to the land and constructions should be made in the sales agreement based on an appraisal. The value added tax will be shifted to the buyer. The seller is responsible to gather the following documentation that must be delivered to the notary public: a) Property Title b) Public deed(s) containing the incorporation and by-laws of the seller company, together with copy of any public deed(s) containing amendments to the by-laws of the seller company c) Public deed(s) containing the powers of attorney granted in favor of the seller?s representatives (for acts of domain and acts of administration in terms of the second and third paragraph of article 2554 of the Civil Code of the Federal District) d) Receipts evidencing the payment for real estate taxes for a period of five years e) Receipts evidencing the payment of water fees for a period of five years f) The Construction License g) The Notice of Termination of Construction h) The alignment and official number (obtained in Procedure 1) 34 i) The cadastral (obtained in Procedure 2) j) General data of the seller?s representatives and copy of their official identification k) Copy of the official identification of the seller's representatives The buyer must deliver to the notary public the following documents: a) Public deed containing the incorporation of the company and by-laws together with copy of any public deeds containing amendment to the by-laws of the buyer. b) Public deed(s) containing the granting of powers of attorney in favor of the representative(s) of the buyer (for acts of administration in terms of the second paragraph of the Civil Code of the Federal District and power to grant and subscribe negotiable instruments in terms of article 9 of the General Law of Negotiable Instruments in case that the representative pays with check or with any other negotiable instrument) c) General data of the buyer's representative(s) d) Official identification of the buyer's representative(s) Procedure 5 Registration of the transfer of title at the Public Registry of Property of the Federal District Time to complete: 30 - 90 days Cost to complete: MXN 12, 772 Agency: Public Registry of Property of the Federal District ("Registro Público de la Propiedad y del Comercio del Distrito Federal") Comment: The notary public will proceed with the registration of the first testimony of the public deed containing the formalization of the purchase agreement of a real estate and the transfer of title, before the Public Registry of Property of the Federal District. After registration, the buyer will have to give notice to the corresponding water department, and any other company that provides any service to the property (i.e. electric company, water, etc.) 35 36 1. Benchmarking Getting Credit Regulations Mexico is ranked 46 overall for Getting Credit. Ranking of Mexico in Getting Credit - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 37 The following table shows Getting Credit data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Strength of Depth of Public Private Economies legal rights credit registry bureau index (0-10) information coverage (% coverage (% index (0-6) of adults) of adults) New Zealand 100.0 Portugal 67.1 Singapore 10 United Kingdom 6 Selected Economy Mexico 5 6 0.0 71.6 Comparator Economies Argentina 4 6 30.8 100.0 Chile 4 5 30.9 22.9 China 6 4 63.9 0.0 India 8 4 0.0 10.0 Japan 7 6 0.0 76.1 38 2. Historical data: Getting Credit in Mexico Getting Credit data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 44 46 Strength of legal rights index (0-10) 5 5 5 5 Depth of credit information index (0-6) 6 6 6 6 Private bureau coverage (% of adults) 61.2 70.8 77.5 71.6 Public registry coverage (% of adults) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3. Getting Credit sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 39 4. Details on Getting Credit in Mexico The following table summarize legal rights of borrowers and lenders, and the availability and legal framework of credit registries in Mexico. Getting Credit Indicators (2010) Indicator Private credit Public credit Private bureau coverage (% of adults) 6 bureau registry Are data on both firms and individuals distributed? Yes No 1 Are both positive and negative data distributed? Yes No 1 Does the registry distribute credit information from retailers, trade Yes No 1 creditors or utility companies as well as financial institutions? Are more than 2 years of historical credit information distributed? Yes No 1 Is data on all loans below 1% of income per capita distributed? Yes No 1 Is it guaranteed by law that borrowers can inspect their data in the Yes No 1 largest credit registry? Coverage 71.6 0.0 Number of individuals 57,000,000 0 Number of firms 2,100,000 0 40 Strength of legal rights index (0-10) 5 Can any business use movable assets as collateral while keeping possession of the assets; and any financial Yes institution accept such assets as collateral ? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in a single category of movable assets, No without requiring a specific description of collateral? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in substantially all of its assets, without Yes requiring a specific description of collateral? May a security right extend to future or after-acquired assets, and may it extend automatically to the products, No proceeds or replacements of the original assets ? Is a general description of debts and obligations permitted in collateral agreements, so that all types of obligations Yes and debts can be secured by stating a maximum amount rather than a specific amount between the parties ? Is a collateral registry in operation, that is unified geographically and by asset type, as well as indexed by the No grantor's name of a security right ? Do secured creditors have absolute priority to their collateral outside bankruptcy procedures? No Do secured creditors have absolute priority to their collateral in bankruptcy procedures? No During reorganization, are secured creditors' claims exempt from an automatic stay on enforcement? Yes Does the law authorize parties to agree on out of court enforcement? Yes 41 42 1. Benchmarking Protecting Investors Regulations Mexico is ranked 44 overall for Protecting Investors. Ranking of Mexico in Protecting Investors - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 43 The following table shows Protecting Investors data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Strength of Economies investor protection index (0-10) New Zealand 9.7 Selected Economy Mexico 6.0 Comparator Economies Argentina 4.7 Chile 6.3 China 5.0 India 6.0 Japan 7.0 44 2. Historical data: Protecting Investors in Mexico Protecting Investors data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 41 44 Strength of investor protection index (0-10) 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 3. The following graph illustrates the Protecting Investors index in Mexico compared to best practice and selected Economies: o d n il e a h c a a a n ip a C ex i d in in l a n h t a J I e M C n e Z g r w A e N Note: The higher the score, the greater the investor protection. 45 9.7 7.0 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.0 4.7 4. Details on Protecting Investors in Mexico The table below provides a full breakdown of how the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes are calculated in Mexico. Protecting Investors Data (2010) Indicator Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 8 What corporate body provides legally sufficient approval for the transaction? 2 Whether immediate disclosure of the transaction to the public and/or shareholders is 2 required? Whether disclosure of the transaction in published periodic filings (annual reports) is 2 required? Whether disclosure of the conflict of interest by Mr. James to the board of directors is 1 required? Whether an external body must review the terms of the transaction before it takes place? 1 Extent of director liability index (0-10) 5 Whether shareholders can hold Mr. James liable for the damage that the Buyer-Seller 2 transaction causes to the company? Whether shareholders can hold the approving body (the CEO or board of directors) liable for 1 the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether a court can void the transaction upon a successful claim by a shareholder plaintiff? 0 Whether Mr. James pays damages for the harm caused to the company upon a successful 1 claim by the shareholder plaintiff? 46 Whether Mr. James repays profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by the 0 shareholder plaintiff? Whether fines and imprisonment can be applied against Mr. James? 0 Whether shareholders can sue directly or derivatively for the damage that the Buyer-Seller 1 transaction causes to the company? Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 5 Whether the plaintiff can obtain any documents from the defendant and witnesses during 2 trial? Whether the plaintiff can directly question the defendant and witnesses during trial? 2 Whether the plaintiff can request categories of documents from the defendant without 0 identifying specific ones? Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can request an inspector to 1 investigate the transaction? Whether the level of proof required for civil suits is lower than that of criminal cases? 0 Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can inspect transaction 0 documents before filing suit? Strength of investor protection index (0-10) 6.0 47 48 1. Benchmarking Paying Taxes Regulations Mexico is ranked 107 overall for Paying Taxes. Ranking of Mexico in Paying Taxes - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 49 The following table shows Paying Taxes data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Payments Time (hours Total tax rate Economies (number per per year) (% profit) year) Maldives 3 0 Timor-Leste 0.2 Selected Economy Mexico 6 404 50.5 Comparator Economies Argentina 9 453 108.2 Chile 9 316 25.0 China 7 398 63.5 India 56 258 63.3 Japan 14 355 48.6 50 2. Historical data: Paying Taxes in Mexico Paying Taxes data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 106 107 Total tax rate (% profit) 52.3 51.5 51.0 50.5 Payments (number per year) 27 27 6 6 Time (hours per year) 485 549 517 404 3. Paying Taxes sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 51 4. Details on Paying Taxes in Mexico The table below addresses the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year in Mexico, as well as measures of administrative burden in paying taxes. Tax or mandatory Payments Notes on Time Statutory tax T ax Totaltax rate Notes on contribution (number) Payments (hours) rate base (% profit) TTR Value added tax (VAT) 1 online 174 15.0% sales price filing Vehicle tax 1 online various rates value of 0.10 filing vehicle Property tax 1 online various rates property 1.30 filing value Payroll tax 1 online 2.0% gross salaries 2.10 filing Corporate income tax 1 online 157 28.0% taxable profit 23.10 filing Social security 1 online 73 various rates gross salaries 23.90 contributions filing Totals 6 404 50.5 52 53 1. Benchmarking Trading Across Borders Regulations Mexico is ranked 58 overall for Trading Across Borders. Ranking of Mexico in Trading Across Borders - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 54 The following table shows Trading Across Borders data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Documents to Time to Cost to Documents to Time to Cost to Economies export export (days) export (US$ import import (days) import (US$ (number) per (number) per container) container) Denmark 5 France 2 2 Malaysia 450 Singapore 4 439 Selected Economy Mexico 5 12 1420 4 12 1880 Comparator Economies Argentina 9 13 1480 7 16 1810 Chile 6 21 745 7 21 795 China 7 21 500 5 24 545 India 8 17 1055 9 20 1025 Japan 4 10 1010 5 11 1060 55 2. Historical data: Trading Across Borders in Mexico Trading Across Borders data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 69 58 Cost to export (US$ per container) 1302 1472 1472 1420 Cost to import (US$ per container) 1761 2050 2050 1880 Documents to export (number) 5 5 5 5 Documents to import (number) 4 4 4 4 Time to export (days) 13 13 13 12 Time to import (days) 17 17 17 12 3. Trading Across Borders sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 56 57 4. Details on Trading Across Borders in Mexico These tables list the procedures necessary to import and export a standardized cargo of goods in Mexico. The documents required to export and import the goods are also shown. Nature of Export Procedures (2010) Duration (days) US$ Cost Documents preparation 6 200 Customs clearance and technical control 2 150 Ports and terminal handling 2 170 Inland transportation and handling 2 900 Totals 12 1420 Nature of Import Procedures (2010) Duration (days) US$ Cost Documents preparation 5 230 Customs clearance and technical control 2 400 Ports and terminal handling 3 300 Inland transportation and handling 2 950 Totals 12 1880 58 Documents for Export and Import Export Bill of lading Certificate of origin Commercial invoice Customs export declaration Packing list Import Bill of lading Commercial invoice Customs import declaration Packing list 59 60 1. Benchmarking Enforcing Contracts Regulations Mexico is ranked 81 overall for Enforcing Contracts. Ranking of Mexico in Enforcing Contracts - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 61 The following table shows Enforcing Contracts data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Procedures Time (days) Cost (% of Economies (number) claim) Bhutan 0.1 Ireland 20 Singapore 150 Selected Economy Mexico 38 415 32.0 Comparator Economies Argentina 36 590 16.5 Chile 36 480 28.6 China 34 406 11.1 India 46 1420 39.6 Japan 30 360 22.7 62 2. Historical data: Enforcing Contracts in Mexico Enforcing Contracts data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 82 81 Procedures (number) 38 38 38 38 Time (days) 415 415 415 415 Cost (% of claim) 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 3. Enforcing Contracts sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 63 4. Details on Contract Enforcement in Mexico This topic looks at the efficiency of contract enforcement in Mexico. Court information: Mexico City First Instance Civil( "Juzgado Civil del Tribunal Superior de Justicia del Distrito Court Federal") Nature of Procedure (2010) Indicator Procedures (number) 38 Time (days) 415 Filing and service 42.0 Trial and judgment 190.0 Enforcement of judgment 183.0 Cost (% of claim)* 32.00 Attorney cost (% of claim) 20.0 Court cost (% of claim) 5.0 Enforcement Cost (% of claim) 7.0 * Claim assumed to be equivalent to 200% of income per capita. 64 65 1. Benchmarking Closing Business Regulations Mexico is ranked 23 overall for Closing a Business. Ranking of Mexico in Closing Business - Compared to good practice and selected economies: 66 The following table shows Closing Business data for Mexico compared to good practice and comparator economies: Good Practice Recovery rate Time (years) Cost (% of Economies (cents on the estate) dollar) Ireland 0.4 Japan 92.7 Singapore 1 Selected Economy Mexico 66.7 1.8 18 Comparator Economies Argentina 32.8 2.8 12 Chile 28.2 4.5 15 China 36.4 1.7 22 India 16.3 7.0 9 Japan 92.7 0.6 4 67 2. Historical data: Closing Business in Mexico Closing a Business data Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business Doing Business 2008 2009 2010 2011 Rank .. .. 24 23 Time (years) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Cost (% of estate) 18 18 18 18 Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 64.6 64.2 64.2 66.7 3. Closing Business sub indicators in Mexico over the past 4 years 68 Since 2004 Doing Business has been tracking reforms aimed at simplifying business regulations, strengthening property rights, opening access to credit and enforcing contracts by measuring their impact on 10 indicator sets . * Nearly 1,000 reforms have had an impact on these indicators. Doing Business 2011, covering June 2009 to June 2010, reports that 117 economies implemented 216 reforms to make it easier to start a business. 64% of economies measured by Doing Business have reformed this year, focusing on easing business start-up, lightening the tax burden, simplifying import and export regulations and improving credit information systems. The top 10 most-improved in Doing Business 2011 Positive Change Negative Change Economy Kazakhstan Rwanda Peru Vietnam Cape Verde Tajikistan Zambia Hungary Grenada Brunei Darussalam * For Doing Business 2011 the Employing Workers indicator is not included in the aggregate ease of doing business ranking. 69 Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Registering Property Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Trading Across Borders Enforcing Contracts Closing a Business Summary of changes to business regulation in top 10 most improved economies in Doing Business 2011 and selected comparator economies. Brunei Darussalam Brunei Darussalam made starting a business easier by improving efficiency at the company registrar and implementing an electronic system for name searches. Brunei Darussalam reduced the corporate income tax rate from 23.5% to 22% while also introducing a lower tax rate for small businesses, ranging from 5.5% to 11%. The introduction of an electronic customs system in Brunei Darussalam made trading easier. Cape Verde Cape Verde made start-up easier by eliminating the need for a municipal inspection before a business begins operations and computerizing the system for delivering the municipal license. Cape Verde eased property registration by switching from fees based on a percentage of the property value to lower fixed rates. Cape Verde abolished the stamp duties on sales and checks. Chile Chile made business start-up easier by introducing an online system for registration and for filing the request for publication. An amendment to Chile?s securities law strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure and regulating the approval of transactions between interested parties. China China?s new corporate income tax law unified the tax regimes for domestic and foreign enterprises and clarified the calculation of taxable income for corporate income tax purposes. Grenada Grenada eased business start-up by transferring responsibility for the commercial registry from the courts to the civil administration. The appointment of a registrar focusing only on property cut the time needed to transfer property in Grenada by almost half. Grenada?s customs administration made trading faster by simplifying procedures, reducing inspections, improving staff training and enhancing communication with users. Hungary Hungary implemented a time limit for the issuance of building permits. Hungary reduced the property registration fee by 6% of the property value. Hungary simplified taxes and tax bases. Amendments to Hungary?s bankruptcy law encourage insolvent companies to consider reaching agreements with creditors out of court so as to avoid bankruptcy. India India eased business start-up by establishing an online VAT registration system and replacing the physical stamp previously required with an online version. India reduced the administrative burden of paying taxes by abolishing the fringe benefit tax and improving electronic payment. Japan Japan made it easier to deal with insolvency by establishing a new entity, the Enterprise Turnaround Initiative Corporation, to support the revitalization of companies suffering from excessive debt but professionally managed. Kazakhstan Kazakhstan eased business start-up by reducing the minimum capital requirement to 100 tenge ($0.70) and eliminating the need to have the memorandum of association and company charter notarized. Kazakhstan made dealing with construction permits easier by implementing a one-stop shop related to technical conditions for utilities. Kazakhstan strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure in company annual reports. Kazakhstan speeded up trade through efforts to modernize customs, including implementation of a risk management system and improvements in customs automation. Mexico Mexico launched an online one-stop shop for initiating business registration. Mexico improved construction permitting by merging and streamlining procedures related to zoning and utilities. Mexico increased taxes on companies by raising several tax rates, including the corporate income tax and the rate on cash deposits. At the same time, the administrative burden was reduced slightly with more options for online payment and increased use of accounting software. Peru Peru eased business start-up by simplifying the requirements for operating licenses and creating an online one-stop shop for business registration. Peru streamlined construction permitting by implementing administrative reforms. Peru introduced fast-track procedures at the land registry, cutting by half the time needed to register property. Peru made trading easier by implementing a new web-based electronic data interchange system, risk-based inspections and payment deferrals. 70 Rwanda Rwanda made dealing with construction permits easier by passing new building regulations at the end of April 2010 and implementing new time limits for the issuance of various permits. Rwanda enhanced access to credit by allowing borrowers the right to inspect their own credit report and mandating that loans of all sizes be reported to the central bank?s public credit registry. Rwanda reduced the number of trade documents required and enhanced its joint border management procedures with Uganda and other neighbors, leading to an improvement in the trade logistics environment. Tajikistan Tajikistan made starting a business easier by creating a one-stop shop that consolidates registration with the state and the tax authority. Tajikistan strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure in the annual report and greater access to corporate information for minority investors. Tajikistan lowered its corporate income tax rate. Vietnam Vietnam eased company start-up by creating a one-stop shop that combines the processes for obtaining a business license and tax license and by eliminating the need for a seal for company licensing. Vietnam made dealing with construction permits easier by reducing the cost to register newly completed buildings by 50% and transferring the authority to register buildings from local authorities to the Department of National Resources and Environment. Vietnam improved its credit information system by allowing borrowers to examine their own credit report and correct errors. Zambia Zambia eased business start-up by eliminating the minimum capital requirement. Zambia eased trade by implementing a one-stop border post with Zimbabwe, launching web-based submission of customs declarations and introducing scanning machines at border posts. Zambia improved contract enforcement by introducing an electronic case management system in the courts that provides electronic referencing of cases, a database of laws, real-time court reporting and public access to court records. 71 72
Posted: 31 August 2011, last updated 31 August 2011

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