The UK has strong historic and cultural ties to the US, which are obvious in consumer trends in retail and foodservice markets. The UK presents market opportunities for many US consumerorientated products, including specialty food products, "healthy" food items, wine, sauces, fruit, nuts and juices.
THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE
BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S.
Required Report - public distribution
GAIN Report Number:
Daryl A. Brehm
The UK has strong historic and cultural ties to the US, which are obvious in consumer trends in
retail and foodservice markets. The UK presents market opportunities for many US consumer-
orientated products, including specialty food products, "healthy" food items, wine, sauces, fruit, nuts
and juices. "Health" and convenience foods are the main driving forces in the UK value-added food
and beverage market. Consumers in this relatively wealthy country are looking for variety in high
quality food products especially those perceived to have health and fitness benefits.
SECTION I. MARKET OVERVIEW
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the seventh largest economy in the world. The UK is also
one of the quintet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe with consumers looking for high quality food
products from around the world, including the United States. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and
business services, account for the largest proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) while industry continues to
decline in importance. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards but, in
terms of gross added value, represents less than 1 percent of GDP. While UK agriculture produces about 60 percent
of the country?s food needs with less than 2 percent of the labor force, the UK is heavily reliant on imports to meet
the varied demands of the UK consumer who also expect year round availability of all food products.
Since emerging from recession in 1992, Britain's economy enjoyed the longest period of expansion on record
during which time growth outpaced most of Western Europe. The global economic slowdown, tight credit, and
falling home prices, however, pushed Britain back into recession in the latter half of 2008. The UK is now
officially out of recession but it will still take the country some time to recover.
The UK is very receptive to U.S. goods and services. With its $2.2 trillion GDP, the UK remains one of the United
States? top European markets and the fifth largest market worldwide for all goods, after Canada, Mexico, China and
Japan. In 2009, the U.S. exported $45.7 billion of industrial and agricultural goods to the UK.
Consumer oriented food and beverage products remain the most important sector, amounting to 50 percent ($717
million) of total U.S. exports of agricultural, fish and forestry products to the UK. Demand for U.S. consumer
oriented food products continues to differentiate the UK from its European neighbors due to increased exports. This
record figure secures the UK as the top EU destination and ninth largest global destination for U.S. consumer-
According to the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS), in June 2009, the population of the United Kingdom was
estimated at 61.7 million, up by 394,000 on the previous year. The UK population is expected to grow to 71 million
people by 2031.
According to the latest data available, the South East of England is home to some 8.4 million residents in 2008,
followed by London, which has 8.2 million people. Over a quarter of the UK population lives in London and in the
South East of the country. These two regions together cover less than a tenth of the UK?s land area. The North West
had the third largest population with 6.9 million residents.
The UK has an ageing population. This is a result of a decline in the mortality rate and smaller families. This led to
a declining proportion of the population under 16 and an increasing proportion in the over 65 year?s bracket. By
2034, 23 percent of the population will be aged 65 and over compared to 18 percent aged 16 or younger.
Ninety-two percent of the UK population are listed as white with 8 percent belonging to mixed or non-white ethnic
groups. South Asians were the largest of these groups, followed by people of mixed ethnic backgrounds, including
Afro-Caribbean and Africans.
Consequently, the UK has a wide variety of ethnic restaurants particularly in London and other major cities in the
The UK, in common with much of the rest of Europe, has seen a substantial increase in the number of single person
households. Over 30 percent of British households have just one member.
Key Influences on UK Consumer Demands
? Slow population growth
? Ageing population
? Number of household units growing
? Smaller households (notably one-person households)
? Growing personal disposable income (boosting premium/convenience/eating out)
? Rise in number of working women (46% of total workforce)
? International consumer tastes e.g., Chinese, Indian, Italian, Thai, Mexican
? Reduction in formal meal occasions, leading to an increase in snacking and ?grazing?
c? Increasing public debate centered on food, incorporating safety, environmental, ethical, social and economic
? Improvements in efficiency across the supply chain, reducing the real cost of food
? Increased retail concentration (supermarkets growth vs. independent retailers)
Trends in Imports from the United States of Consumer-Orientated Foods
Product Category Growth 2005 ?2009 (%) U.S. Exports to UK 2009 ($m)
Wine & Beer +28 194
Other Consumer-Oriented Products +43 108
Processed Fruit & Vegetables +28 102
Fresh Fruit -7 80
Tree Nuts -24 68
Salmon, Canned -17 61
Snack Foods (excl nuts) -14 39
Rice +8 39
Fresh Vegetables -1 25
Eggs and Products -6 20
Red Meats, Fresh/Chilled/Frozen +86 18
Dairy Products +0.2 15
Breakfast Cereals & Pancake Mix +63 10
Fruit & Vegetable Juices +31 8
Pet Foods (Dog & Cat Food) -64 4
Poultry Meat -16 1
Nursery Products & Cut Flowers -28 1
Red Meats, Prepared/Preserved -57 <1
Source: BICO Report/U.S. Bureau of the Census Trade Data
Relative strengths/weaknesses of U.S. Supplier to UK market
The scale of the U.S. food industry may offer price Competition from EU member states (import duty
competitiveness on large volume orders. payable on U.S. products).
The UK climate limits growing seasons and types of Poultry and red meat are highly regulated from the
products grown. EU, as are dairy product imports from the U.S.
The diversity of the U.S. population creates innovative food Must meet strict UK/EU/retailer rules on food safety,
products and concepts which are often mirrored in the UK. traceability, environmental issues and plant
U.S. has good brand image in UK. The U.S. is a popular Labels on packaged food need to be changed,
destination for the UK tourist and familiarity with U.S. particularly the nutritional panel. Pack sizes and
products is widespread. palletization may also need changing.
A common language means that the UK is a natural gateway Need to develop relationship with UK trade contacts
into Europe. and invest in marketing product.
The UK has a core group of experienced importers with a Biotech (GMO) ingredients are not widely accepted
history of sourcing from the U.S. by the UK consumer, perhaps due to aggressive
Strong interest in innovative products. Currently there is Taste buds differ in the UK, eg. here popcorn is sweet,
high interest in natural, ?wholesome? and ?health? food relishes are more like jam, and spicy doesn?t mean
categories. high chili content.
The UK can be a successful market for those companies willing to invest the time and resources to cement contacts.
It normally takes on average 18 months from initial market survey to the time product appears on shelves.
Exhibiting at UK food trade shows is a good way to put new product in front of a wider audience.
SECTION II. EXPORTER BUSINESS TIPS
Essential UK Market Considerations
? Basic market research
? Retail, Foodservice or Processing
? UK business partner and terms
? Import duty and excise tax
? UK Value Added Tax
? Price points and competitors
? EU Food Standards Restrictions
? Promotion budget and resources
General Consumer Tastes and Preferences
Food Safety As a result of food scares over the past two decades, the UK food supply chain is now heavily
scrutinized, meaning that UK retailers, foodservice operators and manufacturers are
uncompromising on traceability and quality assurance. UK buyers often require technical
specifications above the level mandated by government legislation.
Biotech (GMO) Biotech products or products that contain biotech ingredients can only be sold in the EU if they
have been given approval. If the biotech ingredient is approved it may be sold with the appropriate
labeling - see GAIN Report available at:
The presence of food products containing biotech-derived ingredients in the UK is minimal. Large
supermarket chains have determined that they will not stock products with biotech ingredients in
their private label products (these, typically, account for 45-50% of supermarket lines). Many
large companies have also taken a non-GMO approach, as well as many restaurants and cafes.
Organic Sales of organic products make up around 2.5 percent of the UK grocery market ($3.7 billion of the
$136 billion total grocery market). Supermarket chains dominate retail sales of organic foods,
accounting for an estimated 82 percent of sales by value. Organic products now extend to a wide
range of convenience and grocery items. There are signs that the global credit crisis has affected
sales of premium products, including organic products in the UK. However, consumers that buy
organic products for ethical reasons are unlikely to change their purchasing behaviour.
Health Like the U.S., the UK has a high incidence of heart disease and cancer. Consumers are looking for
foods to improve their health which is driving sales of premium, less processed food, functional
food, fresh fruit, fruit juices and low-fat or low-sugar processed food.
Package Sizes UK households are mainly comprised of 1-4 people. In addition, kitchens and refrigerators are
small. Shopping is undertaken every couple of days, with perhaps a ?large shop? every 2-3 weeks.
U.S. suppliers should consider this in determining export package size.
Food Standards and Regulations
The UK follows EU policies regarding labeling and ingredient requirements. A detailed report that specifically
addresses labeling and ingredient requirements is available, entitled: The UK: Food and Agricultural Import
Regulations & Standards Country Report (FAIRS) can be obtained from the FAS homepage
General Import and Inspection Procedures
Her Majesty?s Revenue & Customs (HMRC) are responsible for the clearance of all goods entering the UK, for
further information and customs forms please go to www.hmrc.gov.uk .
The UK FAIRS Country report as mentioned above addresses UK import and inspection procedures; please obtain
this report for further information.
SECTION III. MARKET SECTOR STRUCTURE & TRENDS
The UK retail grocery market was valued at ?146.3 billion ($232.6 billion) in 2008, an increase of 4.8 percent on
Groceries account for 12.8 percent of total household spending in the UK, making it the third largest area of
expenditure (the largest is housing, and the second largest is transport).
Food and grocery expenditure accounts for 52p in every £1.00 of retail spending.
Convenience store shopping now accounts for 20.5 percent of the total UK food & grocery market. 21p in every
£1.00 in food and grocery is spent in convenience stores.
Five supermarket chains dominate UK food retailing, accounting for almost 90 percent of the market. Tesco is the
market leader, with 30.9 percent market share, followed by Asda/Wal-Mart with 17.1 percent, Sainsbury?s has 15.9
percent, Morrison?s has 11.5 and the Cooperative rounds out the quintet with 6.7 percent. Other UK supermarket
chains include Waitrose, Iceland, Aldi, and Lidl.
Market Shares of the UK?s Supermarket Chains
Retailer Market Share %
Source: Kantar Worldpanel, market share summary, 12 weeks to October 3, 2010.
In general, each chain focuses on specific market segments. For example, Tesco targets the middle market,
providing both economy and up-scale products. Sainsbury?s is pitched slightly up-market of Tesco, with Asda/Wal-
Mart slightly down-market of Tesco. Morrison?s, The Cooperative competes at much the same level as Asda/Wal-
Mart, while Waitrose, part of the John Lewis Partnership, is the most up-market of the leading chains. Iceland,
Aldi, Budgens, Netto and Lidl are all price-focused outlets.
As a result of town planning regulations, supermarkets in the UK are smaller than their counterparts in Germany.
For example, Tesco and Sainsbury?s stores are just 3,500m² (37,700 sq ft) on average. Planning restrictions have
resulted in limited availability of suitable sites. This in turn has fueled a move back towards smaller stores by the
large supermarket chains, and created a polarization between superstores and convenience stores formats. The
major UK supermarket chains have also developed store formats that are embedded in gas stations. For example,
Morrison?s has a partnership with BP gas, Tesco with Exxon, and Sainsbury?s with Shell.
The UK has one of the most advanced private label markets in the world and is seen as a flagship market for private
label development. The UK's major supermarket chains dominate the private label market and on average 40-50
percent of products in their stores are private label. Originally, private label goods were a copy of a branded
product, but today they are often innovative and marketed as a premium or high quality brand. They give UK
retailers the opportunity to diversify their product ranges and develop new revenue streams.
The Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD) estimates that UK internet grocery sales are currently valued at ?3.7
billion ($5.8 billion), 2.6 percent of the total grocery market. IGD forecasts that on-line shopping will double in the
next five years; increasing from £3.7bn to £7.2bn.
Marks and Spencer (M&S) food halls continue to maintain successful business growth. Most M&S customers tend
to buy the bulk of their groceries from less high-end grocery retailers. A typical shopper uses M&S for special
occasions, for convenience food such as ready-meals and as a top-up to their regular shop with a few luxury items.
M&S consistently offer innovative, high quality and rigorously checked food.
The London-based Department Stores: Harvey Nichols and Selfridges have expanded to other major UK cities such
as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. This has increased sales of U.S. products sold in their food halls. Other
notable department stores stocking U.S. products are Fortnum & Mason and Harrods. Department Store food halls
provide a unique opportunity for U.S. specialty foods.
The focus of these stores is mainly brands well known to British consumers. They are located in town centers, train
and metro stations as a convenient stop for commuters and families making small purchases on evenings or
weekends. Also major supermarket chains have begun to open small format convenience type stores.
The UK has other outlets for U.S. products such as health food stores, mail/internet order companies and
delicatessens. An importer is vital to reach these smaller customers.
For further information on the UK retail sector, please see UK Retail Market Briefs which can be found at
Hotel, Restaurant & Institutional (HRI) Sector
In the UK, the HRI Sector is known as the Catering or Foodservice Industry and is generally considered to have two
Cost Sector: Caterers within the cost sector traditionally do not derive substantial margins. Meal provision tends to
be out of necessity, rather than as a result of a business opportunity being identified. Provision is governed by
contract where pricing is controlled, if not fixed. Examples are: schools, hospitals, prisons and specialist care
Profit Sector: This is the area of the foodservice market in which the potential business gains are the main
motivator. It is also usually allied to hospitality and leisure. Pricing is flexible and examples are: restaurants, fast
food chains, pubs, hotels and leisure venues.
The UK foodservice market was estimated to be valued at $52.8 billion (£33.2 billion) in 2009. The $52.8 billion
foodservice market accounts for one third of all consumers food purchases.
Breakdown of Food Market Value by Operator Type in 2009
Food Sales (£ Millions) Share (%)
Restaurants 9,033 21.5
Fast Food 10,608 25.4
Pubs 5,876 14.0
Hotels 7,903 18.8
Leisure 3,462 8.2
Staff Catering 2,620 6.2
Health Care 958 2.3
Education 1,252 3.0
Services/Welfare 268 0.6
Total 41,981 100.0
Source: Horizons FS Limited, 2009
Number of UK Food Service Outlets by Type in 2009
Number of Outlets Share (%)
Restaurants 27,502 10.6
Fast Food 31,042 12.0
Pubs 46,143 17.8
Hotels 45,869 17.7
Leisure 19,486 7.5
Staff Catering 19,537 7.6
Health Care 31,849 12.3
Education 34,455 13.3
Services/Welfare 3,081 1.2
Total 258,974 100.0
Source: Horizons FS Limited, 2009
The food service sector is the UK?s fourth largest consumer market following retail, motoring, clothing and
Shoppers are currently eating out more frequently than they were 4 years ago. IGD estimates that 30% of shoppers
eat out once a week or more, compared to only 13% in 2005.
About 3 million meals are eaten at work everyday of which two million are prepared by contract caterers. British
consumers are exposed to many different cuisines from around the world, with non-European foods being popular.
As many as 7 out of 10 of Britons state that they like and eat non-European styles of food. The food service sector
serves 8.6 billion meals a year, equivalent to 39,000 a minute.
There are two main ways to enter the UK catering market. Some companies go direct to suppliers, domestic or
foreign. However, by far the most popular way is through an intermediary such as a UK-based importer. Because
there are a large number of small companies operating in the catering market, intermediaries skilled at filling small
orders play a crucial role in the distribution of products. The importer normally takes title of the goods (i.e.
ownership) following the purchase from a supplier to resell to trade customers.
The UK?s food service industry holds many avenues of opportunity for U.S. food and beverage products.
Networking within the industry is vital to ascertain the best market entry strategy.
For further information on the HRI sector please see UK HRI report which can be found on the USDA website
The food and drink manufacturing industry is the country?s largest single employer. Food and drink is also the
largest manufacturing industry in the UK, with an annual turnover over $137 billion (£74bn). Around 470,000
people across Britain are employed in jobs associated with food and drink manufacture and sales, accounting for
13% of total employment in the country.
In 2008 there were 6,745 food-manufacturing enterprises in the UK. UK multinationals such as Unilever and
Diageo are among the largest in Europe. Many U.S. companies, such as Pepsico, Kellogg?s, ADM, ConAgra and
Cargill, also have substantial interests in the UK.
The major unprocessed commodities that are not commercially produced by the UK are rice, citrus fruit, bananas,
corn, coffee, cocoa, stone fruit, tea and some oilseeds. Although the UK produces beet sugar, cane sugar is
imported. Processed products that the UK has to import include wine and preserved/frozen fruit and fruit
SECTION IV. BEST HIGH-VALUE PRODUCT PROSPECTS
Product Category Total UK Imports Average U.S. Key Constraints to Market Attractiveness for USA
UK Imports From U.S. Annual U.S. Import Market Development
2009 2009 Import Growth Tariff
($ million) ($ million) (last 5 yrs) Rate
Highly fragmented U.S. #1 canned salmon supplier,
market, domestic developing interest in other
Fish and Seafood 2,180 43.1 22% 0-22%
shortfall. products and species
Chocolate 1,442.9 16.2 -2.4% 8-27% Domestic & EU British eat more chocolate than
confectionery competition, low any other nationality.
HS: 1806 acceptance of American
Vegetables & Fruit 100.2 0.4 1.4% 0-16% Competition from Food has long shelf life
prepared in Vinegar Turkey, Netherlands and
Preserved fruit & 470.1 18.6 22.3% 7-27% Competition from EU, U.S. nut butters perceived as
nuts Thailand & South Africa high quality, exotic preserved
HS: 2008 fruits of interest for gift/specialty
Fruit & Vegetable 908.8 10.1 53.0% 16-23% Competition from EU High focus on healthy living in
Juice and Brazil UK. Juices now more popular
HS: 2009 than carbonated drinks
Sauces, 840.5 28.4 19.5% 0-10% Australia starting to enter U.S. #4 supplier, UK wants
Condiments, the market authentic tex-mex, BBQ sauces,
Seasonings marinades & salad dressings
Domestic & EU New U.S. concepts in beverages
competition, strong always attractive, e.g. functional
Soft drinks 968.6 10.9 -18.5% 0-10%
brands, market reaching drinks
Domestic & EU U.S. micro-brew beers, generally
competition, major unique beers with a story. They
Beer HS: 2203 668.9 4.0 97.7% 0%
brewers located in EU are attractive to a niche audience
4,362.1 152.61 -7.7% 18-25% Competition from EU, UK #1 export market for U.S.
Australia, Latin America wine, California wine has 16%
Wine HS: 2204
& S. Africa. market share, other parts of U.S.
Figure shows a minus should benefit in future
due to wine being
shipped to Italy and then
Source: World Trade Atlas
SECTION V. KEY CONTACTS AND FURTHER INFORMATION
Foreign Agricultural Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Embassy of United States of America
24 Grosvenor Square
London W1A 1AE
Tel: +44 20 7894 0040 Fax: +44 20 7894 0031
Contact For: U.S. Government Agency for information on UK market, exporting from the U.S. to the UK. Policy
Dept of Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
Nobel House, 17 Smith Square, London, SW1P 3JR
Tel: +44 20 7238 6951 Fax: +44 20 7238 2188
Contact For: UK Government Agency for any information on the UK Agricultural sector.
Food Standards Agency
Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH
Tel: +44 20 7276 8829 Fax: +44 20 7238 6330
Contact For: UK Government Association for information on UK food safety standards and policies.
United States Mission to the European Union
Office of Agricultural Affairs
Organization chart: www.fas.usda.gov/posthome/useu/staff.html
Boulevard du Regent 27
Tel: +32 2 811 4154 Fax: +32 2 811 5560
Contact For: U.S. Government Office dealing with EU agricultural policy information.
UK Trade Associations
Institute of Grocery Distribution
Grange Lane, Letchmore Heath, Watford, Hertfordshire, WD25 8GD
Tel: +44 1923 857141 Fax: +44 1923 852531
Contact For: UK trade association for information about the food and grocery chain.
Food and Drink Federation
6 Catherine Street, London, WC2B 5JJ
Tel: +44 20 7836 2460 Fax: +44 20 7836 0580
Contact For: UK trade association which is the voice of the UK food and drink manufacturing industry.
Fresh Produce Consortium
Minerva House, Minerva Business Park
Lynch Wood, Peterborough PE2 6FT
Tel: +44 1733 237117 Fax: +44 1733 237118
Contact For: UK trade association for the fresh produce industry.
British Health Food Manufacturer?s Association
1 Wolsey Road, East Molesey, Surrey KT8 9EL
Tel: +44 20 8481 7100 Fax: +44 20 8481 7101
Contact For: UK trade association which works effectively to represent the interests of the UK natural health
products industry at all levels of the legislative, regulatory and Parliamentary process.
British Frozen Food Federation
Warwick House, Unit 7, Long Bennington Business Park
Main Road, Long Bennington, Newark, NG23 5JR
Tel: +44 1400 283 090 Fax: +44 1400 283 097
Contact For: UK trade association for all aspects of the frozen food industry.
APPENDIX - STATISTICS
TABLE A. KEY TRADE & DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FOR 2008
UK Agricultural Imports From All Countries ($Mil) 58.7
U.S. Market Share (%) 2.74%
UK Consumer Food Imports From All Countries ($Mil) 39.4
U.S. Market Share (%) 1.8%
UK Edible Fishery Imports From All Countries ($Mil) 3.4
U.S. Market Share (%) 2.9%
UK Total Population (Millions) / Annual Growth Rate (%) 61.7 Million
UK Urban Population (Millions) 55 Million
Number of Major Metropolitan Areas 36
Size of the Middle Class (%) 30-43%
Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (U.S. Dollars) $35,200
UK Unemployment Rate (%) 7.8%
UK Per Capita Food Expenditures (U.S. Dollars) per person per week $27.61
UK Percent of Female Population Employed 70 %
Exchange Rate (U.S.$1 = £) 1.59
1/ From Bico Statistics (Export/Import Statistics for Bulk, Intermediate, and Consumer Oriented Foods and
Beverages - BICO)
2/ Population in excess of 1,000,000
3/ Middle class is ?defined as individuals who have average incomes of more than £25,500?
4/ Percent of number of women (15 years old or above).
TABLE B. CONSUMER FOOD & EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCT IMPORTS
(In billions of United States Dollars, rounded to the nearest million)
UK Imports from the U.S. Market Share
UK Imports from the U.S.
Commod World % ity
2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 2009 2007 2008 2009
Agric. Total 42.6 45.9 39.3 0.8 0.8 0.7 1.93 1.90 1.8
Fish & Seafood Products 3.9 4.1 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.10 2.73 2.9
Agricultural Total 54.0 59.9 50.8 1.3 1.3 1.2 2.44 2.30 2.4
Agricultural, Fish &
Forestry 65.2 70.1 58.7 1.6 1.7 1.6 2.59 2.45 2.7
Source: Global Trade Information Services.
TABLE C ? TOP 15 SUPPLIERS OF CONSUMER FOODS & EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS
UK - Top 15 Suppliers of Consumer Food Imports
2007 ($ millions) 2008 ($ millions) 2009 ($ millions)
Netherlands 7,195.1 7,382.9 6,290.6
France 5,356.2 5,652.1 4,552.3
Ireland 4,192.3 4,668.9 4,186.6
Germany 3,666.7 4,063.7 3,499.4
Spain 2,864.0 3,272.4 2,813.3
Italy 2,595.7 3,047.4 2,794.8
Belgium 2,625.3 2,866.9 2,405.1
Denmark 1,914.4 2,034.4 1,692.4
New Zealand 874.0 915.7 856.7
United States 1/ 963.4 984.2 777.6
Australia 1,141.2 1,033.0 764.4
Poland 702.9 841.2 762.1
South Africa 809.6 890.9 751.1
Thailand 557.4 745.9 677.7
Chile 631.8 706.7 611.7
World 42,438.4 45,765.1 39,321.8
1/ note that this data under-represents actual U.S. sales to the UK as an undetermined amount of products is
transshipped via other EU member states.
Source: Global Trade Atlas
UK ? Top 15 Suppliers of Fish & Seafood Products Imports
2007 ($ millions) 2008 ($ millions) 2009 ($ millions)
Iceland 649.0 612.9 496.8
Denmark 300.3 271.5 218.3
China 223.2 259.8 206.3
Thailand 164.5 192.3 196.7
Germany 234.7 262.4 194.5
Norway 211.3 201.2 164.9
Faroe Islands 185.9 185.3 156.6
Netherlands 133.2 136.3 122.6
Canada 140.4 125.1 112.6
United States 1/ 162.8 163.8 111.4
Sweden 94.2 78.9 100.0
France 130.2 123.7 97.0
Seychelles 84.2 87.7 95.5
Poland 83.2 90.1 87.6
Mauritius 96.6 130.6 86.6
World 3,950.6 4,097.5 3,361.7
1/ note that this data under-represents actual U.S. sales to the UK as an undetermined amount of products is
transshipped via other EU member states.
Source: Global Trade Atlas