First Novel Invention of In-Line Web Printed 3D Lenticular..

An Expert's View about Business Environment in the United States

Posted on: 1 Jul 2012

First Novel Invention of In-Line Web Printed 3D Lenticular..

FIRST NOVEL INVENTION OF IN- LINE WEB FED ROLL PRINT MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION OF ANIMATED / THREE DIMENSIONAL IMAGED PRINT PRODUCTS INCORPORATING ADVANCED LENTICULAR TRANSPARENT SUBSTRATE…ITS ADVANTAGES AND THE COMPARISON / CONTRAST ORDER ANALYSIS TO PRIOR U.S.P.T.O. PATENTED ART A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering Kennedy-Western University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Management By Gary A. Jacobsen Itasca, Illinois USA 2004 Abstract of Dissertation FIRST NOVEL INVENTION OF IN- LINE WEB FED ROLL PRINT MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION OF ANIMATED / THREE DIMENSIONAL IMAGED PRINT PRODUCTS INCORPORATING ADVANCED LENTICULAR TRANSPARENT SUBSTRATE…ITS ADVANTAGES AND THE COMPARISON / CONTRAST ORDER ANALYSIS TO PRIOR U.S.P.T.O. PATENTED ART By Gary A. Jacobsen Itasca, IL USA 2004 Kennedy-Western University Cheyenne, Wyoming USA ii THE PROBLEM Prior to the lenticular printing industries first of its kind invention of Jacobsen Patents # 5,560,799, (1996) and # 5,753,344, (1998) granted within the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), there were only seven other (USPTO) categories of prior art records indicating: 1) Lenticular prepatory (prepress) interlacing 2) Inefficient multi-step lenticular (printing processes), 3) Related consumer products that have been developed to fabricate (photographically) created lenticular images, 4) Sequentially stepped non-lenticular (printed layers of transparent material) to simulate dimension and distance of printed images, 5) (Multiple step process) single roll lenticular web fed offset printing requiring numerous and separate multiple off-line post production finishing procedures, iii 6) (Sheet fed lenticular printed products) manufactured at one sheet at a time that display a virtual illustrative printed image which appears to be three dimensional (3-D) or animated (moving sequential images) when viewed by the naked human eye. 7) Lenticular lens design and lenticular lens array manufacturing methods. As in one example, in prior US Patent # 5,181,745, (1993), inventor Jacobsen discloses a print manufacturing process having different segments of an image printed by an in-line system on sequentially stepped transparent layers of material, with one segment of the image, such as the background for example, printed on a paper stock material which forms the bottom layer of the finished product. The final image produces the appearance of depth since the various segments of the printed image are actually placed on different separate planes, and are slightly stepped at a distance from each other on transparent substrate layers, thus portraying a distant three-dimensional visual effect. Additionally, virtual three-dimensional images have been formed using a combination of lenticular transparent through which a line formed image, printed on opaque paper or other sheet stock is viewed. Specially designed photographic techniques are used to produce a line formed image iv of the subject matter to be displayed, and the array of line formed images that are printed are perceived as a single image when viewed through the lenticular transparent sheet when the lenses of the transparent sheet and the printed line formed images are in proper alignment. U.S. Patent # 5,028,950 (1991) and earlier patents referred to therein, disclose apparatus and methods for forming such line formed images by “non-continuous single sheet fed, one at a time, print process”, as compared to the “continuous in-line web fed printing process” which Jacobsen describes in US Patent’s # 5,560,799 (1996), and # 5,753,344 (1998). The problem producing in a “non-continuous single sheet fed, one at a time print process” have been found to be unsuitable for producing high volume lenticular printed products such as required for mass mailings or other mass distribution, magazine or newspaper inserts, labels for packaging and the like, due to the higher production costs and lengthy time required for such “one at a time made processes”. In the high volume advertising mass printing production industries, rapid turn around time is essential. In another example, prior U.S. Patent # 5,028,950 (1991) discloses a “photography based system” for forming a latent line formed image on extruded plastic lenticular transparent photography-based continuous print v film from a set of frames of negative images. The printer has an edit station at which images from a number of frames of negatives are generated and visually displayed, and selected data signals for the images are processed to produce key subject identifier signals indicative of the content and location of areas. These signals are compared with signals from other frames. A photographic print station separately projects the image of each frame onto print film. The photographic print method disclosed in U.S. Patent # 5,028,950 (1991) does not provide a “continuous single in-line web fed offset, flexographic, rotogravure, or letterpress ink printing process having various screen values or a method of mass producing inexpensively a printed image” as provided by the Jacobsen U.S. Patents, # 5,560,799 (1996) , or # 5,753,344 (1998). In this last partial example illustrated within this introduction section, inventor Quadracci U.S. Patent # 5,108,531, (1992), teaches a method of printing using a web offset press, particularly suited for stereographic printing. Consistent reproductions of a composite image are produced directly on a paper web, and registry between the image and a separate embossed lenticular screen is maintained, by preshrinking (e.g., reducing the moisture content of) the paper prior to printing the composite image on the paper web. Preshrinking the paper prevents the subsequent ink drying vi operation from causing shrinkage of the paper and comitant variations in the image, permitting inline formation of a screen in accurate registry with the image. The method described within the Quadracci patent requires a print production manufacturing system utilizing minimally three different and completely separate manufacturing steps before becoming a finished printed lenticular product which illustrates three dimensional imagery. In a brief comparison of the Quadracci patent above to Jacobsen U.S. Patents # 5,560,799, (1996) and # 5,753,344, (1998), it accurately demonstrates the inefficiency of the prior art by requiring minimally three or more separate manufacturing steps before product completion, as compared to Jacobsen’s “continuous in-line lenticular print manufacturing method utilizing a one pass rotary web fed printing process”, which creates an illusion of three dimensional depth, or animation in the perception of the viewer. Therefore, the first problem existed for a solution to a lower cost, higher speed, and efficient high volume printing production system which supplies large quantities of virtual three-dimensional and animated image printed products utilizing techniques and materials which incorporate lenticular transparent and line formed printed screened, i.e.: dotted or spotted, images printed in proper register beneath the array of lenses found in the lenticular transparent material. vii Secondly, the problem existed and continued with a need to create an efficient, new and novel, lower cost, high speed, continuous in-line lenticular print manufacturing method utilizing a one pass rotary web fed printing process which would create an illusion of depth, or animation in the perception of the viewer of the image as compared to any other prior art recorded within the United States Patent & Trademark Office. Thirdly, the problem existed and continued for a need to provide a continuous in-line roll fed printing process incorporating roll fed lenticular transparent, preferably made of transparent plastic, and roll fed opaque paper stock substrate, wherein line formed images are printed on the lenticular substrate, on the paper substrate, or both substrates simultaneously in one embodiment. The lamination and combination of two printed substrates together created within one press pass would create a finished three-dimensional or animated printed product ready for consumer viewing. This manufacturing technique would save precious time from creative development and design to market and be available to advertisers at a lower cost due to highly efficient manufacturing procedures. Very last, the fourth problem existed for a printing process that must be rapid enough to meet the quick delivery deadline requirements of advertisers, and also be required to be capable of manufacturing a new unseen before range of three dimensional and animated lenticular print viii products that could be used by the packaging, advertising and promotional industries. Therefore to help solve these problems, it is the objective of this study to explore the use of available specialized inventions, engineering and lenticular print manufacturing production, utilizing double web rolls simultaneously for either: offset lithography, flexographic, gravure and letterpress, resulting in the construction formation of paper/lenticular combined printed products, using advanced in-line printing and finishing processes to produce unique, low cost, all machine manufactured paper/lenticular printed products. This research study to follow will present the facts necessary to support the implied stated thesis within the abstract of this dissertation, describe the problems, establish the researchers claim of “first in industry to invent” status and demonstrate the solutions to the problems indicated in the conclusion findings. Also within this dissertation study, the researcher will thoroughly forensic audit, dissect and analyze the remaining prior art by utilizing the comparison/contrast order research analysis method to the referenced U.S. Patents (prior art), conclude the findings, recommend and summarize the referenced materials herein against the Jacobsen’s first to conceptualize, and first to invent, lenticular web fed process printing patents. Finally by solving the problem, the research will support the claims and the importance the Jacobsen patents ix and contributions of its teaching bring to the lenticular printing industry and advertising industries world over. METHOD The research method and writing style to be used within this dissertation paper will consist of and be presented in the scientific/technical expository written nature in the pure applied form, utilizing the comparison/contrast analysis order research method. Further more; the dissertation is to be written in the American Psychological Association (APA) style format. The researcher will review, analyze and focus on the thirty (30) related, closest related and other semi related literature (patents) from the United States Patent & Trademark Office, thus being the “prior art”, i.e., granted utility and product patents pertaining to three-dimensional or animated (stereographic) processes, including but not limited to the following areas: lenticular prepress, lenticular printing, lenticular lens design and material manufacturing, and the printed end use products of lenticular x technology. In addition, six (6) various published literatures will be reviewed and analyzed, obtained from major industrial printing publications, and other published articles written within the promotional, label and plastics industries. Many of the published articles reference, acknowledge and promote the use of the Jacobsen lenticular patents due to the extreme advantages in manufacturing, resulting in lower product costs. As a final point, the Jacobsen patents also brings new novel enhanced lenticular printed consumable lenticular advertising product advancements to the mass distributed consumables industries. FINDINGS: The researcher did not uncover any similar studies or inventions relating to this papers title, thesis and abstract: “First Novel Invention Of In- Line Web Fed Roll Print Manufacturing Production Of Animated / Three- Dimensional Imaged Print Products Incorporating Lenticular Transparent Substrate...Its Advantages And The Comparison / Contrast Order Analysis To Prior U.S.P.T.O. Patented Art”. Therefore, the study has an inherent uniqueness and originality in its approach to the topic. This is not to say the review of literature did not reveal issues relating to other persons or corporations attempting to explore, reverse engineer or advance the said xi topics technology, however, when found to exist, it appears to have occurred “after” the public made disclosure by the (USPTO) of the original Jacobsen (1996 & 1998) U.S. Patents. This fact alone will support the papers claim of “first to invent” and further more supports the papers novel ness of the invention. CONCLUSION: The researcher has concluded and determined that the Jacobsen patents (1996 & 1998) solves the problems that existed for a solution to a lower cost, higher speed, and more efficient high volume printing production system which supplies large quantities of virtual three-dimensional and animated image printed products utilizing techniques and materials which incorporate lenticular transparent and line formed printed screened, i.e.: dotted or spotted, images printed in proper register beneath the array of lenses found in the lenticular transparent material. Secondly, it has been determined that the Jacobsen patents (1996 & 1998) solves the second problem that existed and continued for a need to create an efficient, new and novel, lower cost, high speed, continuous in- xii line lenticular print manufacturing method utilizing a one pass rotary web fed printing process which would create an illusion of depth, or animation in the perception of the viewer of the image as compared to any other prior art recorded within the United States Patent & Trademark Office. Thirdly, it has been determined that the Jacobsen patents (1996 & 1998) solves the third problem that existed for a need to provide a continuous in-line roll fed printing process incorporating roll fed lenticular transparent, preferably made of transparent plastic, and roll fed opaque paper stock substrate, wherein line formed images are printed on the lenticular stock, on the paper stock, or both simultaneously in one embodiment. The lamination and combination of two printed substrates together created within one press pass creates a finished three-dimensional or animated printed product ready for consumer viewing. This manufacturing technique saves precious time from creative development and design time to market and is available to advertisers at a lower cost due to highly efficient manufacturing procedures. Very last, it has been determined that the Jacobsen patents (1996 & 1998) solves the fourth problem that existed for a printing process that must also be rapid enough to meet the quick delivery deadline requirements of advertisers, and be required to also be capable of manufacturing a new unseen before range of three dimensional and animated lenticular print xiii products that could be used by the packaging, advertising and promotional industries. Therefore it is of the researcher’s final summary and conclusion that the Jacobsen patents (1996 & 1998) solves the aforementioned problems. xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract of Dissertation ....................................................................... ii THE PROBLEM..................................................................................... iii METHOD ................................................................................................x FINDINGS:............................................................................................. xi CONCLUSION:..................................................................................... xii Acknowledgments ............................................................................. xxi Chapter 1 .......................................................................................... - 2 - Introduction ........................................................................................ - 2 - Background (The Author’s Organization)..................................... - 2 - Statement of the Problem ............................................................ - 3 - Purpose of the Study.................................................................... - 6 - Importance of the Study ............................................................... - 7 - Scope of the Study....................................................................... - 7 - Rationale of the Study.................................................................. - 8 - Overview of the Study .................................................................. - 8 - Chapter II .............................................................................................10 Review of Related Literature ................................................................10 Introduction ...........................................................................................10 xv Background & History of Stereographic Recorded Images and Later Lenticular Sheet Fed and Web Fed Printing Technologies..................10 Depth Perception Principles Of Stereo Viewers .............................12 Lenticular Sheet Fed Printing..........................................................13 Lenticular Web Fed Printing............................................................14 Optical Imaging Principles of Lenticular Material .................................14 Lenticular Printed Images vs. Holographic Images & Comparisons: ...17 Advantages of Using Jacobsen’s Two Web In-Line Lenticular Print Manufacturing vs. the Prior Art, i.e., Single Roll Web, and Sheet-Fed Print Processes .............................................................................................19 New Lenticular Enhanced Print Products Available To The Advertising Industry For Marketing Usage Due To Novel Invention .......................23 Jacobsen Patent’s: (First To Invent, Documented Originality & Dominant Leading Industry Position) ....................................................................29 Intellectual Property: Legal Basis & Essential ......................................34 Characteristics Of Patents: ...................................................................34 Legal Basis:.....................................................................................35 Essential Characteristics of Patents ...............................................37 Considerations In Forming An Intellectual Strategy........................39 Fundamental Considerations: Relation To Business Plan .............39 Patents: The Ultimate Intellectual Property Strategy: .....................40 xvi Researcher’s Conclusion Of Intellectual Property Strategy Practice ...42 Overview ...............................................................................................43 Past Research And Its Impact On The Study.......................................43 Review Of Related Literature Materials................................................44 Bravenec et al. US Patent # 5,967,032, (1999): .............................44 Bravenec et al. US Patent # 5,974,967, (1999): ............................45 Brosh et al. US Patent # 5,924,870, (1999): ...................................47 Eastman Kodak Company. PT Cruiser Ad Research Results, (2000): 48 Franko, Sr. U.S. Patent # 6,624,946 (2003): ..................................51 Goggins. U.S. Patent # 5,896,230 (1999):......................................53 Goggins. US Patent # 6,424,467 B1, (2002): .................................54 Gulick, Jr. US Patent # 6,237,264 B1, (2001):................................55 Jacobsen et al. US Patent # 5,181,745, (1993):.............................56 Jacobsen. US Patent # 5,560,799, (1996):.....................................58 Jacobsen U.S. Patent # 5,753,344, (1998):....................................81 Jacobsen. US Patent # 6,153,039, (2000):.....................................83 Johnson, et al. US Patent Application Publication # US 2003/0002160 A1, January 02, 2003: .....................................................................85 Kumagai et al. US Patent # 5,724,188, (1998) .............................106 xvii Koltzenburg, Teresa. (2000, January). Paper Film Foil Converter Magazine, Narrow Web Feature, “Bringing A New Dimension To 3-D Imaged Packaging”. ......................................................................107 Kuo et al. OE Magazine, The Monthly Publication of SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering, (July, 2001 issue), Titled: Total Immersion:.................................................................110 Luttenberger. Packaging Technology & Engineering, Professional Journal of Packaging (1999): ........................................................112 Morton. US Patent # 6,163,406, (2000): Lenticular Image Bearing Member With Variable Line Spacing To Improve Image Quality..113 Morton. US Patent # 6,211,896 B1, Method For Producing Lenticular Images (2001): ..............................................................................114 Neefe. US Patent # 4,406,189, (1983):.........................................115 Quadracci. US Patent # 5,108,531, (1992):..................................116 Quadracci et al. US Patent # 5,266,995, (1993):..........................119 Quadracci et al. US Patent # 5,285,238, (1994):..........................120 Quadracci et al. US Patent # 5,457,515, (1995):..........................121 Rosenthal. US Patent # 6,084,713, (2000): ..................................123 Sandor et al. US Patent # 5,519,794, (1996):...............................124 Label & Narrow Web Industry – Rodman Publications, (1999): ...126 Watanabe et al. US Patent # 6,157,491, (2000):..........................128 xviii Yoshimura et al. US Patent # 5,687,024, (1997): .........................129 Yoshimura et al. US Patent # 6,101,031, (2000): .........................130 Chapter 3 ...........................................................................................133 Overview .............................................................................................133 Approach.............................................................................................133 Data Gathering Method ......................................................................135 Database of Study ..............................................................................136 Validity of Data....................................................................................136 Originality & Limitation of Data ...........................................................138 Summary of Chapter 3........................................................................139 Chapter IV ..........................................................................................141 Data Analysis ......................................................................................141 Overview .............................................................................................141 Description of Findings in Chapter 3 ..................................................141 Introduction .........................................................................................142 Factors That Could Limit Data............................................................146 Possible Omissions/Errors of Data.....................................................147 Reliability of Data ................................................................................148 Significant Findings of Data ................................................................148 Chapter V ...........................................................................................167 Summary, Conclusions & Recommendations....................................167 xix Introduction .........................................................................................167 Summary & Conclusion ......................................................................168 Final Collimated Summary & Conclusion ...........................................182 Discussion: Final Summary & Conclusion Questions ........................184 Significant Findings of Study ..............................................................185 Conclusions Drawn of Study ..............................................................186 Recommendations for Further Research ...........................................194 Appendix .............................................................................................201 Glossary: Definition Of Terms and Acronyms ....................................201 BASIC COMMON PAPER TERMS AND ACRONYMS (Section 1): .201 ADVANCED PRINTING & OPTICAL TERMINOLGY (Section 2)......204 ADVANCED LENTICULAR TERMINOLOGY (Section 3)..................236 xx Acknowledgments The author wishes to express his love and heartfelt gratitude, especially to my great wife, Mary Jo Jacobsen (a true loyal supporter and believer), in addition to my three magnificent children, Stephanie, Steven and Scott for their full support and understanding of this important extended research and writing assignment, and for allowing the five plus years of writing time it took me away from our family. Most notably, the writer extends his explicit love and gratitude to his wonderful parents, Darlene M. Jacobsen and Roger V. Jacobsen. Darlene M. Jacobsen, a great loving mother and professional educator, taught me the important values of family and for the need of acquiring a proper education. In memoriam, Roger V. Jacobsen, (September 23, 1928 – March 26, 2004) an amazing person, loving father, loyal friend, true grand master of the printing trade, caring, ethical and wise businessman; the researcher desires to express thanks to his marvelous father for leading his son into the graphic arts industry and schooling him in the highly technical trade. Having worked together for over 20 wonderful years has been extremely xxi delightful, fun and productive. A proud son and continuing second generation printer, the family name and tradition carries forward. Our entire family will miss him greatly. In addition, my appreciation goes to Dr. John Byrne, Associate Professor, School of Business at St. Ambrose University, Davenport, Iowa; and Adjunct Professor of Kennedy-Western University, Cheyenne, Wyoming, for his approval of this papers complicated topic, and scholarly suggestions made to help improve the quality of this paper through his suggestions of utilizing advanced research and writing techniques, resulting finally to this formally accepted written dissertation. Furthermore, special thanks to my good friends and business associates, First, to James R. Schirott, my great friend, personal attorney, and WCG’s Vice President and General In-House Corporate Counsel, for all his support, guidance, cheer leading, and belief in this papers topic and assistance in developing a strategic business plan, while also helping to reduce this academic dissertation topic to actual industry practice. Secondly, special thanks to John G. Leonard, Proprietor of The Granville Group, WCG’s advertising and public relations firm, for all his xxii substantial contributions made to help get the word out on our new patent pending LentiClear Lenticular Lens, patented web fed printing processes and finally to his help announcing the great novel advanced lenticular print products we now offer the advertising, promotion and packaging industries. Thirdly, thank you to the many members of the school administration for their important input, advise and help during the past four years of my graduate doctoral research studies at Kennedy-Western University. Last but not least, very special thanks to the following people and company’s that have helped me and The Web Communications Group, Inc. & Companies during the past 14 years and many that continues on today. Several of the mentioned here are both suppliers and customers of WCG and are participants that have contributed to the behalf of WCG’s lenticular research, study and development. The following are remarkably recognized as industry leaders as well as academic leaders whom have offered their various individual lenticular based specialized contributions, ranging from: advise, and promoting of the WCG’s lenticular processes and products; performed lenticular prepress interlacing, provided in-plant live lenticular on press testing, lenticular lens material manufacturing, lenticular product development, and offered overall general support to the cause of advancing the state of the lenticular industry. xxiii Many thanks to: CCL Label, Inc. (Don Klein) Dixonweb Printing Company (Dr. Ake Dahlquist, VP & Chief Engineer) Goex Corporation (Josh Gray, Dick Hamlin) Professor R. Barry Johnson MagiColor Graphics 2000, Inc. (Tom Fernandez, Brian Ulricksen) Outlook Group, Inc. (Joe Baksha, Tim Traub) Pacur, Inc. (Ron Johnson, Rick Knapp) Moore/Wallace/Post Printing an R.R. Donnelly Company (James Nordquist) Quad Graphics, Inc. (Thomas Quadracci, Bill Grove, Dave Morris) Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) - (Dr. Bruce E. Kahn), Department of Imaging and Photographic Technology – Materials Science & Engineering - Lenticular Imaging VPI Corporation (Debra Wente, Kerry Winans) Also, to the countless many of great people behind the scenes that are to numerous to credit personally, thanks to you too. xxiv Chapter 1 Introduction Background (The Author’s Organization) Founded and incorporated by Gary A. Jacobsen in June of 1984, The Web Communications Group, Inc. (WCG), simply began as a commercial printing brokerage company providing traditional high volume paper based printing products and services. Shortly thereafter, WCG began to specialize in the research, invention, testing, engineering and project management for the manufacturing print production of custom specialty rotary web offset lithography, flexographic, gravure and letterpress; creating paper/plastic printed products using advanced in-line printing and finishing processes to produce unique, low cost, all machine manufactured paper and or paper/plastic printed products. This advanced print technology was designed particularly for the use in major domestic and international consumer and business-to-business promotional print campaigns. Today, The Web Communications Group, Inc. has expanded and has formed three new companies (Animated Printing & Packaging Company, LentiClear Lenticular Lens, Inc., and Jacobsen Lenticular Tool & Cylinder Engraving Technologies Company) to support the new research, study, invention and implementation of advanced in-line lenticular printing and finishing methods, as well as providing optical diamond tool fabrication, diamond turning and cylinder engraving. In addition, The WCG Companies strive for continual improvement and development of specialized lenticular optical lens designs and the manufacturing technologies for advanced printable and non-printable optical lenticular lens array materials. Four of the Jacobsen company’s websites are available for review at the following http addresses: 1) Web Communications Group, Inc. – www.webcommgroup.com 2) Animated Printing & Packaging Company – www.apap-inc.com 3) LentiClear Lenticular Lens, Inc. – www.lenticlearlens.com 4) Jacobsen Lenticular Tool & Cylinder Engraving Technologies Company – www.lenticlearlens.com - 2 - Statement of the Problem Prior to the lenticular printing industries first of its kind invention of Jacobsen US Patents # 5,560,799, (1996) and # 5,753,344, (1998) that were granted within the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), there were only seven other (USPTO) categories of unrelated or near related prior art records indicating various lenticular manufacturing processes that included: 1) Lenticular prepatory (prepress) interlacing 2) Inefficient multi-step lenticular (printing processes) 3) Related consumer products that have been developed to fabricate (photographically) created lenticular images, 4) Sequentially stepped non-lenticular (printed layers of transparent material) to simulate dimension and distance of two dimension printed images, 5) (Multiple step process) single web lenticular web fed offset printing requiring separate post production finishing procedures, - 3 - 6) (Sheet fed lenticular printed products) that is manufactured by a “one single sheet at a time process”, that displays a virtual illustrative printed image which appears to be three dimensional (3-D) or animated (moving sequential images) when viewed by the naked human eye. 7) Lenticular optical lens design and lenticular lens array material manufacturing. Therefore, a multi-faceted problem existed for solutions to a lower cost, higher speed, and more efficient high volume lenticular print manufacturing production system which would supply large quantities of virtual three-dimensional and animated image printed products utilizing techniques and materials which incorporate lenticular transparent using line formed printed screened, i.e.: dotted or spotted, images printed in proper register beneath the array of lenses found in the lenticular transparent material. Secondly, the problem existed and continued with a need to create an efficient, new and novel, continuous in-line lenticular print manufacturing method, utilizing a one machine pass rotary web fed printing process which would create an illusion of depth, or animation in the perception of the - 4 - viewer of the image as compared to any other prior art recorded within the United States Patent & Trademark Office. Thirdly, the problem existed and continued for a need to provide a continuous in-line roll fed printing manufacturing process incorporating roll fed lenticular transparent, preferably made of transparent plastic, and roll fed opaque paper stock substrate, wherein line formed images are printed on the lenticular stock, on the paper stock, or both simultaneously in one embodiment. The lamination and combination of two printed substrates together created within one press pass would create a finished three- dimensional or animated printed product ready for consumer viewing. This manufacturing technique would save precious time from creative development and design to market, and would be made available to advertisers at a lower cost due to highly efficient manufacturing procedures. Very last, the problem existed for a printing process that must also be rapid enough to meet the quick delivery deadline requirements of advertisers, and also be required to be capable of manufacturing a new unseen before range of three dimensional and animated lenticular print products that could be used by the packaging, direct mail, advertising and promotional industries. - 5 - Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study herein will be to present the facts necessary to support the implied stated thesis written within the abstract of this dissertation, describe the problems, establish the researcher’s claim of “first within industry to invent” status and demonstrate the solutions indicated in the findings. Also within this dissertation study, the researcher will thoroughly forensic audit, dissect and analyze the remaining prior art included within the study, compare/contrast the referenced literature of U.S. Patents, conclude findings, recommend and summarize the referenced materials herein against the Jacobsen’s first to conceptualize, and first to invent lenticular web fed print manufacturing process and product patent’s. Finally, the research will support the claim of “first to invent” within the lenticular printing industry, and the importance the Jacobsen patents and contributions of its teaching bring to the lenticular printing industry and advertising industries world over. - 6 - Importance of the Study The importance and novelty of the study will be to investigate the multi-faceted problems described herein that have not yet been investigated or solved. The study will condense literary lessons taught through the U.S. Patent Office’s patented “prior art” which was recorded over ten decades such teachings of novel inventions were made public; and finally it will be augmented with insights gained from the comparison/contrast study of the prior art to the Jacobsen inventions introduced and to the problems solved. Scope of the Study Within the lenticular printing manufacturing industry of both yesterday and today, continued research and testing is continually performed by practicing manufacturing participants to expand product offerings, perfect the applied printing techniques and reduce the manufacturing steps necessary to provide quality driven lenticular printed products, as well in addition, attempt to reduce the overall costs associated - 7 - with such production. The scope of this study will focus on, and be limited to this ideology. Rationale of the Study The rationale of the study is that once it is determined which lenticular print manufacturing method(s) is most efficient and cost effective; this information can then be utilized by the lenticular printing industry, and such advantageous findings can then practiced by the lenticular print manufacturers, which in turn will then be offering such beneficial technology to the lenticular product buying customers. Overview of the Study The overview of the study is to academically explore and compare the inventions, and to compare/contrast engineering and print manufacturing production techniques of custom specialty sheet-fed, single web-fed and double web-fed rotary offset lithography, flexographic, gravure and letterpress paper/plastic printed products using advanced in-line printing and finishing processes to produce unique, low cost, all machine - 8 - manufactured paper printed products. The research study herein will present the facts necessary to support the implied stated thesis within the abstract of this dissertation, describe the problems, establish the researchers claim of “first in industry to invent” status and demonstrate the solutions to the problems that will be indicated in the findings. Also within this study, the researcher will thoroughly forensic audit, dissect and analyze the remaining prior art, compare/contrast the referenced U.S. Patents and remaining published literature, conclude findings, recommend and summarize the referenced materials herein against the Jacobsen’s first to conceptualize, and first to invent lenticular web fed printing process patents. Finally, the research will support the importance the Jacobsen patents and contributions its teaching bring to the lenticular printing industry and advertising industries world over. - 9 - Chapter II Review of Related Literature Introduction Background & History of Stereographic Recorded Images and Later Lenticular Sheet Fed and Web Fed Printing Technologies Throughout history, man has tried to define, draw and record the world around him. The advanced state of a society is often judged by how well these recordings are made. In A.D. 280 Euclid defined depth perception and during the renaissance, artists added perspective to their work. Some early trails of artificial three-dimensional imagery were stereoscopic drawings devised by Grovanni Battista della Porta around the year 1600. th th In the latter part of the 19 century and into the early 20 century, photographic stereo imaging shot by camera found new popularity. In 1838 Sir Charles Wheatstone proposed the first of several stereo viewers. Inventors like Sir David Brewster advanced the Wheatstone viewer concepts and Oliver Wendell Holmes added convex lenses as eyepieces. Pictures, either hand drawn or photographically created with specific parallax separation were viewed with hand held stereoscopes to give the 10 illusion of three-dimensional depths. After the introduction of the commercial hand held stereoscopic viewer in the 1950’s, scenes from around the world, as well as images from movie studios such as Walt Disney Studios were brought into homes as “stereoscope images”. Later during the 1950’s, advances in motion picture brought “anaglyphic” red-and-green polarized eyeglasses that conjured up horror of multi-dimensional images, such as in the film: “Creature From The Black Lagoon”. These (anaglyphic) red-and-green eye glasses then later became used to view specially created art work that was then printed in collectible comic books to create the illusion of three-dimensional depth. During the later years of 1990’s, video camcorders were made available for viewers who prefer video experience in stereo, even if it requires wearing special liquid crystal goggles. In addition of today, holographic or volumetric images have been used in amusement parks, casinos, museum exhibits, and in other art forms. These images can be viewed without the assistance of supplemental viewing devices, but lack the printed quality necessary for mass commercial usage. In addition, the high cost to produce such images for volume based 11 commercial advertising usage prohibits continual use by advertisers. The least expensive form of holographic imagery appears frequently on consumer credit cards, but appears to lack substantial quality. Lenticular technology which predates back into the early 1900’s, recently have made great in roads as competition to the aforementioned visual technologies. Since lenticular printing is less costly to manufacture; and can illustrate both three-dimension and several styles of animated visual effects without the requirement of wearing special viewing glasses, handheld viewing stereo devices or using lighted stereo projectors, it is a technology that has attracted the use by many advertisers worldwide. Depth Perception Principles Of Stereo Viewers Depth perception is indeed a precious gift. In human vision, depth perception starts out as flat; two-dimensional images received through a lens, collected and transmitted to the brain, a super computer. The retina of an eye collects only two-dimensional data because it consists of a single layer of sensors-albeit spherical in shape. Cues of a third dimension (depth) can only be obtained through analysis by the brain of the retinal images from both eyes. While a series of minor cues (accommodation, convergence, size gradient, etc.) provide some variable depth information, by far the most dominant cue comes from the effect called binocular 12 disparity or binocular parallax. While avoiding an in-depth analysis of this cue, suffice it to say that horizontal displacement of the two human eyes (average interpupillary distance of 6.5 cm.) produces two slightly different simultaneous retinal images. These two-dimensional images differ because each eye records the scene being viewed from a scant different angle resulting in horizontal shifts of image points in planes in front of or behind an arbitrary reference plane. These two dissimilar images are called a stereo-pair and are the major contributor to depth perception. Such a stereo-pair can be produced photographically by recording a scene from two horizontally displaced vantage points. Thirty-five millimeter transparencies taken with special two-lens cameras, then shown through a stereoscopic stereo viewer are familiar to the general public, but have slide back in popularity due to recent advancements in lenticular printing technology. Lenticular Sheet Fed Printing The art of basic lenticular-sheet three dimensional and animated images has made great progress in the past decade. The major advantage of lenticular sheet fed printing is that the three dimensional or animated images are presented to the viewer without the need for a supplementary hand held viewing device and can be economically produced using low- 13 speed, “single sheet” at a time production output via sheet fed offset printing presses, as compared to expensively created, one by one production of photographically prepared stereo-pair images viewed through hand held stereoscopes; or single photographically, or digitally prepared lenticular imaged prints. Lenticular Web Fed Printing With the introduction of web fed printing, a new major manufacturing advantage occurred compared to sheet fed printing. In addition, as described with sheet fed printing, lenticular web fed printing occurs without the need for a supplementary hand held viewing device. Web printing is high speed; continual and non-interrupted print manufacturing, which is printed onto continuous web rolls of lenticular material. The web printing process now takes lenticular printing and the products it can create to a new higher advanced level never made possible before with the previous prior art technologies. Optical Imaging Principles of Lenticular Material The optical lenticular sheets or rolls described in this research paper are defined as a fine linear array of convex lenses with specific optical viewing characteristics commonly known as “lenticular”. 14 Lenticular material can be made in either single sheets or continuous web rolls containing over 8,000 lineal feet of material in one web roll. This lenticular material is produced either by extrusion, embossing, molding or casting processes via sheet or continuous webs using optical quality APET, PETG, PVC or other suitable plastic materials with spatial frequencies from 15 to 500 lenses per inch (LPI). As the lenticular material is printed upon, it becomes a high- resolution three-dimensional recording medium for presenting dimensional or animated images to the viewer without the use of additional viewing devices. The principles of lenticular imaging are quite simple. The object, scene or images are first recorded as a series of two or more dimensional (2D) images taken from a series of two or more horizontally displaced vantage points. Assume “n” equal the number of 2D images taken. For composition of most three-dimensional (3D) images, “n” is four (4) to sixteen (16) 2D images. These images are then “line-formed” behind the lenticules; i.e. “n” fine lines are recorded behind each linear convex lens on the lenticular material with each line containing only the image content of a single 2D image. When the final composite image is seen by the viewer, each eye sees only a single 2D image. Due to the fact each eye receives a 15 different 2D image (the two comprise a stereo-pair); depth is perceived in the scene. An individual lenticule within the lenticular material (linear convex lens) images in only one direction. If a point source of light is placed in front of such a lens, the point will be imaged into a single line parallel to the long axis of the lens. Another technique that works well with lenticular material is commonly referred as “animation”. Two, three or four or more totally different 2D images are recorded in differing recording (and viewing) zones. As an example, consider two conventional 2D images and lenticular print material with a 32-degree viewing angle. One 2D image is recorded on the lenticular material from a +16 to 0 degree viewing angle, while the second image is recorded on the lenticular material from 0 degree to – 16 degree viewing angle. When the viewer is positioned in the respective viewing zone or when holding the printed lenticular material at a particular tilted viewing angle, only one of the images will be visible. The lenticular material being a linear single element convex lens is not perfect. When combining images behind the lenses on the lenticular material, some 16 ghosting can appear due to misregisration, or aberrations of the lenticules itself. Lenticular Printed Images vs. Holographic Images & Comparisons: Creating stereoscopic (three-dimensional) 3D projected imagery can be accomplished several ways, with the two most popular being lenticular and holographic imaging. Although they are not similar in how they appear as 3D formats, they are commonly mistaken for one another. Lenticular images can be recognized by the plastic-ridged cylindrical lens covering the printed or photographic image. Lenticular images, either printed or produced photographically tend to appear much more life-like than holograms. Holographic created images, commonly referred as “holograms”, are created using a laser and a special optics table that records the image. Although holograms are made using photosensitive emulsions, lenses and darkroom equipment, the holographic recording process requires no cameras. To create a hologram, the desired subject is illuminated with laser light, which records the three-dimensional information. Optical lenses, optical mirrors and the film plate holder are carefully aligned and positioned 17 around the object so that the distances of all the laser beams used to record the image are the same length. Once the camera set-up is complete, lasers capture a three-dimensional replica of the objects shape onto holographic film. Unlike photographic prints, a hologram does not involve any paper, inks, or pigments. This holographic film is developed and then illuminated with either a clear, incandescent bulb or sunlight. When properly illuminated, the film reflects the light into a 3-D reconstruction of the original object. Since holographic images are not printed, they seem to appear as surreal art, or somehow artificial. In addition, since the overall thicknesses of holograms are extremely thin in nature, they must be mounted or laminated onto a sturdy carrier for final presentation. Today, holograms are used quite frequently on consumer’s credit cards. The holographic images placed within the credit card are usually images of the issuing credit card company’s corporate logo. Holograms are being utilized more as an advertising tool, in addition to scientific usages. 18 Advantages of Using Jacobsen’s Two Web In-Line Lenticular Print Manufacturing vs. the Prior Art, i.e., Single Roll Web, and Sheet-Fed Print Processes Until the introduction of Jacobsen patents, U.S. Patents # 5,560,799 (1996), and 5,753,344 (1998), the mass production of large eye-catching 3D and animated printed advertising products for major consumer promotions has been too expensive and too time-consuming. Advertisers had to on a combination of traditional sheet fed printing and slow, multiple off-line finishing manufacturing steps to produce various 3D and animated print advertising products. Jacobsen’s 3D and animated web fed printing processes which include complete in-line finishing processes that are performed concurrently and simultaneously with the print process solve this problem. The new dual web fed printing technologies give advertisers far greater flexibility to create more interesting and complex 3D and animated advertising, promotional, direct mail, packaging, or pressure sensitive label products, in addition with the advantage of substantial cost savings and the ability to deliver product with much tighter timelines. 19 To better understand and illustrate how the Jacobsen patents accomplish the aforementioned advantageous claims, a (sample theoretical print project) will be presented in layman terms, moving away temporarily from the highly technical terminology that has been used up to this moment. The (sample theoretical print project) will be illustrated in two ways: 1) Manufacturing by using traditional sheet fed manufacturing steps, which could also include printing via single roll web fed print process (prior arts) 2) Compare/contrast the traditional sheet fed and single roll web fed print process methods to the Jacobsen patented dual roll web fed printing and in-line finishing processes. Sample Theoretical Project: An advertiser needs a special catalog for a large quantity direct mail program. The catalog must be unique and make a strong, memorable impact with the advertisers target prospects. The flat finished size needs to be 5” wide x 11” tall in order to qualify for the lowest USPS automated bulk mail rate. The elements would include: a stunning 3D lenticular printed image (as large as possible) as well as a 14 page, 4 color brochure with multiple perforated coupons. The catalog also needs to be a completely 20 self-contained mailer with an outside cover die-cut window to reveal part of the catalogs interior, to which the 3D lenticular image is attached, to lure the readers inside the direct mail catalog. The advertiser seeks to print a quantity of 5,000,000 units and mail through out the United States. OPTION 1: TRADITIONAL PRIOR ART SHEET FED OR SINGLE ROLL WEB FED PRINTING WITH OFF-LINE FINISHING: Manufacturing (7) steps to include: 1) Print: The 4 color 3D/Animated image onto the lenticular plastic substrate, “one sheet at a time” using sheet fed printing, or print via single roll web fed and deliver to full single press sheets 2) Off-line: Trim and cut out the 3D lenticular unit to proper size from the pre-printed lenticular press sheets 3) Off-line: Print separately the 4 color, 14 page paper brochure/mailable carrier by single sheet fed or single roll web fed print processes 4) Off line: Die-cut a window opening into the paper carrier 21 5) Off-line: Perforate all paper based coupons within the 14 internal body pages 6) Off-line: Cut, fold and saddle stitch the 4 color, 14 page brochure/carrier 7) Off-line: Tip-in and permanently affix the 3D lenticular plastic unit into the paper brochure/carrier so that the 3D image shows through the die cut window opening, refold the catalog, and wafer seal the catalog closed, ready to mail to consumer. OPTION 2: PREFERRED METHOD USING JACOBSEN PATENTS: Manufacturing (1) step to include: 1) Utilize all in-line rotary web fed continuous production: Web print simultaneously onto dual rolls A) the 4 color image onto the lenticular plastic, B) web print the 4 color paper brochure, then laminate the 3D lenticular unit into brochure, plow fold, spine glue the 11” backbone, die cut cover window opening, rotary trim and seal the carrier, ready to mail. 22 Preliminary Conclusion: The entire combined four color printed 3D lenticular and paper direct mail catalog is produced all in (one) continual machine press pass vs. the (seven) manufacturing steps required to produce the same sample theoretical printed catalog product, using traditional (prior art) single sheet fed or single roll web fed printing methods with off-line finishing processes. New Lenticular Enhanced Print Products Available To The Advertising Industry For Marketing Usage Due To Novel Invention Background: Advertising Printing Market: Information about company’s products and services is normally presented to the end customer in printed form. This information can be divided into classes, such as advertising mail/direct mail, brochures, direct distribution advertising, inserts, and flyers and so on. The country with the largest market in the advertising printing industry is the United States with a volume of approximately US $ 46 billion, followed by Germany with a volume US $ 6.6 billion (figures from 1998) as reported by Handbook of Print Media, H. Kippan (2001) - (ISBN 3-540-67326-1). In terms of volume, direct mail advertising is the most important within the entire advertising printing market, and it is this direct mail advertising in particular that will gain 23 importance. Direct mail can either contain specific information requested by the customer or simply unsolicited information. Background: The Packaging Market: The market for packaging printing is huge. Every kind of packaging requires print of some kind. In the past, the packaging industry has proven stabile in the face of economic fluctuation. According to international experts’ estimates, growth of 4.5% p.a. can be expected for the next half decade. In Southeast Asia and China, double growth rates could also be achieved in this field. Relative to the 1997 level, the worldwide volume of the packaging industry will have doubled by the year 2003 if the worldwide per capita packaging consumption is just half that of Europe. These figures clearly demonstrate the potential of the packaging printing industry. Due to changing lifestyles, the introduction of new products (e.g., the increasing amount of ready mails and microwave meals in the food industry) and the rising qualitative and creative demands of the consumer market, this market also remains attractive for the future. This positive out-look not only stimulates future printing onto paper or board but also increases printing of the most diverse materials. In the eyes of the researcher, the mass production and use of lenticular printed packaging products remain a strong possibility. 24 In a special class of itself since 1996, the market for “intelligent packaging” has been displaying the greatest growth rates in the entire field of packaging printing but is, however, at a very low level. “Intelligent packaging” is classed as packaging or labeling that fulfills additional functions alongside providing the actual product information. The label contains variable information about when and where the product was produced, its “best before” date, or whether the correct consumption temperature has been reached. Latest developments in the field of material and labeling technology make it possible for a label to display whether a wine is at the correct temperature or a deep freeze product is fully frozen, for example. With the addition of lenticular animation and 3D print imagery, substantial new products can be co-developed and co-mingled to include both technologies to create a new class of advertising, the researcher will term as “animated interactive/intelligent lenticular products”. Since electronic media does not play any significant role in this segment of printing, a fact not set to change in the future, leads the researcher to believe this specialty packaging label segment (including the use of lenticular) will gain much industry momentum and continual use by the packaging advertisers. 25 New Proposed Lenticular Enhanced Print Products Include: Overview: The Jacobsen (1996 & 1998) patented inventions provide a (one step) continual and non-interrupted roll web fed lenticular printing method via (web offset lithography, flexographic, rotogravure, and letterpress) processes that are produced by either screened or stochastic values replicating 3D or animated lenticular imaging. The single lenticular roll or dual web - lenticular/opaque paper rolls either deliver as single roll to roll; single roll to flat product; or as double web rolls to final sheeted product, or preferably to in-line finished lenticular printed product ready for consumable advertising usages. Examples immediately follow: Products & Lenticular Applications Could Include: Corporate Brand Identity Packaging: • Brand Product Identification • Entire Outer Packaging Enhancements (Box Overwraps) • Segmented Applied Lenticular Coverage To Outer Packaging • Pressure-Sensitive & Self-Adhesive Lenticular Products • Multi-Ply, Multi-Substrate Peel Open Pressure Sensitive Labels 26 • Lenticular Laminated To Paperboard Products In-Packs & On-Packs (FDA direct food contact approved) Beverage Cups: Decorative Partial Or Full Wraps Video, DVD, CD Disc Cover Lenticular Treatments. Promotional Products and Applications Could Include: • Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Labels • Magazine Inserts and FSI’s • Mini-Catalogs and Mini-Comic Books • Brochures • Direct Mail • Postcards • Structural Pop-Ups • Huge Back-Lit and Reflective Posters • Kid's Premiums and Trading Cards • Spinning Wheels and Slide Charts • Security Game Pieces and Punch Out Puzzles • Scratch-Offs, Fragrance Scents, Special Inks • Ink Jet Variable Imaging of Data 27 Depending upon the desired format, it is possible to add-on many other special effect options in-line on press, including: rotary die-cutting and removing web material, die cutting contour shapes, perforating for coupons and tear-offs, remoistenable glue for bounce backs, reply envelopes, T-shirt iron-on color printed transfers, pop-out puzzles, structural paper rising pop- ups, unusual fold sequences and format constructions, latex scratch rub- offs, ink jet imaging variable data or consecutive numbering for contests, plus special coatings, inks, papers and plastic substrates—many of which can be applied or created in just one press pass. Preliminary Conclusion: Now, for the first time ever, compelling new animated & 3D printed lenticular formats can be mass-produced for major advertising campaigns and promotions. The Jacobsen (1996 & 1998) patented, advanced all in- line rotary web, flexographic, gravure, letter press and digital imaging print methods and in-line finishing systems cut the costs, and time that is associated with traditional sheet fed printing that requires additional post off-line, multi-step converting. The result is: faster job turnaround, on-time delivery, more-competitive pricing and lastly, the ability to create new-never- seen-before sophisticated lenticular finished advertising, promotional or packaging based products. 28 Jacobsen Patent’s: (First To Invent, Documented Originality & Dominant Leading Industry Position) Prior to the researcher’s decision to apply for U.S. Patent applications for the currently granted Jacobsen U.S. Patent # 5,560,799 (1996) and U.S. Patent # 5,753,344 (1998), a thorough formal prior art search was conducted by WCG’s previous patent counsel (Welsh & Katz) of Chicago, IL, in conjunction with the prior art search services offered through the United States Patent & Trade Mark Office. It was discovered after the initial search phase was completed; it appeared there were no other inventions granted previously to the type of lenticular technology that Jacobsen sought to patent. This fact will serve to compliment the researcher’s claim of “first to invent”, and “documented originality”. In the year 2001, a second analysis was requested by WCG to WCG’s current patent counsel, (King & Spalding) of Atlanta, GA, to compare and contrast the Jacobsen lenticular printing patents to the Quadracci lenticular printing patents, both of which will be discussed within the review of related literature section of this paper. Since the opinion of counsel is privileged attorney work product, and is a privileged client/attorney communication, and quite confidential, the actual work and 29 conclusions cannot be sighted herein. However, the researcher will highlight some basic inherent facts between the two patents, which will demonstrate and help support within this research paper, the claims of the researcher: “first to invent”, “documented originality” and finally, “dominant leading industry position” in respect to the Jacobsen inventions and claims within the actual patents reviewed. Jacobsen Patents Manufacturing Highlights Include (Partial Only) See Actual Patents For Complete Claims: 1) Single roll web printing upon lenticular material rewound back to roll, or delivering to individual unit, or variable sized sheeted products. 2) Double web roll printing to both lenticular and opaque substrate simultaneously while laminating two-roll substrates together in- line on press. 3) Printing either by wet trap or dry trap methods with one
Posted: 01 July 2012

See more from Business Environment in the United States

Expert Views    
Steps to Develop Your International Market Strategy   By Stephen Davis, CXO Advisory Group
ATA Carnet and the ISF Filing aka 10+2   By ATA Carnet
Export opportunities for U.S. organics in the EU market   By Foreign Agricultural Service
Hot Tips    
Is the US economy on the slope's edge?   By Waleed Dirani, Future Horizon Global Center
Business Ethics in the United States   By International Trade Administration