Business Environment in Poland

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

As a member of the European Union since 2004, Poland 's economic situation was strengthened with its integration into the community.  The growth of the GDP, which was solid between 2006 and 2008, was affected by the international economic crisis, but Poland was the only European country that experienced a positive growth in 2009.  The growth of the GDP rose to 3.4% in 2010 and it should be stronger in 2011, supported by the domestic demand and investments, a typical characteristic of the economies that are on the catching-up stage. 

The slowdown of the economy and some fiscal measures have intensified the deficit.  The government has adopted a consolidating plan for public finance.  The objective is to reduce the public deficit from 7% in 2010 to 3% in 2013 and to keep the public debt under 55% of the GDP.  The plan anticipates, among many issues, an increase of VAT and  the privatization and reduction of manpower in the public administration. 

The unemployment rate, which had been on a steady decrease since 2004, has risen during the crisis and it has reached 9.8% in 2010.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 430.61 468.54 497.98e 535.27e 576.45
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 1.7 3.8e 3.8e 3.6e 3.7e
GDP per Capita (USD) 11,299 12,300 13,079e 14,059 15,141
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -6.8 -7.8e -6.2 -4.0 -3.8e
Inflation Rate (%) 3.5 2.6 4.1 2.9 2.6
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 8.2 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5
Current Account (billions USD) -7.08e -13.35e -16.02 -18.46 -
Current Account (in % of GDP) -1.6e -2.8 -3.2e -3.4e -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

In Poland, agriculture employs less than 20% of the active population and contributes to about 5% of the GDP. The country is generally self-sufficient as far as food is concerned. The main crops are rye, potatoes, beetroot, wheat and dairy products. The country also breeds pigs and sheep as livestock farming. Poland is relatively rich in natural resources and the main minerals produced are coal, sulfur, copper, lead and zinc. 

The manufacturing industry is the economy driver, contributing to about 30% of the GDP, whereas the tertiary sector represents about 65% of the GDP. The country's main industrial sectors are machine manufacturing, telecommunications, environment, transport, construction, industrial food processing and information technologies. The automobile industry has resisted well the effects of the economic crisis because this sector was placed at the niche at the right time when there was a high demand for small economic vehicles, which was exactly what Poland was producing.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 14.7 30.7 54.5
Value Added (in % of GDP) 3.6 30.5 65.9
Value Added (Annual % Change) 2.2 0.3 2.5

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Polish Zloty (PLN) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 3.66 3.24 3.10 2.77 2.41

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Poland, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
64.1/100
Position:
Moderately free
World Rank:
64/179
Regional Rank:
30/42

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

Poland is an open country to foreign investment.  During the 2007-2009 period, trade represented more than 80% of the GDP.  The geographical location of Poland gives it a strategic importance. As a fact, Poland is situated half-way between Paris and Moscow and between Stockholm and Budapest, and it has important ports which are connected to the North Sea through the Baltic Sea.  In addition, the country constitutes an excellent place for the export of merchandise to the former Soviet republics. 

Since Poland became a member of the European Union, its exports have increased more than 30%, in particular towards Russia (more than 75%).  After having experienced a strong decline on its trade balance during the crisis, the country has shown a very slight deficit on its trade balance in 2010, a trend that should continue during the next following years. 

The three main trade partners of the country are the European Union, Russia and China.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 126,989 165,710 208,804 149,459 173,753
Exports of Goods (million USD) 110,780 140,147 170,458 136,503 155,851
Imports of Services (million USD) 19,387 23,655 29,724 23,576 27,302
Exports of Services (million USD) 20,457 28,607 35,263 28,596 31,667
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 17.3 13.7 8.0 -14.3 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 14.6 9.1 7.1 -9.1 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 42.2 43.6 44.0 38.8 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 40.4 40.8 40.0 38.9 -
Trade Balance (million USD) 7,006 17,057 25,972 4,476 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 6,270 12,299 20,956 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 82.5 84.4 83.9 77.7 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2009
Germany 26.1%
France 7.0%
Italy 6.8%
United Kingdom 6.4%
Czech Republic 5.9%
Netherlands 4.2%
Russia 3.7%
Hungary 2.7%
Sweden 2.7%
Spain 2.6%
Ukraine 2.5%
Belgium 2.4%
Slovakia 2.3%
Austria 1.9%
Norway 1.9%
Denmark 1.9%
United States 1.8%
Romania 1.3%
Turkey 1.3%
Lithuania 1.2%
Other partnersClose extended list 47.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2009
Germany 22.3%
China 9.3%
Russia 8.6%
Italy 6.8%
France 4.6%
Netherlands 3.6%
Czech Republic 3.6%
South Korea 3.0%
United Kingdom 3.0%
Belgium 2.3%
United States 2.3%
Spain 2.2%
Slovakia 2.0%
Japan 2.0%
Hungary 1.9%
Sweden 1.9%
Austria 1.7%
Denmark 1.4%
Finland 1.3%
Turkey 1.3%
Other partnersClose extended list 48.4%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2009
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 7.1%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 4.9%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 4.9%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 2.7%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 2.2%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 2.0%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 1.8%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 1.7%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 1.4%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 1.2%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 1.2%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 1.1%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.1%
Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of...Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes 1.0%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.9%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with transmission and reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting, television, television cameras, still image video cameras and other video camera recorders, radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus or radio remote control apparatus, n.e.s. 0.9%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 0.9%
Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons,...Motor vehicles for the transport of >= 10 persons, incl. driver 0.8%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.8%
Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat,...Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon 0.8%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 0.7%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.7%
Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed...Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed beam lamp units and ultra-violet or infra-red lamps; arc-lamps; parts thereof 0.6%
Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl....Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl. machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof 0.6%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.6%
Meat and edible offal of fowls of the species...Meat and edible offal of fowls of the species gallus domesticus, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowls, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.6%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.6%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.6%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 0.5%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.5%
Meat of bovine animals, fresh or chilledMeat of bovine animals, fresh or chilled 0.5%
Mattress supports (excl. spring interiors for...Mattress supports (excl. spring interiors for seats); articles of bedding and similar furnishing, e.g. mattresses, quilts, eiderdowns, cushions, pouffes and pillows, fitted with springs or stuffed or internally filled with any material or of cellular rubber or plastics, whether or not covered (excl. pneumatic or water mattresses and pillows, blankets and covers) 0.5%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.5%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.5%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 0.5%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.5%
Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl....Builders' joinery and carpentry, of wood, incl. cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes, of wood (excl. plywood panelling, blocks, strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, and pre-fabricated buildings) 0.5%
Non-electric razors and razor blades of base metal...Non-electric razors and razor blades of base metal, incl. razor blade blanks in strips 0.5%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.5%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.5%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.5%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.5%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.5%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.5%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.4%
Builders' ware of plastics, n.e.s.Builders' ware of plastics, n.e.s. 0.4%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.4%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.4%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.4%
Machinery (excl. of heading 8450) for washing,...Machinery (excl. of heading 8450) for washing, cleaning, wringing, drying, ironing, pressing incl. fusing presses, bleaching, dyeing, dressing, finishing, coating or impregnating textile yarns, fabrics or made-up textile articles and for applying paste to the base fabric or other support used in the manufacture of floor coverings like linoleum; machines for reeling, unreeling, folding, cutting or pinking textile fabrics; parts thereof 0.4%
Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum,...Silver, incl. silver plated with gold or platinum, unwrought or in semi-manufactured forms, or in powder form 0.4%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.4%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.4%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.4%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.4%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.3%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.3%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.3%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.3%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.3%
Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable...Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable juices, unfermented, not containing added spirit, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.3%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.3%
Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing...Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing containers, of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, n.e.s.; box files, letter trays, and similar articles, of paperboard of a kind used in offices, shops or the like 0.3%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.3%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.3%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy steel, n.e.s. 0.3%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.3%
Safety glass, toughened "tempered", laminated...Safety glass, toughened "tempered", laminated safety glass (excl. multiple-walled insulating units of glass, glasses for spectacles and clock or watch glasses) 0.3%
Fish, fit for human consumption, dried, salted or...Fish, fit for human consumption, dried, salted or in brine; smoked fish, fit for human consumption, whether or not cooked before or during the smoking process; flours, meals and pellets of fish, fit for human consumption 0.3%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 0.3%
Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl....Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl. lamps of heading 8539), windscreen wipers, defrosters and demisters, of a kind used for cycles or motor vehicles; parts thereof 0.3%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.3%
Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials,...Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic bonding agents (excl. particle board, whether or not bonded with one or more sheets of fibreboard; laminated wood with a layer of plywood; composite panels with outer layers of fibreboard; paperboard; furniture components identifiable as such) 0.3%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 0.3%
Other articles of wood, n.e.s.Other articles of wood, n.e.s. 0.3%
Fruit and nuts, uncooked or cooked by steaming or...Fruit and nuts, uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water, frozen, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.3%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.3%
Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not...Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not mechanically propelled (excl. railway and tramway vehicles); parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.3%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.3%
Articles of aluminium, n.e.s.Articles of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.3%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Meat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.3%
Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave...Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave lotions, personal deodorants and hair lotions) 0.3%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 0.3%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.3%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.3%
Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and...Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and after-shave products, personal deodorants, bath and shower preparations, depilatories and other perfumery, toilet or cosmetic preparations, n.e.s.; prepared room deodorizers, whether or not perfumed or having disinfectant properties 0.3%
Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar...Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar substitutes prepared from fish eggs 0.2%
Vessels, incl. warships and lifeboats (excl....Vessels, incl. warships and lifeboats (excl. rowing boats and other vessels of heading 8901 to 8905 and vessels for breaking up) 0.2%
Other vegetables, fresh or chilled (excl. potatoes...Other vegetables, fresh or chilled (excl. potatoes, tomatoes, alliaceous vegetables, edible brassicas, lettuce "lactuca sativa" and chicory "cichorium spp.", carrots, turnips, salad beetroot, salsify, celeriac, radishes and similar edible roots, cucumbers and gherkins, and leguminous vegatables) 0.2%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.2%
Candles and the likeCandles and the like 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 0.2%
Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl....Prepared or preserved meat, offal or blood (excl. sausages and similar products, and meat extracts and juices) 0.2%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.2%
Articles of iron or steel, cast, n.e.s.Articles of iron or steel, cast, n.e.s. 0.2%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.2%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.2%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.2%
Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or...Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or not illustrated or containing advertising material 0.2%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.2%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.2%
Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not...Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not minced, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.2%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.2%
Apples, pears and quinces, freshApples, pears and quinces, fresh 0.2%
Packing cases, boxes, crates, drums and similar...Packing cases, boxes, crates, drums and similar packings, of wood; cable-drums of wood; pallets, box pallets and other load boards, of wood; pallet collars of wood (excl. containers specially designed and equipped for one or more modes of transport) 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.2%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.2%
Central heating boilers, non-electric; parts...Central heating boilers, non-electric; parts thereof (excl. vapour generating boilers and super-heated water boilers of heading 8402) 0.2%
Preparations for oral or dental hygiene, incl....Preparations for oral or dental hygiene, incl. denture fixative pastes and powders; yarn used to clean between the teeth "dental floss", in individual retail packages 0.2%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.2%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.2%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.2%
Steam or other vapour generating boilers (excl....Steam or other vapour generating boilers (excl. central heating hot water boilers capable also of producing low pressure steam); super-heated water boilers; parts thereof 0.2%
Preparations for use on the hairPreparations for use on the hair 0.2%
Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a...Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines, e.g. ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, sparking plugs, glow plugs and starter motors; generators, e.g. dynamos and alternators, and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof 0.2%
Steam turbines and other vapour turbines; parts...Steam turbines and other vapour turbines; parts thereof 0.2%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steelSemi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 0.2%
Stoves, ranges, grates, cookers, incl. those with...Stoves, ranges, grates, cookers, incl. those with subsidiary boilers for central heating, barbecues, braziers, gas-rings, plate warmers and similar non-electric domestic appliances, and parts thereof of iron or steel (excl. boilers and radiators for central heating, geysers and hot water cylinders) 0.2%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound...Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound or other similarly recorded phenomena, incl. matrices and masters for the production of records (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.2%
Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added...Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.2%
Waters, incl. mineral waters and aerated waters,...Waters, incl. mineral waters and aerated waters, containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or flavoured, and other non-alcoholic beverages (excl. fruit or vegetable juices and milk) 0.2%
Vegetables, uncooked or cooked by steaming or...Vegetables, uncooked or cooked by steaming or boiling in water, frozen 0.2%
Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or...Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling-stock, n.e.s. 0.2%
Glassware of a kind used for table, kitchen,...Glassware of a kind used for table, kitchen, toilet, office, indoor decoration or similar purposes (excl. goods of heading 7018, glass preserving jars "sterilizing jars", mirrors, leaded lights and the like, lighting fittings and parts thereof, atomizers for perfume and the like, vacuum flasks and other vacuum vessels) 0.2%
Ceramic wares for laboratory, chemical or other...Ceramic wares for laboratory, chemical or other technical uses; ceramic troughs, tubs and similar receptacles used in agriculture; ceramic pots, jars and similar articles used for the conveyance or packing of goods (excl. millstones, polishing stones, grindstones and the like of heading 6804; refractory ceramic goods; household articles; containers for shops; electrical devices, insulators and other insulating fittings) 0.2%
Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl....Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, incl. white chocolate 0.2%
Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating...Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating cranes, and other vessels the navigability of which is subsidiary to their main function; floating docks, floating or submersible drilling or production platforms (excl. fishing vessels and warships) 0.2%
Monofilament of which any cross-sectional...Monofilament of which any cross-sectional dimension > 1 mm, rods, sticks and profile shapes, of plastics, whether or not surface-worked but not further worked 0.2%
Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles...Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles and toilet articles, of plastics (excl. baths, shower-baths, wash-basins, bidets, lavatory pans, seats and covers, flushing cisterns and similar sanitary ware) 0.2%
Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements,...Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements, caulking compounds and other mastics; painters' fillings; non-refractory surfacing preparations for façades, indoor walls, floors, ceilings or the like 0.2%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.2%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.2%
Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and...Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and photographs, n.e.s. 0.2%
Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel,...Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils 0.2%
Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.2%
Birds' eggs, in shell, fresh, preserved or cookedBirds' eggs, in shell, fresh, preserved or cooked 0.2%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.2%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.1%
Soap; organic surface-active products and...Soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for use as soap, in the form of bars, cakes, moulded pieces or shapes, whether or not containing soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for washing the skin, in the form of liquid or cream and put up for retail sale, whether or not containing soap; paper, wadding, felt and nonwovens, impregnated, coated or covered with soap or detergent 0.1%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.1%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, towers, lattice masts, pillars and columns, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades", of aluminium (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406); plates, rods, profiles, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of aluminium 0.1%
Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a...Uncoated kraft paper and paperboard, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state (excl. goods of heading 4802 or 4803) 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.1%
Preparations of a kind used in animal feedingPreparations of a kind used in animal feeding 0.1%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.1%
Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801...Parts of aircraft and spacecraft of heading 8801 or 8802, n.e.s. 0.1%
Conveyor or transmission belts or belting, of...Conveyor or transmission belts or belting, of vulcanised rubber 0.1%
Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other...Waste and scrap, of copper (excl. ingots or other similar unwrought shapes, of remelted copper waste and scrap, ashes and residues containing copper, and waste and scrap of primary cells, primary batteries and electric accumulators) 0.1%
Live bovine animalsLive bovine animals 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.1%
Casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar containers,...Casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar containers, incl. rigid or collapsible tubular containers, of aluminium, for any material (other than compressed or liquefied gas), of a capacity of <= 300 l, not fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment, whether or not lined or heat-insulated, n.e.s. 0.1%
Wood, incl. strips and friezes for parquet...Wood, incl. strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled, continuously shaped "tongued, grooved, rebated, chamfered, v-jointed beaded, moulded, rounded or the like" along any of its edges, ends or faces, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed 0.1%
Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments...Sauce and preparations therefor; mixed condiments and mixed seasonings; mustard flour and meal, whether or not prepared, and mustard 0.1%
Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in...Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip; mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle or similar types of natural rubber with synthetic rubber or factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.1%
Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen...Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen of all types of textile materials (excl. floor-cloths, polishing-cloths, dish-cloths and dusters) 0.1%
Stoppers, caps and lids, incl. crown corks, screw...Stoppers, caps and lids, incl. crown corks, screw caps and pouring stoppers, capsules for bottles, threaded bungs, bung covers, seals and other packing accessories, of base metal 0.1%
Milk and cream, not concentrated nor containing...Milk and cream, not concentrated nor containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.1%
Railway or tramway goods vans and wagons (excl....Railway or tramway goods vans and wagons (excl. self-propelled and luggage vans and post office coaches) 0.1%
Rape, colza or mustard oil and fractions thereof,...Rape, colza or mustard oil and fractions thereof, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 0.1%
Carbon electrodes, carbon brushes, lamp carbons,...Carbon electrodes, carbon brushes, lamp carbons, battery carbons and other articles of graphite or other carbon, with or without metal, of a kind used for electrical purposes 0.1%
Prepared foods obtained by the swelling or...Prepared foods obtained by the swelling or roasting of cereals or cereal products, e.g. corn flakes; cereals (other than maize "corn") in grain form or in the form of flakes or other worked grains (except flour, groats and meal), pre-cooked or otherwise prepared, n.e.s. 0.1%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.1%
Tugs and pusher craftTugs and pusher craft 0.1%
Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes,...Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks, incl. ski-jackets, wind-cheaters, wind-jackets and similar articles (excl. knitted or crocheted, suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers and trousers) 0.1%
Copper tube or pipe fittings "e.g., couplings,...Copper tube or pipe fittings "e.g., couplings, elbows, sleeves" 0.1%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.1%
Railway or tramway track construction material of...Railway or tramway track construction material of iron or steel, the following : rails, check-rails and rack rails, switch blades, crossing frogs, point rods and other crossing pieces, sleepers "cross-ties", fish-plates, chairs, chair wedges, sole plates "base plates", rail clips, bedplates, ties and other material specialized for jointing or fixing rails 0.1%
Fishing vessels; factory ships and other vessels...Fishing vessels; factory ships and other vessels for processing or preserving fishery products (excl. fishing boats for sport) 0.1%
Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and...Women's or girls' blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses (excl. knitted or crocheted and vests) 0.1%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Slag wool, rock wool and similar mineral wools;...Slag wool, rock wool and similar mineral wools; exfoliated vermiculite, expanded clays, foamed slag and similar expanded mineral materials; mixtures and articles of heat-insulating, sound-insulating or sound absorbing mineral materials (excl. articles of light concrete, asbestos, asbestos-cement, cellulose fibre-cement or the like, mixtures and other articles of or based on asbestos, and ceramic products) 0.1%
Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee,...Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee, tea or mate and preparations with a basis of these products or with a basis of coffee, tea or mate; roasted chicory and other roasted coffee substitutes, and extracts, essences and concentrates thereof 0.1%
Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic...Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic refining 0.1%
Unwrought zinc :Unwrought zinc : 0.1%
Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl....Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl. wheel-mounted cranes and vehicle cranes for railways); mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane 0.1%
Polyamides, in primary formsPolyamides, in primary forms 0.1%
Particle board and similar board "e.g. oriented...Particle board and similar board "e.g. oriented strand board and waferboard" of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic binding substances (excl. fibreboard, veneered particle board, hollow-core composite panels and board of ligneous materials agglomerated with cement, plaster or other mineral bonding agents) 0.1%
Radiators for central heating, non-electrically...Radiators for central heating, non-electrically heated, and parts thereof, of iron or steel; air heaters and hot air distributors, incl. distributors which can also distribute fresh or conditioned air, non-electrically heated, incorporating a motor-driven fan or blower, and parts thereof, of iron or steel 0.1%
Buttermilk, curdled milk and cream, yogurt, képhir...Buttermilk, curdled milk and cream, yogurt, képhir and other fermented or acidified milk and cream, whether or not concentrated or flavoured or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter, fruits, nuts or cocoa 0.1%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.1%
Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a thickness of > 0,2 mm (excl. expanded plates, sheets and strip) 0.1%
Panty hose, tights, stockings, socks and other...Panty hose, tights, stockings, socks and other hosiery, incl. stockings for varicose veins and footwear without applied soles, knitted or crocheted (excl. for babies) 0.1%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.1%
Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal...Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal combustion piston engine, hydraulic turbines, water wheels, gas turbines and electric motors); parts thereof 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 78.3%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2009
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 5.6%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.4%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 3.0%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.8%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with transmission and reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting, television, television cameras, still image video cameras and other video camera recorders, radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus or radio remote control apparatus, n.e.s. 1.8%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 1.8%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 1.7%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 1.3%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 1.2%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 1.1%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 1.1%
Liquid crystal devices not constituting articles...Liquid crystal devices not constituting articles provided for more specifically in other heading; lasers (excl. laser diodes); other optical appliances and instruments not elsewhere specified in chapter 90 1.0%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.9%
Meat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.9%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.9%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.7%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.7%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 0.7%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 0.7%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.7%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.6%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 0.6%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.6%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.6%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.6%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.6%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.6%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.6%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.5%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.5%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.5%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.5%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.5%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.5%
Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not...Oil-cake and other solid residues, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets, resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil 0.5%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.5%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.5%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.5%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.5%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.5%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.5%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.5%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.4%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.4%
Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores;...Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores; chemical products and preparations for the chemical or allied industries, incl. mixtures of natural products, n.e.s. 0.4%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 0.4%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.4%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.4%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.4%
Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed...Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed beam lamp units and ultra-violet or infra-red lamps; arc-lamps; parts thereof 0.4%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.4%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.4%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.3%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.3%
Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a...Plates, sheets and strip, of aluminium, of a thickness of > 0,2 mm (excl. expanded plates, sheets and strip) 0.3%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.3%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.3%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.3%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.3%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.3%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 0.3%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.3%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.3%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.3%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.3%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 0.3%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.3%
Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls of...Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state, not worked other than as specified in note 3 to this chapter, n.e.s. 0.3%
Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not...Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not minced, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.3%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.3%
Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for...Uncoated paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, and non-perforated punch-cards and punch tape paper, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size, and hand-made paper and paperboard (excl. newsprint of heading 4801 and paper and paperboard of heading 4803) 0.3%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.3%
Polymers of styrene, in primary formsPolymers of styrene, in primary forms 0.3%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.3%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.3%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.3%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.3%
Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing...Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing containers, of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, n.e.s.; box files, letter trays, and similar articles, of paperboard of a kind used in offices, shops or the like 0.3%
Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by...Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children, dolls' carriages and dolls representing only human beings); reduced-size "scale" recreational models, working or not; puzzles of all kinds 0.3%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.3%
Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and...Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.3%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.3%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.3%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.2%
Citrus fruit, fresh or driedCitrus fruit, fresh or dried 0.2%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.2%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous medium; solutions of products of subheading 3901 to 3913 in volatile organic solvents, containing > 50% solvent by weight (excl. solutions of collodion) 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.2%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape,...Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls (excl. floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.2%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.2%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.2%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.2%
Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated olefins, in primary forms 0.2%
Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl....Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl. monofilament of >= 67 decitex and with a cross sectional dimension of <= 1 mm 0.2%
Optical fibres and optical fibre bundles; optical...Optical fibres and optical fibre bundles; optical fibre cables (excl. made-up of individually sheathed fibres of heading 8544); sheets and plates of polarizing material; lenses, incl. contact lenses, prisms, mirrors and other optical elements of any material, unmounted (excl. such elements of glass not optically worked) 0.2%
Unmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuseUnmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuse 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 0.2%
Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"...Powered aircraft "e.g. helicopters and aeroplanes"; spacecraft, incl. satellites, and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles 0.2%
Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic,...Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or non-electric motor; parts thereof 0.2%
Acrylic polymers, in primary formsAcrylic polymers, in primary forms 0.2%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.2%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.2%
Nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated,...Nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or laminated, n.e.s. 0.2%
Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl....Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl. machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof 0.2%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.2%
Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for...Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the manufacture of products from these materials, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, parts thereof 0.2%
Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in...Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip; mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle or similar types of natural rubber with synthetic rubber or factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.2%
Mixtures of odoriferous substances and mixtures,...Mixtures of odoriferous substances and mixtures, incl. alcoholic solutions, based on one or more of these substances, of a kind used as raw materials in industry; other preparations based on odoriferous substances, of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages 0.2%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.2%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.2%
Preparations of a kind used in animal feedingPreparations of a kind used in animal feeding 0.2%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 0.2%
Safety glass, toughened "tempered", laminated...Safety glass, toughened "tempered", laminated safety glass (excl. multiple-walled insulating units of glass, glasses for spectacles and clock or watch glasses) 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.2%
Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl....Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl. lamps of heading 8539), windscreen wipers, defrosters and demisters, of a kind used for cycles or motor vehicles; parts thereof 0.2%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.2%
Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and...Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and after-shave products, personal deodorants, bath and shower preparations, depilatories and other perfumery, toilet or cosmetic preparations, n.e.s.; prepared room deodorizers, whether or not perfumed or having disinfectant properties 0.2%
Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing,...Diagnostic or laboratory reagents on a backing, prepared diagnostic or laboratory reagents whether or not on a backing, and certified reference materials (excl. compound diagnostic reagents designed to be administered to the patient, blood-grouping reagents, animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses and vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms and similar products) 0.2%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.2%
Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic...Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic refining 0.2%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.2%
Textile fabrics impregnated, coated, covered or...Textile fabrics impregnated, coated, covered or laminated with plastics (excl. tyre cord fabric of high tenacity yarn of nylon or other polyamides, polyesters or viscose rayon; wall coverings impregnated or covered with textile materials; floor coverings consisting of a textile backing and a top layer or covering of plastics) 0.2%
Aluminium foil, "whether or not printed or backed...Aluminium foil, "whether or not printed or backed with paper, paperboard, plastics or similar backing materials", of a thickness "excl. any backing" of <= 0,2 mm (excl. stamping foils of heading 3212, christmas tree decorating material) 0.2%
Prepared glues and other prepared adhesives, n.e.s...Prepared glues and other prepared adhesives, n.e.s.; products suitable for use as glues or adhesives, put up for retail sale as glues or adhesives, and weighing <= 1 kg 0.2%
Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting...Leather further prepared after tanning or crusting "incl. parchment-dressed leather", of bovine "incl. buffalo" or equine animals, without hair on, whether or not split (excl. chamois leather, patent leather and patent laminated leather, and metallized leather) 0.2%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.2%
Guts, bladders and stomachs of animals (other than...Guts, bladders and stomachs of animals (other than fish), whole and pieces thereof, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, dried or smoked 0.2%
Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound...Records, tapes and other recorded media for sound or other similarly recorded phenomena, incl. matrices and masters for the production of records (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.2%
Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not...Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not mechanically propelled (excl. railway and tramway vehicles); parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee,...Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee, tea or mate and preparations with a basis of these products or with a basis of coffee, tea or mate; roasted chicory and other roasted coffee substitutes, and extracts, essences and concentrates thereof 0.2%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.2%
Articles of aluminium, n.e.s.Articles of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.2%
Petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, micro- crystalline...Petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, micro- crystalline petroleum wax, slack wax, ozokerite, lignite wax, peat wax, other mineral waxes, and similar products obtained by synthesis or by other processes, whether or not coloured 0.1%
Compounded rubber, unvulcanised, in primary forms...Compounded rubber, unvulcanised, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip (excl. mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle and similar natural gums containing synthetic rubber or factice derived from oils) 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with electric motors and generators, electric generating sets and rotary converters, n.e.s. 0.1%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or...Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or plastics (excl. waterproof footwear of heading 6401, orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.1%
Electrical machines and apparatus, having...Electrical machines and apparatus, having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.1%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.1%
Particle board and similar board "e.g. oriented...Particle board and similar board "e.g. oriented strand board and waferboard" of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic binding substances (excl. fibreboard, veneered particle board, hollow-core composite panels and board of ligneous materials agglomerated with cement, plaster or other mineral bonding agents) 0.1%
Printed circuitsPrinted circuits 0.1%
Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave...Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave lotions, personal deodorants and hair lotions) 0.1%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.1%
Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or...Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or not power-operated, or for machine-tools "e.g. for pressing, stamping, punching, tapping, threading, drilling, boring, broaching, milling, turning or screw driving", incl. dies for drawing or extruding metal, and rock drilling or earth boring tools 0.1%
Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes,...Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks, incl. ski-jackets, wind-cheaters, wind-jackets and similar articles (excl. knitted or crocheted, suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers and trousers) 0.1%
Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a...Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines, e.g. ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, sparking plugs, glow plugs and starter motors; generators, e.g. dynamos and alternators, and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof 0.1%
Monofilament of which any cross-sectional...Monofilament of which any cross-sectional dimension > 1 mm, rods, sticks and profile shapes, of plastics, whether or not surface-worked but not further worked 0.1%
Amino-resins, phenolic resins and polyurethanes,...Amino-resins, phenolic resins and polyurethanes, in primary forms 0.1%
Printing ink, writing or drawing ink and other...Printing ink, writing or drawing ink and other inks, whether or not concentrated or solid 0.1%
Live swineLive swine 0.1%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.1%
Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or...Prepared unrecorded media for sound recording or similar recording of other phenomena (excl. products of chapter 37) 0.1%
Bananas, incl. plantains, fresh or driedBananas, incl. plantains, fresh or dried 0.1%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.1%
Synthetic filament yarn, incl. synthetic...Synthetic filament yarn, incl. synthetic monofilaments of < 67 decitex (excl. sewing thread and yarn put up for retail sale) 0.1%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.1%
Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating...Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating cranes, and other vessels the navigability of which is subsidiary to their main function; floating docks, floating or submersible drilling or production platforms (excl. fishing vessels and warships) 0.1%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.1%
Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s.Bars, rods and profiles, of aluminium, n.e.s. 0.1%
Steam turbines and other vapour turbines; parts...Steam turbines and other vapour turbines; parts thereof 0.1%
Made up articles of textile materials, incl. dress...Made up articles of textile materials, incl. dress patterns, n.e.s. 0.1%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.1%
Preparations for use on the hairPreparations for use on the hair 0.1%
Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials,...Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic bonding agents (excl. particle board, whether or not bonded with one or more sheets of fibreboard; laminated wood with a layer of plywood; composite panels with outer layers of fibreboard; paperboard; furniture components identifiable as such) 0.1%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy steel, n.e.s. 0.1%
Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements,...Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements, caulking compounds and other mastics; painters' fillings; non-refractory surfacing preparations for façades, indoor walls, floors, ceilings or the like 0.1%
Machine-tools, incl. machines for nailing,...Machine-tools, incl. machines for nailing, stapling, glueing or otherwise assembling, for working wood, cork, bone, hard rubber, hard plastics or similar hard materials (excl. machines for working in the hand) 0.1%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in an aqueous medium 0.1%
Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish...Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.1%
Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless...Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless microphones with built-in transmitter); loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers (excl. telephone sets, hearing aids and helmets with built-in headphones, whether or not incorporating a microphone); audio-frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof 0.1%
Wire of iron or non-alloy steel, in coils (excl....Wire of iron or non-alloy steel, in coils (excl. bars and rods) 0.1%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.1%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.1%
Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or...Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or principally with the machine-tools of heading 8456 to 8465, incl. work or tool holders, self-opening dieheads, dividing heads and other special attachments for machine-tools, n.e.s.; tool holders for any type of tool for working in the hand 0.1%
Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.;...Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.; preparations based on inorganic or mineral colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215); inorganic products of a kind used as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined 0.1%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 0.1%
Grapes, fresh or driedGrapes, fresh or dried 0.1%
Moulding boxes for metal foundry; mould bases;...Moulding boxes for metal foundry; mould bases; moulding patterns; moulds for metal (other than ingot moulds), metal carbides, glass, mineral materials, rubber or plastics (excl. moulds of graphite or other carbons, ceramic or glass moulds and linotype moulds or matrices) 0.1%
Agricultural, horticultural or forestry machinery...Agricultural, horticultural or forestry machinery for soil preparation or cultivation (excl. sprayers and dusters); lawn or sports-ground rollers; parts thereof 0.1%
Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts of...Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts of metal-rolling mills 0.1%
Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in...Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, for the industrial preparation or manufacture of food or drink (other than machinery for the extraction or preparation of animal or fixed vegetable fats or oils); parts thereof 0.1%
Central heating boilers, non-electric; parts...Central heating boilers, non-electric; parts thereof (excl. vapour generating boilers and super-heated water boilers of heading 8402) 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for measuring or...Instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking the flow, level, pressure or other variables of liquids or gases, e.g. flow meters, level gauges, manometers, heat meters (excl. instruments and apparatus of heading 9014, 9015, 9028 or 9032) 0.1%
Fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants,...Fruits, nuts and other edible parts of plants, prepared or preserved, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or spirit (excl. prepared or preserved with vinegar, preserved with sugar but not laid in syrup, and jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, fruit purée and pastes, obtained by cooking) 0.1%
Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or...Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling-stock, n.e.s. 0.1%
Pharmaceutical preparations and products of...Pharmaceutical preparations and products of subheading nos 3006.10.10 to 3006.60.90 0.1%
Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor...Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, incl. photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made-up into panels (excl. photovotaic generators); light emitting diodes; mounted piezo-electric crystals; parts thereof 0.1%
Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides,...Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.1%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.1%
Glass fibres, incl. glass wool, and articles...Glass fibres, incl. glass wool, and articles thereof (excl. mineral wools and articles thereof, optical fibres, fibre bundles or cable, electrical insulators or parts thereof, brushes of glass fibres, dolls' wigs) 0.1%
Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with...Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with self-contained electric motor; parts thereof 0.1%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.1%
Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats,...Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats, meal, starch or malt extract, not containing cocoa or containing < 40% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s.; food preparations of milk, cream, butter milk, sour milk, sour cream, whey, yoghourt, kefir, and similar goods of heading 0401 to 0404, not containing cocoa or containing < 5% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s. 0.1%
Polyamides, in primary formsPolyamides, in primary forms 0.1%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 0.1%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.1%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.1%
Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with...Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment (excl. straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane) 0.1%
Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by...Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by forging, hammering or die-stamping; machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by bending, folding, straightening, flattening, shearing, punching or notching; presses for working metal or metal carbides, not specified above 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 83.3%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
The President is the head of State, elected by universal suffrage for a five year term. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. He is appointed by the President, an appointment which must be confirmed by the lower house of Parliament (as a general rule, he is the leader of the majority party or coalition), for a four year term of office. The Prime Minister holds the executive power, which includes the enforcement of the law and the management of the country's current affairs. The Council of Ministers is proposed by the Prime Minister and approved by the lower house before being appointed by the President.
Legislative Power
The legislative power in Poland is bi-cameral. Parliament is composed of the Senate (upper house, which has 100 seats and whose members are elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis, for a four year term of office) and of the Sejm (lower house, which has 460 seats and whose members are elected by a complex system of proportional representation, for a four year term of office). The President has the right to veto legislation passed by Parliament, but the latter can supplant him by a majority of two thirds of the Sejm.
Main Political Parties
Poland has a multi-party system and is generally governed by a coalition government. The country's main political parties are:
- The SLD (Democratic Left Alliance), a successor of the communist party, recast as a social democratic party;
- The PO (Civic Platform), a liberal conservative party;
- The PD (Democratic Party), a liberal social party;
- The UP (Labour Union), a social democratic party rooted in the anti-communist opposition;
- The PiS (Law and Justice), a right wing group based on a platform of law and order;
- The LPR (Polish Family League), an extreme right nationalist and Roman Catholic party (anti EU);
- The PSL (Polish Peasant Party), a group situated center left, representing the farming community;
- The SRP (Self defense of the Polish Republic), a left wing party with the Polish unions.
Current Political Leaders
President : Bronislaw Komorowski (President by interim until next elections)
Prime Minister: Donald TUSK (since 16 November 2007)
Deputy Prime Ministers: Waldemar PAWLAK (since 16 November 2007) and Grzegorz SCHETYNA (since 16 November 2007)
Next Election Dates
Presidential elections: October 2015
Sejm : October 2011
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
37/175
Evolution:
12 places up compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
1/7
Civil Liberties:
1/7

Map of freedom 2010
Source: Freedom House

 

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  • Doing Business in Poland

    Poland constitutes a market of over of 38 million people located in the heart of central Europe, sharing borders with both “new” EU and “old” EU-15 countries and markets to the East including Ukraine, Belarus and Russia (Kaliningrad oblast).

    U.S. Commercial Service Poland on 1 Apr 2010 related to Business Environment in Poland

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  • Outsourcing in Polish companies: project

    In Poland, outsourcing is still restricted to simple business processes. More complicated processes are rarely outsourced. Nevertheless, outsourcing expenditure will increase in the years to come.

    SEENDICO Advisory on 18 Jul 2011 related to Business Environment in Poland

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