Business Environment in Russia

Overview by Globlatrade.net:

Economic Indicators

Russia was hit hard by the international financial crisis and in 2009 reached a record recession since the fall of the Soviet block (-7.9%). The recovery in 2010 was strong (4% growth according to estimates), driven by fuel exports and domestic demand stimulated by the increase in salaries. Growth should continue to strengthen in 2011-2012.

Economic recovery justifies the end of exceptional measures to combat the crisis. The government’s priority, announced as part of a Five Year Plan, is to support the agricultural sector in order to achieve food self-sufficiency. In order to free itself of its dependency on hydrocarbons, a change of the economic model is imperative. Tax reductions have been planned for the next few years, in order to favor the diversification of the economy through investment while, regaining some balance. A stabilization fund has been set up to modernize infrastructures, the education and health systems, as well as agriculture. Cuts in public spending and a strengthening of the supervision of the banking system are also planned. The main threats to growth are linked to controlling inflation, which remains high and in the long term, to the drop in population.

The unemployment rate, which dropped in the recent years, has risen as an effect of the crisis and is now estimated at 7.5% for 2010. Disparities are still marked, particularly between big cities and rural areas. Despite the appearance in towns of a middle class, the poverty rate is still at 16%.

 
Main Indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
GDP (billions USD) 1,222.33 1,465.08e 1,894.47 2,197.71e 2,403.03e
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) -7.8e 4.0e 4.8 4.5 4.3
GDP per Capita (USD) 8,614 10,437e 13,543 15,765 17,296
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) -3.5 -1.8e -0.6 -1.3e -1.7e
Inflation Rate (%) 11.7 6.9 9.3e 8.0e 7.1e
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force) 8.4 7.5e 7.3e 7.1e 7.0e
Current Account (billions USD) 47.51e 77.57e 80.34 69.54e -
Current Account (in % of GDP) 3.9e 5.1e 4.6 3.5e -

Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Main Sectors of Industry

Russia has a wealth of natural resources. It is the leading producer of natural gas and the second producer of oil in the world, as well as being one of the main producers and exporters of diamonds, nickel and platinum.
Despite its surface area, Russia has a relatively small amount of land suitable for agriculture because of unfavorable climatic conditions. The country nevertheless owns 10% of the global agricultural lands. The northern regions of the country concentrate mainly on livestock and the southern regions as well as western Siberia produce cereals.
Industry represents more than a third of Russia's GDP and employs up to 30% of the population. The country inherited most of the Soviet Union's industrial bases. The most well developed sectors are chemicals, metallurgy, mechanical construction and defense sectors.
The service sector employs more than 60% of the population and generates slightly under 60% of the GDP. After the 1998 financial crises, the banking sector has not yet undergone a complete restructuring. Given the size of the country, the transport, communications and also trade sectors are particularly significant.

 
Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 9.0 29.2 61.8
Value Added (in % of GDP) 4.7 32.8 62.5
Value Added (Annual % Change) 0.2 -10.8 -5.4

Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.

 
 
Monetary Indicators 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Russian Rouble (RUB) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 28.28 27.19 25.58 24.85 31.74

Source: World Bank

 
 
For more detailed background on Industries in Russia, click here.
 

Indicator of Economic Freedom

Score:
50.5/100
Position:
Mostly unfree
World Rank:
139/179
Regional Rank:
40/42

Distribution of Economic freedom in the world
Source: 2011 Index of Economic freedom, Heritage Foundation

 

Country Risk

See the Country Risk Analysis Provided By Ducroire.

 

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Foreign Trade in Figures

The country is fairly open to foreign trade (which represents around 50% of the GDP) despite the nationalistic attitude of its leaders and strict legislation and fare policies. Russia is amongst the 10 primary exporters and the 20 primary importers in the world. Its main trade partners are China, Germany, The Netherlands and the United States. The country shows a high trade surplus and this should continue regardless of the drop in raw material prices and the deterioration of the global economic situation.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Imports of Goods (million USD) 164,281 223,486 291,861 191,803 248,397
Exports of Goods (million USD) 303,551 354,403 471,606 303,388 400,018
Imports of Services (million USD) 43,679 56,768 73,616 59,241 69,879
Exports of Services (million USD) 30,866 38,960 50,527 41,068 43,702
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 21.3 26.2 14.8 30.4 -
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.3 6.3 0.6 -4.7 -
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 21.0 21.5 22.0 20.4 -
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 33.7 30.2 31.2 27.7 -
Trade Balance (million USD) 139,269 130,915 179,742 111,585 -
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 125,656 111,270 154,692 - -
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 54.7 51.7 53.2 48.1 -

Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2010
Netherlands 14.3%
Italy 6.5%
China 5.3%
Germany 4.3%
Poland 3.8%
Turkey 3.8%
Ukraine 3.6%
Japan 3.4%
United States 3.2%
Finland 2.9%
South Korea 2.8%
United Kingdom 2.6%
France 2.5%
Switzerland 2.3%
Latvia 1.5%
India 1.4%
Kazakhstan 1.4%
Hungary 1.4%
Belgium 1.3%
Spain 1.1%
Other partnersClose extended list 65.9%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2010
China 18.0%
Germany 12.2%
Ukraine 6.4%
Japan 4.7%
Italy 4.6%
United States 4.5%
France 3.8%
South Korea 3.3%
Poland 2.7%
Turkey 2.2%
Finland 2.1%
United Kingdom 2.1%
Netherlands 2.0%
Brazil 1.9%
Belgium 1.5%
Hungary 1.4%
Spain 1.4%
Czech Republic 1.3%
Sweden 1.3%
Kazakhstan 1.2%
Other partnersClose extended list 54.0%

Source: Comtrade

 

Main Products

Main Exports
(% of Exports)
2010
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 34.6%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 18.6%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 12.8%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 2.5%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steelSemi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 1.9%
Unwrought aluminiumUnwrought aluminium 1.6%
Unwrought nickelUnwrought nickel 1.4%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 0.9%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.9%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or barked, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 0.8%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 0.7%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or...Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 0.7%
Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical potassic fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.7%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilizers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 0.6%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 0.6%
Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in...Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip; mixtures of natural rubber, balata, gutta-percha, guayule, chicle or similar types of natural rubber with synthetic rubber or factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip 0.5%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 0.5%
Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark...Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark or sapwood, or roughly squared (excl. rough-cut wood for walking sticks, umbrellas, tool shafts and the like; wood in the form of railway sleepers; wood cut into boards or beams, etc.) 0.5%
Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish...Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.5%
Nuclear reactors; fuel elements "cartridges",...Nuclear reactors; fuel elements "cartridges", non-irradiated, for nuclear reactors; machinery and apparatus for isotopic separation; parts thereof 0.4%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.4%
Pig iron and spiegeleisen, in pigs, blocks or...Pig iron and spiegeleisen, in pigs, blocks or other primary forms 0.4%
Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire...Copper wire (excl. surgical sutures, stranded wire, cables, plaited bands and the like and other articles of heading 7413, electrically insulated wires and strings for musical instruments) 0.4%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.3%
Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of...Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel (excl. slag, scale and other waste from the production of iron or steel; radioactive waste and scrap; fragments of pigs, blocks or other primary forms of pig iron or spiegeleisen) 0.3%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 0.3%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 0.3%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, cold-rolled "cold-reduced", not clad, plated or coated 0.2%
Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic...Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic compounds of precious metals, whether or not chemically defined; amalgams of precious metals 0.2%
Ammonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solutionAmmonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solution 0.2%
Acyclic hydrocarbonsAcyclic hydrocarbons 0.2%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.2%
Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood...Plywood, veneered panel and similar laminated wood (excl. sheets of compressed wood, hollow-core composite panels, parquet panels or sheets, inlaid wood and sheets identifiable as furniture components) 0.2%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.2%
Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in...Newsprint, in rolls of a width > 36 cm or in square or rectangular sheets with one side > 36 cm and the other side > 15 cm in the unfolded state 0.2%
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated,...Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives 0.2%
Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of...Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of iron ore and other spongy ferrous products, in lumps, pellets or similar forms; iron having a minimum purity by weight of 99,94%, in lumps, pellets or similar forms 0.2%
Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat,...Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon 0.1%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 0.1%
Other bars and rods of alloy steel other than...Other bars and rods of alloy steel other than stainless, angles, shapes and sections of alloy steel other than stainless, n.e.s.; hollow drill bars and rods, of alloy or non-alloy steel 0.1%
Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating...Light-vessels, fire-floats, dredgers, floating cranes, and other vessels the navigability of which is subsidiary to their main function; floating docks, floating or submersible drilling or production platforms (excl. fishing vessels and warships) 0.1%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.1%
Titanium and articles thereof, n.e.s.; titanium...Titanium and articles thereof, n.e.s.; titanium waste and scrap (excl. ash and residues containing titanium) 0.1%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.1%
Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and...Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and fractions thereof, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 0.1%
Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel,...Bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils 0.1%
Cyclic hydrocarbonsCyclic hydrocarbons 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 29.6%
Main Imports
(% of Imports)
2010
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 5.2%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 4.2%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 2.5%
Automatic data processing machines and units...Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 2.3%
Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony,...Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras; still image video cameras and other video camera recorders; digital cameras 2.2%
Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line...Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy, incl. line telephone sets with cordless handsets and telecommunication apparatus for carrier-current line systems or for digital line systems; videophones; parts thereof 1.4%
Bodies, incl. cabs, for tractors, motor vehicles...Bodies, incl. cabs, for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705 1.0%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of leather (excl. orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 1.0%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with transmission and reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting, television, television cameras, still image video cameras and other video camera recorders, radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus or radio remote control apparatus, n.e.s. 1.0%
Meat of bovine animals, frozenMeat of bovine animals, frozen 1.0%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 0.9%
Meat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozenMeat of swine, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.9%
Electric generating sets and rotary convertersElectric generating sets and rotary converters 0.8%
Instruments and appliances used in medical,...Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, incl. scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments, n.e.s. 0.8%
Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators...Air or vacuum pumps (excl. gas compound elevators and pneumatic elevators and conveyors); air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof 0.8%
Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether...Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment whether or not electrically heated (excl. furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vapourizing, condensing or cooling (excl. those used for domestic purposes); instantaneous or storage water heaters, non-electric; parts thereof 0.8%
Printing machinery used for printing by means of...Printing machinery used for printing by means of the printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442 and ink-jet printing machines (excl. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines and other office printing machines of heading 8469 to 8472); machines for uses ancillary to printing, for the feeding, carriage or further processing of sheets or webs of paper; parts thereof 0.8%
Railway or tramway goods vans and wagons (excl....Railway or tramway goods vans and wagons (excl. self-propelled and luggage vans and post office coaches) 0.7%
Machines and mechanical appliances having...Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof 0.7%
Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for...Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, incl. pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof 0.7%
Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic...Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera and other blood fractions and modified immunological products, whether or not obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excl. yeasts) and similar products 0.7%
Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically...Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined; aluminium oxide; aluminium hydroxide 0.7%
Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters...Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electro-thermic hair-dressing apparatus, e.g. hair dryers, hair curlers and curling tong heaters, and hand dryers; electric smoothing irons; other electro-thermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors (other than those of heading 8545); parts thereof 0.7%
Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a...Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device (excl. ceramic pumps and secretion aspirating pumps for medical use and medical pumps carried on or implanted in the body); liquid elevators (excl. pumps); parts thereof 0.6%
Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders,...Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levellers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers 0.6%
Cheese and curdCheese and curd 0.6%
Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those...Centrifuges, incl. centrifugal dryers (excl. those for isotope separation); filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof (excl. artificial kidneys) 0.6%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced", clad, plated or coated 0.6%
Citrus fruit, fresh or driedCitrus fruit, fresh or dried 0.6%
Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g....Electrical transformers, static converters, e.g. rectifiers, and inductors; parts thereof 0.6%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 0.6%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 0.6%
Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal...Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engine 0.6%
New pneumatic tyres, of rubberNew pneumatic tyres, of rubber 0.5%
Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or...Footwear with outer soles and uppers of rubber or plastics (excl. waterproof footwear of heading 6401, orthopaedic footwear, skating boots with ice or roller skates attached, and toy footwear) 0.5%
Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and...Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536, for electric control or the distribution of electricity, incl. those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus (excl. switching apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy) 0.5%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 0.5%
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating,...Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid, incl. powder or paste, form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding solid mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry moulds of sand; parts thereof 0.5%
Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations...Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin, incl. sunscreen or sun tan preparations (excl. medicaments); manicure or pedicure preparations 0.5%
Television receivers, whether or not incorporating...Television receivers, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus; video monitors and video projectors 0.5%
Apples, pears and quinces, freshApples, pears and quinces, fresh 0.5%
Unmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuseUnmanufactured tobacco; tobacco refuse 0.5%
Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel "e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed" 0.5%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 0.4%
Articles of plastics and articles of other...Articles of plastics and articles of other materials of heading 3901 to 3914, n.e.s. 0.4%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.4%
Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire,...Insulated "incl. enamelled or anodised" wire, cable "incl. coaxial cable" and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 0.4%
Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts of...Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts of metal-rolling mills 0.4%
Base metal mountings, fittings and similar...Base metal mountings, fittings and similar articles suitable for furniture, doors, staircases, windows, blinds, coachwork, saddlery, trunks, chests, caskets or the like; base metal hat-racks, hat-pegs, brackets and similar fixtures; castors with mountings of base metal; automatic door closers of base metal 0.4%
Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by...Toys (excl. wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children, dolls' carriages and dolls representing only human beings); reduced-size "scale" recreational models, working or not; puzzles of all kinds 0.4%
Meat and edible offal of fowls of the species...Meat and edible offal of fowls of the species gallus domesticus, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea fowls, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.4%
Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or...Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps; parts thereof (excl. air conditioning machines of heading 8415) 0.4%
Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast...Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. (excl. cast articles) 0.4%
Air conditioning machines comprising a...Air conditioning machines comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, incl. those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof 0.4%
Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape...Wine of fresh grapes, incl. fortified wines; grape must, partly fermented and of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol or grape must with added alcohol of an actual alcoholic strength of > 0,5% vol 0.4%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "china clay" or other inorganic substances, whith or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 0.4%
Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and...Seats, whether or not convertible into beds, and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. medical, surgical, dental or veterinary of heading 9402) 0.4%
Polymers of ethylene, in primary formsPolymers of ethylene, in primary forms 0.4%
Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas...Turbo-jets, turbo-propellers and other gas turbines 0.4%
Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges...Structures and parts of structures "e.g., bridges and bridge-sections, lock-gates, towers, lattice masts, roofs, roofing frameworks, doors and windows and their frames and thresholds for doors, shutters, balustrades, pillars and columns", of iron or steel; plates, rods, angles, shapes, sections, tubes and the like, prepared for use in structures, of iron or steel (excl. prefabricated buildings of heading 9406) 0.4%
Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins,...Polyacetals, other polyethers and epoxide resins, in primary forms; polycarbonates, alkyd resins, polyallyl esters and other polyesters, in primary forms 0.4%
Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery,...Lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery, e.g. lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics (excl. pulley tackle and hoists, winches and capstans, jacks, cranes of all kinds, mobile lifting frames and straddle carriers, works trucks fitted with a crane, fork-lift trucks and other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment) 0.4%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of non-cellular plastics, not reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, without backing, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, and floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.4%
Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding...Toilet paper and similar paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, of a kind used for household or sanitary purposes, in rolls of a width <= 36 cm, or cut to size or shape; handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, tablecloths, serviettes, napkins for babies, tampons, bed sheets and similar household, sanitary or hospital articles, articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of paper pulp, paper, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres 0.4%
Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709)Tractors (other than tractors of heading 8709) 0.4%
Tomatoes, fresh or chilledTomatoes, fresh or chilled 0.4%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron or steel (excl. products of cast iron) 0.4%
Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish...Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.4%
Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or...Dish washing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labelling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar containers; other packing or wrapping machinery, incl. heat-shrink wrapping machinery; machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof 0.3%
Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic,...Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or non-electric motor; parts thereof 0.3%
Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting...Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, e.g., switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and junction boxes, for a voltage <= 1.000 v (excl. control desks, cabinets, panels etc. of heading 8537) 0.3%
Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of...Paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding and webs of cellulose fibres, coated, impregnated, covered, surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. goods of heading 4803, 4809 and 4810) 0.3%
Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha,...Apparatus based on the use of x-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, x-ray tubes and other x-ray generators, high tension generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like 0.3%
Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and...Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar articles, knitted or crocheted (excl. wadded waistcoats) 0.3%
Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating,...Moving, grading, levelling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting or boring machinery, for earth, minerals or ores; pile-drivers and pile-extractors; snow-ploughs and snow-blowers (excl. those mounted on railway wagons, motor vehicle chassis or lorries, self-propelled machinery of heading 8429, lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery of heading 8425 to 8428 and hand-operated tools) 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel,...Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 0.3%
Food preparations, n.e.s.Food preparations, n.e.s. 0.3%
Bananas, incl. plantains, fresh or driedBananas, incl. plantains, fresh or dried 0.3%
Grapes, fresh or driedGrapes, fresh or dried 0.3%
Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases,...Trunks, suit-cases, vanity-cases, executive-cases, brief-cases, school satchels, spectacle cases, binocular cases, camera cases, musical instrument cases, gun cases, holsters and similar containers; travelling-bags, insulated food or beverage bags, toilet bags, rucksacks, handbags, shopping-bags, wallets, purses, map-cases, cigarette-cases, tobacco-pouches, tool bags, sports bags, bottle-cases, jewellery boxes, powder-boxes, cutlery cases and similar containers, of leather or of composition leather, of sheeting of plastics, of textile materials, of vulcanised fibre or of paperboard, or wholly or mainly covered with such materials or with paper 0.3%
Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined...Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined (excl. chemically modified) 0.3%
Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with...Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with self-contained electric motor; parts thereof 0.3%
Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and...Fish, fresh or chilled (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 0.3%
Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated...Polymers of vinyl chloride or of other halogenated olefins, in primary forms 0.3%
Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not...Trailers and semi-trailers; other vehicles, not mechanically propelled (excl. railway and tramway vehicles); parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.3%
Electric motors and generators (excl. generating...Electric motors and generators (excl. generating sets) 0.3%
Chocolate and other food preparations containing...Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa 0.3%
Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo...Cruise ships, excursion boats, ferry-boats, cargo ships, barges and similar vessels for the transport of persons or goods 0.3%
Preparations of a kind used in animal feedingPreparations of a kind used in animal feeding 0.3%
Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights...Lamps and lighting fittings, incl. searchlights and spotlights, and parts thereof, n.e.s; illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like having a permanently fixed light source, and parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.3%
Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores;...Prepared binders for foundry moulds or cores; chemical products and preparations for the chemical or allied industries, incl. mixtures of natural products, n.e.s. 0.3%
Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers,...Paints and varnishes, incl. enamels and lacquers, based on synthetic polymers or chemically modified natural polymers, dispersed or dissolved in a non-aqueous medium; solutions of products of subheading 3901 to 3913 in volatile organic solvents, containing > 50% solvent by weight (excl. solutions of collodion) 0.3%
Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than...Flat-rolled products of alloy steel other than stainless, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.3%
Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave...Perfumes and toilet waters (excl. aftershave lotions, personal deodorants and hair lotions) 0.3%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of heading 8425 to 8430, n.e.s. 0.3%
Tea, whether or not flavouredTea, whether or not flavoured 0.3%
Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl....Household or laundry-type washing machines, incl. machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof 0.3%
Cut flowers and flower buds of a kind suitable for...Cut flowers and flower buds of a kind suitable for bouquets or for ornamental purposes, fresh, dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise prepared 0.3%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not rectangular or square; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 0.3%
Apricots, cherries, peaches incl. nectarines,...Apricots, cherries, peaches incl. nectarines, plums and sloes, fresh 0.3%
Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes,...Women's or girls' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks, incl. ski-jackets, wind-cheaters, wind-jackets and similar articles (excl. knitted or crocheted, suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers and trousers) 0.2%
Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g...Tubes, pipes and hoses, and fittings therefor, e.g. joints, elbows, flanges, of plastics 0.2%
Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics,...Plates, sheets, film, foil and strip, of plastics, reinforced, laminated, supported or similarly combined with other materials, or of cellular plastic, unworked or merely surface-worked or merely cut into squares or rectangles (excl. self-adhesive products, floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.2%
Mixtures of odoriferous substances and mixtures,...Mixtures of odoriferous substances and mixtures, incl. alcoholic solutions, based on one or more of these substances, of a kind used as raw materials in industry; other preparations based on odoriferous substances, of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages 0.2%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron...Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 0.2%
Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks,...Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers, incl. spring washers, and similar articles, of iron or steel (excl. lag screws, stoppers, plugs and the like, threaded) 0.2%
Agricultural, horticultural, forestry,...Agricultural, horticultural, forestry, poultry-keeping or bee-keeping machinery, incl. germination plant fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment; poultry incubators and brooders; parts thereof 0.2%
Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in...Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, for the industrial preparation or manufacture of food or drink (other than machinery for the extraction or preparation of animal or fixed vegetable fats or oils); parts thereof 0.2%
Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and...Transmission shafts, incl. camshafts and crankshafts, and cranks; bearing housings and plain shaft bearings for machines; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, incl. torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, incl. pulley blocks, clutches and shaft couplings, incl. universal joints; parts thereof 0.2%
Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying...Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of heading 8469 to 8472, n.e.s. 0.2%
Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or...Tools, interchangeable, for hand tools, whether or not power-operated, or for machine-tools "e.g. for pressing, stamping, punching, tapping, threading, drilling, boring, broaching, milling, turning or screw driving", incl. dies for drawing or extruding metal, and rock drilling or earth boring tools 0.2%
Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee,...Extracts, essences and concentrates, of coffee, tea or mate and preparations with a basis of these products or with a basis of coffee, tea or mate; roasted chicory and other roasted coffee substitutes, and extracts, essences and concentrates thereof 0.2%
Soya beans, whether or not brokenSoya beans, whether or not broken 0.2%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 0.2%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels...Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 0.2%
Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical...Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical analysis, e.g. polarimeters, refractometers, spectrometers, gas or smoke analysis apparatus; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking viscosity, porosity, expansion, surface tension or the like; instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking quantities of heat, sound or light, incl. exposure meters; microtomes 0.2%
Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements,...Glaziers' putty, grafting putty, resin cements, caulking compounds and other mastics; painters' fillings; non-refractory surfacing preparations for façades, indoor walls, floors, ceilings or the like 0.2%
Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for...Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the manufacture of products from these materials, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, parts thereof 0.2%
Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap);...Organic surface-active agents (excl. soap); surface-active preparations, washing preparations, incl. auxiliary washing preparations, and cleaning preparations, whether or not containing soap (excl. those of heading 3401) 0.2%
Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy...Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy steel, n.e.s. 0.2%
Compression-ignition internal combustion piston...Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engine "diesel or semi-diesel engines" 0.2%
Electric, incl. electrically heated gas, laser or...Electric, incl. electrically heated gas, laser or other light or photon beam, ultrasonic, electron beam, magnetic pulse or plasma arc soldering, brazing or welding machines and apparatus, whether or not capable of cutting; electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals, metal carbides or cermets; parts thereof (excl. guns for spraying hot materials of heading 8424) 0.2%
Preparations for use on the hairPreparations for use on the hair 0.2%
Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive...Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive isotopes, incl. their fissile or fertile chemical elements and isotopes, and their compounds; mixtures and residues containing these products 0.2%
Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods,...Articles for the conveyance or packaging of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures, of plastics 0.2%
Reception apparatus for radio-telephony,...Reception apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy or radio-broadcasting, whether or not combined, in the same housing, with sound recording or reproducing apparatus or a clock 0.2%
Lubricant preparations, incl. cutting-oil...Lubricant preparations, incl. cutting-oil preparations, bolt or nut release preparations, anti-rust or anti-corrosion preparations and mould release preparations based on lubricants; textile lubricant preparations and preparations of a kind used for the oil or grease treatment of textile materials, leather, furskins or other materials (excl. preparations containing, as basic constituents, >= 70% petroleum oil or bituminous mineral oil by weight) 0.2%
Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers,...Men's or boys' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts (excl. knitted or crocheted, wind-jackets and similar articles, separate waistcoats, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.2%
Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl....Ships' derricks; cranes, incl. cable cranes (excl. wheel-mounted cranes and vehicle cranes for railways); mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane 0.2%
Mechanical appliances, whether or not...Mechanical appliances, whether or not hand-operated, for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders, n.e.s.; fire extinguishers, charged or not (excl. fire-extinguishing bombs and grenades); spray guns and similar appliances (excl. electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or sintered metal carbides of heading 8515); steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof, n.e.s. 0.2%
Panty hose, tights, stockings, socks and other...Panty hose, tights, stockings, socks and other hosiery, incl. stockings for varicose veins and footwear without applied soles, knitted or crocheted (excl. for babies) 0.2%
T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or...T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or crocheted 0.2%
Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or...Harvesting or threshing machinery, incl. straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce; parts thereof (other than machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables of heading 8437) 0.2%
Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep,...Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules or hinnies, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.2%
Fresh strawberries, raspberries, blackberries,...Fresh strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, back, white or redcurrants, gooseberries and other edible fruits (excl. nuts, bananas, dates, figs, pineapples, avocadoes, guavas, mangoes, mangosteens, papaws "papayas", citrus fruit, grapes, melons, apples, pears, quinces, apricots, cherries, peaches, plums and sloes) 0.2%
Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable...Fruit juices, incl. grape must, and vegetable juices, unfermented, not containing added spirit, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.2%
Electronic integrated circuits and microassembliesElectronic integrated circuits and microassemblies 0.2%
Mechano-therapy appliances; massage apparatus;...Mechano-therapy appliances; massage apparatus; psychological aptitude-testing apparatus; ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, artificial respiration or other therapeutic respiration apparatus 0.2%
Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical...Orthopaedic appliances, incl. crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability 0.2%
Wallpaper and similar wall coverings of paper;...Wallpaper and similar wall coverings of paper; window transparencies of paper 0.2%
Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber),...Articles of vulcanised rubber (excl. hard rubber), n.e.s. 0.2%
Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and...Shaving preparations, incl. pre-shave and after-shave products, personal deodorants, bath and shower preparations, depilatories and other perfumery, toilet or cosmetic preparations, n.e.s.; prepared room deodorizers, whether or not perfumed or having disinfectant properties 0.2%
Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by...Machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by forging, hammering or die-stamping; machine-tools, incl. presses, for working metal by bending, folding, straightening, flattening, shearing, punching or notching; presses for working metal or metal carbides, not specified above 0.2%
Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with...Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment (excl. straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane) 0.2%
Table, kitchen or other household articles,...Table, kitchen or other household articles, sanitary ware, and parts thereof, of aluminium, pot scourers and scouring or polishing pads, gloves and the like, of aluminium (excl. cans, boxes and similar containers of heading 7612, articles of the nature of a work implement, spoons, ladles, forks and other articles of heading 8211 to 8215, ornamental articles and fittings) 0.2%
Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless...Microphones and stands therefor (excl. cordless microphones with built-in transmitter); loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers (excl. telephone sets, hearing aids and helmets with built-in headphones, whether or not incorporating a microphone); audio-frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof 0.2%
Articles and equipment for general physical...Articles and equipment for general physical exercise, gymnastics, athletics, other sports, incl. table-tennis, or outdoor games, not specified or included in this chapter or elsewhere; swimming pools and paddling pools. 0.2%
Polymers of styrene, in primary formsPolymers of styrene, in primary forms 0.2%
Pig fat, free of lean meat, and poultry fat, not...Pig fat, free of lean meat, and poultry fat, not rendered or otherwise extracted, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, dried or smoked 0.2%
Regulating or controlling instruments and...Regulating or controlling instruments and apparatus (excl. taps, cocks and valves of heading 8481) 0.2%
Machine-tools, incl. machines for nailing,...Machine-tools, incl. machines for nailing, stapling, glueing or otherwise assembling, for working wood, cork, bone, hard rubber, hard plastics or similar hard materials (excl. machines for working in the hand) 0.2%
Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing...Cartons, boxes, cases, bags and other packing containers, of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibres, n.e.s.; box files, letter trays, and similar articles, of paperboard of a kind used in offices, shops or the like 0.2%
Other vegetables, fresh or chilled (excl. potatoes...Other vegetables, fresh or chilled (excl. potatoes, tomatoes, alliaceous vegetables, edible brassicas, lettuce "lactuca sativa" and chicory "cichorium spp.", carrots, turnips, salad beetroot, salsify, celeriac, radishes and similar edible roots, cucumbers and gherkins, and leguminous vegatables) 0.2%
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics,...Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition leather and uppers of textile materials (excl. toy footwear) 0.2%
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated;...Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion 0.2%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides...Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 0.2%
Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape,...Self-adhesive plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip and other flat shapes, of plastics, whether or not in rolls (excl. floor, wall and ceiling coverings of heading 3918) 0.2%
Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed...Electric filament or discharge lamps, incl. sealed beam lamp units and ultra-violet or infra-red lamps; arc-lamps; parts thereof 0.2%
Men's or boys' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks...Men's or boys' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks, incl. ski-jackets, wind-cheaters, wind-jackets and similar articles (excl. knitted or crocheted, suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers and trousers) 0.1%
Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in...Polymers of propylene or of other olefins, in primary forms 0.1%
Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and...Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and machines not elsewhere specified in chapter 90; profile projectors 0.1%
Other vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise...Other vegetables prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid, not frozen (excl. preserved by sugar, and tomatoes, mushrooms and truffles) 0.1%
Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl....Electrical lighting or signalling equipment (excl. lamps of heading 8539), windscreen wipers, defrosters and demisters, of a kind used for cycles or motor vehicles; parts thereof 0.1%
Carbon electrodes, carbon brushes, lamp carbons,...Carbon electrodes, carbon brushes, lamp carbons, battery carbons and other articles of graphite or other carbon, with or without metal, of a kind used for electrical purposes 0.1%
Printed books, brochures and similar printed...Printed books, brochures and similar printed matter, whether or not in single sheets (excl. periodicals and publications which are essentially devoted to advertising) 0.1%
Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets,...Women's or girls' suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts, divided skirts, trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and shorts, knitted or crocheted (excl. wind-jackets and similar articles, slips, petticoats and panties, track suits, ski suits and swimwear) 0.1%
Compounds with other nitrogen function (excl....Compounds with other nitrogen function (excl. amine-function compounds; oxygen-function amino-compounds; quaternary ammonium salts and hydroxides; lecithin and other phosphoaminolipids; carboxyamide-function compounds; amide-function compounds of carbonic acid; carboxyimide-function, imine-function or nitrile-function compounds; diazo-, azo- or azoxy-compounds; organic derivatives of hydrazine or of hydroxylamine) 0.1%
Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s...Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom[s] only 0.1%
Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows,...Tube or pipe fittings "e.g. couplings, elbows, sleeves", of iron or steel 0.1%
Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal...Engines and motors (excl. steam turbines, internal combustion piston engine, hydraulic turbines, water wheels, gas turbines and electric motors); parts thereof 0.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 0.1%
Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of...Ball or roller bearings (excl. steel balls of heading 7326); parts thereof 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537, n.e.s. 0.1%
Pharmaceutical preparations and products of...Pharmaceutical preparations and products of subheading nos 3006.10.10 to 3006.60.90 0.1%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 0.1%
Table, kitchen or other household articles, and...Table, kitchen or other household articles, and parts thereof, of iron or steel; iron or steel wool; pot scourers and scouring or polishing pads, gloves and the like, of iron or steel (excl. cans, boxes and similar containers of heading 7310; waste baskets; shovels, corkscrews and other articles of the nature of a work implement; articles of cutlery, spoons, ladles, forks etc. of heading 8211 to 8215; ornamental articles; sanitary ware) 0.1%
Other nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled...Other nuts, fresh or dried, whether or not shelled or peeled (excl. coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts) 0.1%
Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers'...Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares, whether or not containing cocoa; communion wafers, empty cachets of a kind suitable for pharmaceutical use, sealing wafers, rice paper and similar products 0.1%
Pulley tackle and hoists (other than skip hoists);...Pulley tackle and hoists (other than skip hoists); winches and capstans; jacks 0.1%
Office machines, e.g. hectograph or stencil...Office machines, e.g. hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines, automatic banknote dispensers, coin-sorting machines, coin-counting or wrapping machines, pencil-sharpening machines, perforating or stapling machines, n.e.s. 0.1%
Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials,...Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic bonding agents (excl. particle board, whether or not bonded with one or more sheets of fibreboard; laminated wood with a layer of plywood; composite panels with outer layers of fibreboard; paperboard; furniture components identifiable as such) 0.1%
Agricultural, horticultural or forestry machinery...Agricultural, horticultural or forestry machinery for soil preparation or cultivation (excl. sprayers and dusters); lawn or sports-ground rollers; parts thereof 0.1%
Acrylic polymers, in primary formsAcrylic polymers, in primary forms 0.1%
Parts suitable for use solely or principally with...Parts suitable for use solely or principally with internal combustion piston engine of heading 8407 or 8408 0.1%
Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or...Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling-stock, n.e.s. 0.1%
Potatoes, fresh or chilledPotatoes, fresh or chilled 0.1%
Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats,...Malt extract; food preparations of flour, groats, meal, starch or malt extract, not containing cocoa or containing < 40% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s.; food preparations of milk, cream, butter milk, sour milk, sour cream, whey, yoghourt, kefir, and similar goods of heading 0401 to 0404, not containing cocoa or containing < 5% by weight of cocoa calculated on a totally defatted basis, n.e.s. 0.1%
Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall...Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall tiles; glazed ceramic mosaic cubes and the like, whether or not on a backing (excl. of siliceous fossil meals or similar siliceous earths, refractory ceramic goods, tiles made into stands, ornamental articles and tiles specifically manufactured for stoves) 0.1%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not...Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 0.1%
Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not...Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not minced, fresh, chilled or frozen 0.1%
Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and...Butter, incl. dehydrated butter and ghee, and other fats and oils derived from milk; dairy spreads 0.1%
Tugs and pusher craftTugs and pusher craft 0.1%
Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those...Special purpose motor vehicles (other than those principally designed for the transport of persons or goods), e.g. breakdown lorries, crane lorries, fire fighting vehicles, concrete-mixer lorries, road sweeper lorries, spraying lorries, mobile workshops and mobile radiological units 0.1%
Central heating boilers, non-electric; parts...Central heating boilers, non-electric; parts thereof (excl. vapour generating boilers and super-heated water boilers of heading 8402) 0.1%
Surveying, incl. photogrammetrical surveying,...Surveying, incl. photogrammetrical surveying, hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological or geophysical instruments and appliances (excl. compasses); rangefinders 0.1%
Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam...Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles "e.g., open seam or welded, riveted or similarly closed", of iron or steel (excl. of cast iron, seamless tubes and pipes and tubes and pipes having internal and external circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm) 0.1%
Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl....Woven fabrics of synthetic filament yarn, incl. monofilament of >= 67 decitex and with a cross sectional dimension of <= 1 mm 0.1%
Printing ink, writing or drawing ink and other...Printing ink, writing or drawing ink and other inks, whether or not concentrated or solid 0.1%
Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.;...Inorganic or mineral colouring matter, n.e.s.; preparations based on inorganic or mineral colouring matter of a kind used to dye fabrics or produce colorant preparations (excl. preparations of heading 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3213 and 3215); inorganic products of a kind used as luminophores, whether or not chemically defined 0.1%
Soap; organic surface-active products and...Soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for use as soap, in the form of bars, cakes, moulded pieces or shapes, whether or not containing soap; organic surface-active products and preparations for washing the skin, in the form of liquid or cream and put up for retail sale, whether or not containing soap; paper, wadding, felt and nonwovens, impregnated, coated or covered with soap or detergent 0.1%
Articles for funfair, table or parlour games, incl...Articles for funfair, table or parlour games, incl. pintables, billiards, special tables for casino games and automatic bowling alley equipment 0.1%
Articles of apparel, clothing accessories and...Articles of apparel, clothing accessories and other furskin articles (excl. gloves made of leather and furskin, footware and headgear and parts thereof, and goods of chapter 95, e.g., toys, games and sports equipment) 0.1%
Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a...Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines, e.g. ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, sparking plugs, glow plugs and starter motors; generators, e.g. dynamos and alternators, and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof 0.1%
Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added...Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sugar or other sweetening matter 0.1%
Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other...Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled 0.1%
Instruments and apparatus for measuring or...Instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking the flow, level, pressure or other variables of liquids or gases, e.g. flow meters, level gauges, manometers, heat meters (excl. instruments and apparatus of heading 9014, 9015, 9028 or 9032) 0.1%
Machining centres, unit construction machines ...Machining centres, unit construction machines "single station" and multi-station transfer machines for working metal 0.1%
Moulding boxes for metal foundry; mould bases;...Moulding boxes for metal foundry; mould bases; moulding patterns; moulds for metal (other than ingot moulds), metal carbides, glass, mineral materials, rubber or plastics (excl. moulds of graphite or other carbons, ceramic or glass moulds and linotype moulds or matrices) 0.1%
Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens,...Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens, non-electric, incl. incinerators (excl. drying ovens and ovens for cracking operations) 0.1%
Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen...Bed-linen, table linen, toilet linen and kitchen linen of all types of textile materials (excl. floor-cloths, polishing-cloths, dish-cloths and dusters) 0.1%
Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and...Printed matter, incl. printed pictures and photographs, n.e.s. 0.1%
Pebbles, gravel, broken or crushed stone, for...Pebbles, gravel, broken or crushed stone, for concrete aggregates, for road metalling or for railway ballast, shingle and flint, whether or not heat-treated; macadam of slag, dross or similar industrial waste, whether or not incorporating the materials cited in the first part of the heading; tarred macadam; granules, chippings and powder, of stones of heading 2515 and 2516, whether or not heat-treated 0.1%
Glassware of a kind used for table, kitchen,...Glassware of a kind used for table, kitchen, toilet, office, indoor decoration or similar purposes (excl. goods of heading 7018, glass preserving jars "sterilizing jars", mirrors, leaded lights and the like, lighting fittings and parts thereof, atomizers for perfume and the like, vacuum flasks and other vacuum vessels) 0.1%
Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus...Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus and radio remote control apparatus 0.1%
Builders' ware of plastics, n.e.s.Builders' ware of plastics, n.e.s. 0.1%
Other productsClose extended list 83.5%

Source: Comtrade

 
 

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Political Outline

Executive Power
The President is the Head of State. He is elected by universal suffrage for four years.The real center of power in the country, he is the commander-in-chief of the army. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. He is appointed by the President, with the approval of the lower house of Parliament, and manages the everyday business of the country.
Legislative Power
Russia has a two-chamber legislative power. The Parliament, called the Federal Assembly, is composed of: the Council of the Federation (upper chamber), which has 78 seats and the members are appointed by the regional governors and legislative institutions, for a four-year term of office; and the State Douma (lower chamber), which has 450 seats; its members are elected by direct universal suffrage from partisan lists, for a four-year term.
Main Political Parties
Russia is a State with one dominant party - United Russia (a centrist party) which is in power. Opposition parties are authorized but they do not really have any chance of gaining power. The other important parties in the country are:
- The CPRF (Communist Party of the Russian Federation) – a nationalist and communist party;
A Just Russia (born of the merger between Rodina, the Russian Life party and the Russian Pensioners' party in 2006) - a center-left party, an ally of United Russia;
The LDPR (Liberal Democratic Party of Russia) - an extreme right nationalist political party;
- The SPS (Union of right-wing forces) - associated with reforms leading towards the free market economy and privatization, it supports western-style capitalism.
Current Political Leaders
President: Dmitri MEDVEDEV (elected on May 2008) – Independent
Prime Minister: Vladimir PUTIN (since May 2008) – Last president. United Russia Party President.
Next Election Dates
Presidential election: March 2012
Parliamentary: December 2011
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

World Rank:
153/175
Evolution:
12 places down compared to 2008

Source: Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009, Reporters Without Borders

 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Ranking:
Not Free
Political Freedom:
6/7
Civil Liberties:
5/7

Map of freedom 2010

 

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  • Doing Business In Russia

    Until the current global economic crisis, Russia had a nine-year run of continuous rapid economic expansion (approximately 7% annually). With over 140 million consumers, a growing middle class and almost unlimited infrastructure needs, Russia is one of the most promising U.S. export markets.

    U.S. Commercial Service Russia on 23 Dec 2009 related to Business Environment in Russia

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