How Do I Get Paid (Methods of Payment)
Import financing procedures in Poland take place under seller-buyer terms. Popular payment mechanisms include payment against documents and electronic funds transfer. The safest method of receiving payment for a U.S. export sale is through an irrevocable letter of credit (L/C). However, most banks in Poland require the importer to deposit funds prior to issuance of a L/C. Therefore, for most Polish importers, a L/C is not a financing tool but a payment mechanism.
Cash payment or down payments provide an extra measure of security for export sales.
Lease finance is an increasingly popular approach for vehicles, equipment and large capital items.
Both private and public insurance is available in Poland.
How Does the Banking System Operate
Poland has a sound, non-discriminatory financial services infrastructure. Private banks control around 80 percent of the market. Foreign banks dominate with a 70 percent share in total assets. There are four state-owned banks. The group of cooperative banks is numerous (578) and has around six percent share of the market. All three types of banks offer a wide range of services to their customers.
Poland’s universal banking system provides deposits, loans and often trade in securities services. The state-owned bank BGK administers target funds (e.g., municipal development, road, housing, technology); provides special credit services, including homeowner mortgages and guarantees to export companies; and issues bonds for financing infrastructure (road) projects. Payment cards are commonly used. In 2009, there were over 30 million payment cards in circulation, of which a majority were debit cards. Both ATMs and commercial entities accept popular credit cards (VISA, MasterCard, Diner's Club and American Express) and payment cards (VISA Electron and Maestro). Checks as a means of payment are available but they are not recommended, as they have never enjoyed widespread usage in Poland.
Deposits may be made and loans taken in foreign currency and PLN. Loans in Euros and Swiss Francs have been the most common. Credit agreements require borrowers to provide data on their economic and financial standing. It is common practice when granting credits to demand bank guarantees, drafts or other forms of collateral.
Internet banking is developing rapidly and the availability of banking services varies from one bank to another.
A number of foreign banks have established banking operations in Poland, either through local subsidiaries, fully operating branches, or participation in consortium banks, which may also include Polish bank shareholders. Several U.S. banks have offices in Poland (e.g., Citibank, GE Capital, and AIG). While some banks have branches all over Poland, many are regional or have just a few branches. Several Polish banks have been approved by the Export-Import Bank of the U.S. for bank guarantees and currently engage in foreign trade financing.
The Polish zloty is fully convertible and there are no foreign exchange controls affecting trade in goods. Companies operating in Poland have free access to foreign currency, and there have been no failures of the banking system to provide hard currency on demand. Profits can be repatriated by law, including repatriation through bonds and securities.
Under the terms of its EU Accession, Poland is required to adopt the Euro. The government has no fixed date for Euro adoption.
EU financial assistance programs provide a wide array of grants, loans, loan guarantees and co-financing for feasibility studies and infrastructure projects. Some of the key sectors for these are: environment, transportation, energy, telecommunications, tourism and public health. From a commercial perspective, these initiatives create significant market opportunities for U.S. businesses, U.S.-based suppliers, and subcontractors.
The EU supports projects within its Member States, as well as EU-wide "economic integration" projects that cross both internal and external EU borders. In addition, the EU provides assistance to accession countries in Eastern and Southern Europe and Turkey, as well as to some of the former Soviet republics.
The European Union provides project financing through grants from the European Commission and loans from the European Investment Bank. Grants from the Structural Funds are distributed through the Member States’ national and regional authorities, and are only available for projects in the 27 EU Member States. All grants for projects in non-EU countries are managed through the EuropeAid Cooperation agency in conjunction with various European Commission departments, called "Directorates-General."
The CSEU Tenders Database
The U.S. Commercial Service at the U.S. Mission to the European Union offers a tool on its website to help U.S.-based companies identify European public procurement opportunities. The database features all current public procurement tenders issued by all national and regional public authorities in the 27 Member States of the European Union, plus four other European countries, and that are open to U.S.-based firms under the terms of the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) implemented in 1995.
The database is updated twice weekly and is easy to use with a range of search options, including approximately 20 industry sectors. The database also contains tenders for public procurement contracts relating to structural funds.
EU Structural Funds
The EU Structural Funds, including the European Regional Development Fund, were created in 1975 to assist economically depressed regions of the European Union that required industrial restructuring. The EU earmarked EUR 308 billion for projects under the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund programs for the 2007-2013 period for the EU-27. In addition to funding economic development projects proposed by Member States or local authorities, EU Structural Funds also support specialized projects promoting EU socioeconomic objectives. Member States negotiate regional and “sectoral” programs with officials from the Directorate-General for Regional Policy at the European Commission.
For projects financed through the Structural Funds, Member State officials are the key decision-makers. They assess the needs of their country; investigate projects; evaluate bids; and award contracts. To become familiar with available financial support programs in the Member States, it is advisable for would-be contractors to meet with local officials to discuss local needs.
Tenders issued by Member States’ public contracting authorities for projects supported by EU grants are subject to EU public procurement legislation if they meet the EU minimum contract value requirement for the eligible sector. Below this threshold, tender procedures are subject to national procurement legislation. There are no overt prohibitions against the participation of U.S. companies, either as developers or concessionaires of projects supported partially by the Structural Funds, or as bidders on subsequent public tenders related to such projects, but it is advisable to team up with a local partner. All Structural Fund projects are co-financed by national authorities and most may also qualify for a loan from the European Investment Bank. The private sector is also involved in project financing.
The Cohesion Fund
The Cohesion Fund is another instrument of EU structural policy. Its EUR 61.5 billion (2007-2013) budget seeks to improve cohesion within the EU by funding transport infrastructure and environmental projects in Portugal, Spain, Greece and the twelve new (since 2004) EU Member States from Central and Eastern Europe. These projects are generally co-financed by national authorities, the European Investment Bank, and the private sector.
The Trans-European Networks
The European Union also provides financial support to the Trans-European Networks (TENs) to develop infrastructure, strengthen cohesion and increase employment across greater Europe. Launched at the Essen Counsel (Germany) in 1994, the TENs are a series of transport, telecommunications and energy projects that are continually being expanded and upgraded. The TENs are largely financed by private sector and non-EU sources. The EU does, however, provide grants from the Cohesion Fund, loans from the European Investment Bank (and loan guarantees from the European Investment Fund), and partial feasibility study grants for the TENs. There are no overt EU restrictions on the participation of U.S. firms in the TENs.
Other EU Grants for Member States
Another set of sector-specific grants offers assistance to EU Member States in the fields of science, technology, communications, energy, environmental protection, education, training and research. Tenders related to these grants are posted on the various websites of the directorates-generals of the European Commission. Conditions for participation are strict and participation is usually restricted to EU firms or tied to EU content.
External Assistance Grants
The EuropeAid Cooperation Office is the European Commission agency in charge of managing the EU’s external aid programs. This agency is responsible for the management of the entire project cycle, from identification to evaluation, while the Directorates-General in charge of External Relations and Development, are responsible for the drafting of multi-year programs. The EuropeAid website offers extensive information on the range of grant programs, the kind of projects that are eligible, as well as manuals to help interested parties understand the relevant contract law. However, participation to calls for tender for contracts financed by EuropeAid is reserved for enterprises located in the EU Member States and requires that the products used to respond to these projects are manufactured in the EU or in the aid recipient country. Consultants of US nationality employed by European firms, however, are allowed to form part of a bidding team. European subsidiaries of U.S. firms are eligible to participate in these calls for tender.
Two new sets of programs have been approved for the financing period 2007-2013., The EU provides specific pre-accession financial assistance to the accession candidate countries that seek to join the EU through the “Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance” (IPA). Also, the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) will provide assistance to countries that are the Southern Mediterranean and Eastern neighbors of the EU.
• IPA replaces the following programs: PHARE (Poland and Hungary Assistance for Restructuring of the Economy), ISPA (Instrument for Structural Pre-Accession financing transport and environment projects), SAPARD (projects in the agriculture sector), CARDS (aid to southern Balkans) and the Turkey Facility Fund. IPA focuses on priorities linked to the adoption of the acquis communautaire (the body of European Union law that must be adopted by accession candidate countries as a precondition to accession), i.e., building up the administrative and institutional capacities and financing investments designed to help them comply with European Commission law. IPA will also finance projects destined to countries that are potential candidate countries, especially in the Balkans. The budget of IPA for 2007-2013 is EUR 11.4 billion.
• ENPI: replaces the former TACIS and MEDA programs. The European Neighborhood Policy program covers the EU’s neighbors to the east and along the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean i.e. Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Moldova, Morocco, the Palestinian Authority, Syria, Tunisia and Ukraine. ENPI budget is €11.9 billion for 2007-2013.
Loans from the European Investment Bank
Headquartered in Luxembourg, the European Investment Bank (EIB) is the financing arm of the European Union. Since its creation in 1958, the EIB has been a key player in building Europe. As the EIB's lending practices evolved over the years, it became highly competent in assessing, reviewing and monitoring projects. As a non-profit banking institution, the EIB offers cost-competitive, long-term lending in Europe. Best known for its project financial and economic analysis, the Bank makes loans to both private and public EU-based borrowers for projects in all sectors of the economy, such as telecommunications, transport, energy infrastructure and environment.
While the EIB mostly funds projects within the EU, it lends outside the EU as well (e.g., in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe; Latin America; and Pacific and Caribbean states). In 2007, the EIB approved loans for projects worth EUR 56.4 billion, of which around 16% was lent outside the EU. The EIB also plays a key role in supporting EU enlargement with loans used to finance improvements in infrastructure, research and industrial manufacturing to help those countries prepare for eventual EU membership.
Projects financed by the EIB must contribute to the socioeconomic objectives set out by the European Union, such as fostering the development of less favored regions; improving European transport and telecommunication infrastructure; protecting the environment; supporting the activities of SMEs; assisting urban renewal; and, generally promoting growth, competitiveness and employment in Europe. Last year, the EIB created a list of projects to be considered for approval and posted the list on its website.
The EIB presents attractive business opportunities to U.S. businesses. EIB lending rates are lower than most other commercial rates. Like all EIB customers, however, U.S. firms must apply the loan proceeds to a project that contributes to the European objectives cited above.
The EIB’s i2i (Innovation 2010 Initiative) is designed to highlight projects that support innovative technology in the European Union, in particular by financing broadband and multimedia networks; the physical or virtual infrastructure providing local access to these networks; and research and development infrastructures, especially in the less developed regions of the European Union. i2i will also finance projects to computerize schools and universities and to provide information technology training in conjunction with public authorities.
The US Mission to the European Union in Brussels has developed a database to help US-based companies bid on EIB public procurement contracts in non-EU countries in particular. The EIB-financed contracts that are open to US-based companies are featured in this database. All the tenders in this database are extracted from the EU’s Official Journal. The EIB database contains on average 50 to 100 tenders and is updated twice per week.