Taxes and Accounting in Thailand
- Tax Year
- The Thailand year of assessment runs from 1 January to 31 December.
- Accounting Standards
- The accounting standards are described on IAS Plus Website. The Thai Accounting Standards (TAS) are issued by the Federation of Accounting Professions (FAP), which was formed in 2004.
- Accounting Regulation Bodies
Federation of Accounting Professions of Thailand
- Accounting Reports
- Firms must keep books and follow accounting procedures specified in the Civil and Commercial Code, the Revenue Code and the Accounts Act. Documents may be prepared in any language, provided that a Thai translation is attached. Each company has to produce a balance sheet and a profit and loss account for each accounting year. The external control of accounts must be given to a body of auditors chosen by the company and by the commercial department of the ministry of Treasury.
- Publication Requirements
Each company has to produce a balance sheet and a profit and loss account for each accounting year.
A mid-year profit forecast entails advance payment of corporate taxes. On Annual Accounts, any newly-established company or partnership should close accounts within 12 months from the date of its registration. Thereafter, the accounts should be closed every 12 months. The performance record is to be certified by the company auditor, approved by shareholders, and filed with the Commercial Registration Department, Ministry of Commerce, within five months of the end of the fiscal year, and with the Revenue Department, Ministry of Finance, within 150 days of the end of the fiscal year. If a company wishes to change its accounting period, it must obtain written approval from the Director General of the Revenue Department.
- Professional Accountancy Bodies
The Institute of Certified Accountants and Auditors of Thailand
Federation of accounting Profession
- Certification and Auditing
- The external control of accounts must be given to a body of auditors chosen by the company and by the commercial department of the ministry of Treasury.
- Accounting News
Asian Corporate Governance Association
- Nature of the Tax
- Value Added Tax (VAT) has been implemented in Thailand since 1992 replacing Business Tax (BT). VAT is an indirect tax imposed on the value added of each stage of production and distribution.
- Tax Rate
- The rate is currently 7% (it is suppose to be increase to 10% in October 2010 but this sensitive measure could be postpone),
- Reduced Tax Rate
Certain activities are liable to VAT at the rate of zero percent:
- export of goods;
- services rendered in Thailand and utilized outside Thailand in accordance with rule, procedure and condition prescribed by the Director-General;
- aircraft or sea-vessels engaging in international transportation;
- supply of goods and services to government agencies or state-owned enterprises;
- supply of goods and services to the United Nations and its agencies as well as embassies, consulate-general and consulates;
- supply of goods and services between bonded warehouses or between enterprises located in EPZs.
- Other Consumption Taxes
- Company Tax
- 30% of net taxable profit. For more details, see Thailand tax rate.
- Tax Rate For Foreign Companies
- Non residents have to pay the VAT.
- Capital Gains Taxation
- All earned income from capital gains is taxed the same as regular income.
- Main Allowable Deductions and Tax Credit
Certain exemptions from corporate income tax are provided under the Revenue Code, Royal Decrees issued under the Revenue Code, and the Investment Promotion Act :
-Dividends paid by a limited company, registered under Thai law, to another Thai limited company or to a company registered under the law governing the Stock Exchange of Thailand may be exempt from corporate income tax, if the holding of the shares in the payer company is in compliance with conditions prescribed in the Revenue Code.
- A reduction or exemption from tax may be granted to juristic entities in accordance with tax treaties between Thailand and foreign countries.
- A corporate income tax exemption for a period of 3 to 8 years may be granted to promoted businesses under the Investment Promotion Act.
In addition, dividends, fees for goodwill, copyright or other rights received from the promoted businesses may also be exempt from income tax in the hands of the recipient. Regarding Deductible Expenses and Allowance:
Generally, expenses incurred exclusively for the purpose of generating income or for the purpose of business, are tax deductible. However, the deduction of some expenses and allowances must comply with the rules prescribed in the Revenue Code.
For additional information access the 2009 DELOITTE tax guide on Thailand.
- Other Corporate Taxes
- A 12.5% taxe is levied on the rental value of real property. A 3.3% transfer tax also apply on immovable property.
|Individual income tax||Progressive rate from 0 to 37%|
|From THB 0 to 150,000||0%|
|From THB 150,001 to 500,000||10%|
|From THB 500,001 to 1,000,000||20%|
|From THB 1,000,001 to 4,000,000||30%|
|From THB 4,000,001 and over||37%|
- Allowable Deductions and Tax Credit
Income which is exempt from personal income tax concerns in particular:
- transport expenses spent in good faith by an employee or a holder of office exclusively, and wholly for carrying out his/her duties;
- medical expenses paid by an employer for an employee and his/her family;
- share of profits obtained from a non-registered ordinary partnership or a group of persons;
- income from sale of securities on the Stock Exchange of Thailand
Some deductions are also in place and are detailed on the Revenue Department web site.
- Special Expatriate Tax Regime
- Expatriates working for qualifying regional operating headquarters in Thailand may opt to be taxed at the final withholding tax rate of 15% instead of the normal progressive tax rates for a maximum period of 4 consecutive years, whether or not he or she has occasionally been travelling out of Thailand during that period.
Double Taxation Treaties
- Countries With Whom a Double Taxation Treaty Have Been Signed
See the list of the convention signed by Thailand
- Withholding Taxes
- Dividends: 10%, Interest: 15%, Royalties: 15%
- National Organizations
Thailand is part of the Convention leading to the establishment of the World of Intellectual Property Organisation (OMPI/WIPO) and is the latest signatory of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (August 2008). It has also sign the Patent Cooperation Treaty in January 2008. The country has passed a huge number of bilateral agreements on the protection of industrial property.
In order to be protected in Thailand, patents must be registered in the country itself: the Patent Act no. 2 of 1992 protects letters patents over a period of 20 years and industrial design patents over a period of 10 years. Trademarks are protected by the Trademark Act of 1991. Protection can be renewed for additional 10 years. The institution responsible for the registration and protection of industrial property is the Trade Department in the Ministry of Commerce. Information on the regulation body, the Department of Intellectual Property, can be found its website.
- Regional Organizations
- Thailand has signed the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Intellectual Property Cooperation.
- International Membership
Signatory to the Paris Convention For the Protection of Intellectual Property
Membership to the TRIPS agreement - Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
National Regulation and International Agreements
|Type of property and law||Validity||International Agreements Signed|
Patent Act (No.3) B.E.2542 (1999)
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
Trademark Act B.E. 2534 (1991)
|10 years renewable||
Patent Act B.E. 2522 (1979), as amended by Patent Act (No. 2) B.E. 2535 (1992) and Patent Act (No. 3) B.E. 2542 (1999)
Patent Act BE 2522
- Independence of Justice
- When under civilian rule, judiciary is generally regarded as independent though it is subject to corruption and heavy backlog of cases.
- Equal Treatment of Nationals and Foreigners
- Foreign nationals can normally expect impartial trial from the country’s judicial system.
- The Language of Justice
- Thai is the judicial language used in Thailand, though English is widely used.
- Recourse to an Interpreter
- It is possible to have access to a transleter.
- Sources of the Law and Legal Similarities
- The main source of law in the country is the new constitution of October 1997. The legal system is based on civil law system. Thailand has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. Thailand's legal system blends principles of traditional Thai and Western laws. Under the constitution, the Constitutional Court is the highest court of appeals, though its jurisdiction is limited to clearly defined constitutional issues. Its members are nominated by a committee of judges, leaders in Parliament, and senior independent officials, whose nominees are confirmed by the Senate and appointed by the King. The Courts of Justice have jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases and are organized in three tiers: Courts of First Instance, the Court of Appeals, and the Supreme Court of Justice. Administrative courts have jurisdiction over suits between private parties and the government, and cases in which one government entity is suing another. In Thailand's southern border provinces, where Muslims constitute the majority of the population, Provincial Islamic Committees have limited jurisdiction over probate, family, marriage, and divorce cases. Only Thai-qualified lawyers have rights of audience in the country’s courts so many domestic firms focus on litigation, although international firms often retain significant Thai expertise. The country recently introduced specialised courts for bankruptcy and IP cases.
- Checking National Laws Online
The Thai law Forum
- National Standards Organizations
Thailand Industrial Standards Institute (TISI).
- Integration in the International Standards Network
- Thailand Industrial Standard Institute (TISI) manages and controls the technical norms as well as the programme of national certification in Thailand. It issues the right to use the TISI symbol on National products. In order to obtain further information, you can contact TISI. Thailand is a member of the PASC - Pacific Area Standards Congress and the ACCSQ - ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality .
- Classification of Standards
- The government of Thailand requires a compulsory certification of sixty products in ten sectors including: agriculture, construction materials, consumer goods, electrical appliances and accessories, PVC pipe, medical, LPG gas containers, surface coatings, and vehicles. Certification of other products is on a voluntary basis. Industrial products that have TISI’s certification are generally regarded as having high standards and good quality.
- Online Consultation of Standards
- The Thailand Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) website has a library which list online the Thai standards.
- Certification Organizations
The National Accreditation Council (NAC) of Thailand
- General Information
Thailand Business practices
Business culture Thailand
This site provides general information about Thailand, including Thai society and culture, etiquette, customs, and business etiquette.
- Opening Hours and Days
Usual business hours are 8.00am to 5.00pm, Monday to Friday.
Banks are open between 9.30am to 3.30pm, Monday to Friday. Foreign exchange counters are generally open between 7.00am to 8.00pm. Banks in department stores follow the opening hours of the stores which are usually 10.00am to 8.00pm. In some limited locations there are currency converting machines which convert foreign bank notes. These are open 24 hours.
Government offices are usually open between 8.30am to midday and 1.00pm to 4.30pm, Monday to Friday.
|New Year's Day||1 January|
|Makha Bucha Day||February|
|Chakri Day||6 April|
|Songkran Days||13-15 April (12-16-17 in some areas)|
|Labour Day||1 May|
|Coronation Day||5 May|
|Ploughing Day||9 May|
|Visakha Bucha Day||May|
|Asarnha Bucha Day||July|
|Buddhist Lent Day||July|
|H.M. The Queen's Birthday||12 August|
|Chulalongkorn Memorial Day||23 October|
|H.M. The King's Birthday||5 December|
|Constitution Day||10 December|
|New Year'sEve||31 December|
Periods When Companies Usually Close
|Labor Day||1 May|
|H. M. The Queen's Birthday||12 August|
|H. M. The King's Birthday||5 December|
|Constitution day||10 December|
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