Bangladesh- Cotton and Products Annual 2013

An Expert's View about Textiles, Apparel and Accessories in Bangladesh

Posted on: 8 Apr 2013

Bangladesh raw cotton imports in MY 2012/13 are estimated at 3.7 million bales, a 15.6 percent increase from MY 2011/12.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 4/1/2013 GAIN Report Number: BG3005 Bangladesh Cotton and Products Annual 2013 Approved By: David Leishman Prepared By: Sayed Sarwer Hussain Report Highlights: Bangladesh raw cotton imports in MY 2012/13 are estimated at 3.7 million bales, a 15.6 percent increase from MY 2011/12, Strong demand from the spinning sub-sector, as well as lower international prices, will likely continue to encourage raw cotton imports, which are forecast to reach 3.8 million bales in MY 2013/14. U.S. cotton sales to Bangladesh, however, have fallen sharply as a number of Bangladesh importers defaulted on contract commitments. The U.S. share of the Bangladesh raw cotton has declined from 14 percent in MY 2010/11 to 5 percent in MY 2011/12. At the same, imports from India and Uzbekistan are increasing. Commodities: Cotton Production: Assuming normal weather conditions, Bangladesh cotton production is forecast to reach 144,000 Bangladeshi bales (26,182 tons – a Bangladeshi bale is 400 lbs) from 45,000 hectares in MY 2013/14. Bangladesh cotton production in MY 2012/13 is estimated 129,000 Bangladeshi bales (23,455 tons), harvested from 40,000 hectares. This includes 114,000 bales of American variety medium staple, and 15,000 bales of short staple up-land cotton (locally known as “Comilla” cotton). Cotton is the second most important cash crop in Bangladesh after Jute. However, the lack of short duration, high yielding, and pest tolerant cotton seed varieties, along with increasing competition for very limited acreage in Bangladesh, constrain an expansion of cotton production. While cotton cultivation is very susceptible to excessive rainfall and flooding, cotton growing conditions over last few years, have been generally favorable during the critical growing period (July to December). While Bangladesh does not have a cotton research institute, the Bangladesh Cotton Development Board (CDB) conducts adoptive field trails of cotton varieties/hybrids, and is also responsible for providing extension services to the cotton farmers.. Collaborating with private seed companies, the CDB has introduced a few short duration and high yielding Chinese hybrids. As a result, cotton production has grown. The CDB has undertaken a program to gradually increase domestic cotton production to 670,000 Bangladeshi bales (from 100,000 hectares) by the end of 2015. The CDB strategy includes expanded use of new high yielding varieties, introduction of summer cotton, a gradual conversion of 20,000 hectares from tobacco to cotton cultivation, and increased cultivation in the saline prone coastal areas in the South. The cotton growing areas of Bangladesh are shown in Figure-1. Under normal conditions, domestic cotton production can only meet about 3 percent of the country’s current demand for raw cotton. Value Added Cotton: In MY 2012/13, Bangladesh yarn production is estimated at 688,000 tons, and increase of about 12 percent from MY 2011/12 production. Fabric production in MY 2012/13 is estimated to reach at 3.95 billion meters, up 4 percent from MY 2011/12 production. In addition, an estimated 650 million meters of fabric are produced by the small-scale handloom industry which meets about one third of the domestic demand for fabrics. In MY 2013/14 yarn production and fabric production are forecast to increase further to 720,000 tons and 4 billion meters respectively. Bangladesh’s spinning sub-sector of the textile industry has grown significantly over the last two decades in response to a growing demand for yarn from domestic textile producers and the export- oriented ready-made garment (RMG) sector (Table 8). However, the rate of growth has slowed considerably recent years due to ongoing energy constraints (i.e the limited availability of electric power and natural gas). Most spinning mills are now operating at less than full capacity as they also face increasing international competition, with imported products generally selling for about 4 percent below the domestic price. The textile industry is the largest manufacturing sector in Bangladesh, providing employment to approximately 5.5 million people, contributing to around 12 percent of GDP, 40 percent of value addition in manufacturing, and accounting for 78 percent of the country’s export earnings. During the last three decades, Bangladesh textile sector has received a total investment of more than $5.5 billion. The Bangladesh primary textile sector (PTS) meets almost 95 percent of domestic yarn and fabric requirements, 90 percent of yarn requirements for export oriented knitwear, 40 percent of yarn requirements for woven RMG and 40 percent of the demand for woven fabrics as part of the export oriented RMG sector. Domestic yarns are also supplied to home-textile, terry towel, and denim production units of the country. The current structure of the Bangladesh textile industry is presented in Table-3 and the growth in its spinning sub-sector is shown in table 4. The Bangladesh PTS accounts for more than 54 percent of foreign exchange earnings through manufacturing and supplying local yarn and fabrics to the export oriented RMG sector (Table-5). Foreign currency retention is 40 percent from woven garments export, while it is 90 percent from the knit garments exports. Despite significant growth in the development of backward linkage industries, Bangladesh’s current demand-supply gap for fabric is about 50 percent for cotton-based use and around 25 percent for non-cotton based use in the RMG sector. Consumption: In MY 2012/13, raw cotton consumption is estimated at 3.7 million bales, an increase of approximately 12 percent from MY 2011/12. With a continued rebound in imports, as well as strong demand from the spinning sub-sector, raw cotton consumption is forecast to reach 3.9 million bales in MY 2013/14. In MY 2012/13 consumption of yarn is estimated at 980,000 tons, an increase of 4.3 percent from MY 2011/12. Yarn consumption in MY 2013/14 is forecast to increase to 1 million tons. Fabric consumption in MY 2012/13 is estimated at 6.4 billion meters up by about 4 percent from MY 2011/12, due mainly to growth in RMG demand. MY 2013/14 fabric consumption is forecast to reach 6.6 billion meters. Bangladesh has numerous recently-constructed spinning and weaving mills capable of supplying quality yarns and fabrics for the export-oriented RMG sector, however production costs are believed to be about 4 percent higher than in India or China. Efforts to improve environmental and labor standards may affect costs in the short run, but over the longer term, this will undoubtedly help ensure continued competitiveness as more global retailers demand assurances from their suppliers. There has been some concern that imported fabrics for the RMG sector (under a special duty drawback incentive) may also be threatening the competitiveness of the locally produced fabrics. However, recent trends seem to indicate that Bangladesh competitiveness is improving, particularly in the higher quality categories. Local knitters and weavers are increasingly using domestically produced yarn and fabric as transportation costs and delivery schedules are improving. Trade: Bangladesh raw cotton imports in MY 2012/13 are estimated at 3.7 million bales, a 15.6 percent increase from the MY 2011/12. Strong demand from the spinning sub-sector, as well as lower international prices, will likely continue to encourage raw cotton imports, which are forecast to reach 3.8 million bales in MY 2013/14. Uzbekistan and India are the current major suppliers of raw cotton to Bangladesh, benefitting from competitive pricing and short delivery time. Bangladesh is currently negotiating agreements with India and Uzbekistan to import 1.5 million bales and 200,000 bales. U.S. cotton sales to Bangladesh fell dramatically in MY 2011/12. The U.S. share of the Bangladesh raw cotton market declined from 14 percent in MY 2010/11 to 5 percent in MY 2011/12 as a number of Bangladesh importers defaulted on contract commitments. A number of these importers have since renegotiated contracts and are continuing to import U.S. cotton. Value Added Cotton: Yarn imports in calendar year (CY) 2012 are estimated to increase to 270,000 tons from 240,000 tons in CY 2011. With increased demand from both the domestic textile market and the export oriented RMG sector, CY 2013 imports of yarn are forecast to increase to 280,000 tons. India continues to remain as the principal supplier of yarn to Bangladesh with around 75 percent of the market share. Fabric imports in CY 2012 are estimated at 2.4 billion meters, almost unchanged from the CY 2011 levels, as domestic supplies remain high. In CY 2013 fabric imports are forecast to reach 2.6 billion meters as demand from the export oriented RMG sector is expected to increase. With price advantages for quality fabrics, China continues to be the preferred supplier accounting for about 73 percent of the total imported fabrics in Bangladesh. According to WTO International Trade Statistics-2012, Bangladesh is now the world’s eleventh largest fabric importer, with imports totaling $5.6 billion in 2011. In recent years, Bangladesh successfully expanded its RMG customer base beyond the traditional markets of the U.S., the EU and Canada. Exporting to countries like Russia, India, China, Australia, South Korea and Saudi Arabia, high value RMG products like blazers, trousers, suits, jackets and women under-garments have seen significant growth in recent years. After growing 44 percent in FY 2010/11, Bangladesh RMG export earnings grew by a further 7 percent, reaching over $20 billion in FY 2011/12 (Table 5). Policy: Yarn and fabric imports for the RMG sector enjoy a customs duty draw-back incentive. The provision of an alternative cash incentive (set at 5 percent of the export value) for the export- oriented textile sector continues in the current fiscal year. For more than a decade, raw cotton imports have been free from all customs duties. Since FY 2011/12, import duties on polyester, viscose, acrylic, synthetic and modacrylic staple fiber have been completely withdrawn and the duty on textile chemical dyes have been reduced to 5 percent. There are no quantitative restrictions on imports of textile raw material including fabrics. As the Bangladesh textile industry is largely dependent on imports, industry leaders are asking the Government of Bangladesh (GOB) to increase the cash incentive rate to 15 percent, to provide export subsidies and a withdrawal of import duties on capital machinery and spare-parts for textile manufacturing. The Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA) has successfully lobbied the GOB to raise the minimum export price of cotton waste from $1.8 to $4.5 per kilogram and to impose a 25 percent export duty on cotton waste. The Bangladesh duty structure on raw cotton, yarn, fabric and textile dyes-chemicals imports are shown in Table-6. Marketing: Bangladesh is almost entirely dependent on imports to meet its demand for raw cotton. More than 40 percent of raw cotton imports are destined for the export oriented RMG sector. Bangladesh spinning mills generally recognize the value of U.S. cotton, particularly Pima and Upland, for their quality, consistency and ginning output. Aside from price considerations, Bangladesh cotton buyers generally also look at transportation freight and delivery times. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Table 1: Commodity, Cotton, PSD 2011/2012 2012/2013 2013/2014 Cotton Market Year Market Year Market Year Bangladesh Begin: Aug 2011 Begin: Aug 2012 Begin: Aug 2013 USDA New USDA New USDA New Official Post Official Post Official Post Area Planted 0 36 0 40 45 (1000 HA) Area Harvested 36 36 40 40 45 (1000 HA) Beginning Stocks 842 842 807 818 914 1000 480 lb. Bales Production 75 86 90 108 120 1000 480 lb. Bales Imports 3,200 3,200 3,700 3,700 3,800 1000 480 lb. Bales MY Imports from U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 1000 480 lb. Bales Total Supply 4,117 4,128 4,597 4,626 4,834 1000 480 lb. Bales Exports 0 0 0 0 0 1000 480 lb. Bales Use 3,300 3,300 3,700 3,700 3,900 1000 480 lb. Bales Loss 10 10 10 12 11 1000 480 lb. Bales Total Dom. Cons. 3,310 3,310 3,710 3,712 3,911 1000 480 lb. Bales Ending Stocks 807 818 887 914 923 1000 480 lb. Bales Total Distribution 4,117 4,128 4,597 4,626 4,834 1000 480 lb. Bales Stock to Use % 24 25 24 25 24 (PERCENT) Yield 454. 520. 490. 588. 581. (KG/HA) TS=TD 0 0 0 Table 2: Commodity, Cotton, Import Trade Matrix Import Trade Matrix Country: Bangladesh Commodity: Cotton Time period: Aug-Jul Units: Metric tons Imports for 2011 2012 U.S. 114000 U.S. 34000 Others Others Uzbekistan 200000 Uzbekistan 180000 India 164000 India 260000 Australia 33000 Australia 41000 Pakistan 40000 Pakistan 30000 Other CIS 100000 Malaysia 31000 Brazil 16000 Other CIS 80000 Africa 90000 Brazil 16000 Total for Others 643000 638000 Others not listed 50000 25000 Grand Total 807000 697000 Table 3: Commodity, Cotton, Yarn, Import Trade Matrix Import Trade Matrix Country: Bangladesh Commodity: Cotton Yarn Time period: Jan-Dec Units: Metric tons Imports for 2011 2012 U.S. 0 U.S. 0 Others Others India 182000 India 190000 Pakistan 5000 Pakistan 5000 Thailand 5000 Thailand 5000 Taiwan 8000 Taiwan 10000 China 20000 China 40000 Total for Others 220000 250000 Others not listed 20000 20000 Grand Total 240000 270000 Table 4: Commodity, Cotton, Fabric, Import Trade Matrix Import Trade Matrix Country: Bangladesh Units: Mil. Meters Commodity: Fabric Time period: Jan-Dec Imports for 2011 2012 U.S. 0 U.S. 0 Others Others China 1750 China 1850 Pakistan 100 Pakistan 100 India 300 India 400 Thailand 100 Thailand 100 Total for Others 2250 2450 Others not listed 150 150 Grand Total 2400 2600 Table 5: Area and Production of Raw Cotton in Bangladesh YEAR AREA HARVESTED (Hectare) PRODUCTION Bales* Tons 2004-05 44,000 73,190 13,310 2005-06 49,770 77,000 14,000 2006-07 42,100 70,530 12,824 2007-08 28,707 42,380 7,705 2008-09 32,600 50,600 9,200 2009-10 31,500 66,000 12,000 2010-11 33,500 80,000 14,545 2011-12 36,000 103,000 18,727 2012-13 39,000 129,000 23,455 *1 bale = 400 lbs. Source: Cotton Development Board (CDB), Government of Bangladesh Table 6: Bangladesh: Production and Consumption estimates of Yarn and Fabric by years Production Consumption Year Yarn Fabrics Yarn Fabrics (‘000’ tons) (Mill. Meters) (‘000’ tons) (Mill. Meters) 2004/05 430 2,500 630 4,200 2005/06 464 2,700 680 4,500 2006/07 550 2,850 720 5,200 2007/08 602 3,000 760 5,600 2008/09 640 3,250 820 5,800 2009/10 731 3,450 880 6,000 2010/11 694 3,600 920 6,150 2011/12 615 3,800 940 6,180 Sources: Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA), and Ministry of Textiles Table 7: Structure of Bangladesh Textile Industry - 2012 Number of Member Mills (BTMA) 1405 Textile Spinning 394 Textile Weaving 777 Woven 635 Denim 22 Home Textiles 20 Knit Fabrics 100 Dyeing-Printing-Finishing 234 Spindle Capacity 9,600,000 Rotor / Open-end 230,000 Yarn Manufacturing Capacity (Subject to 100% Capacity 2000,000,000 Kgs. Utilization) Fabric Manufacturing Capacity 2100,000,000 Meter Fabric Processing Capacity 2200,000,000 Meter Raw Material Requirements Raw Cotton 7.5 million Bales (if 100% capacity is utilized) Raw-Cotton Import / Consumed 4.0 million Bales Raw Cotton Source USA, Australia, CIS, Russia, India, Pakistan, China, Central America, East & West Africa Type of Raw Cotton Imports 1-1/8", 1-1/6", 1-32", 1-5/32" etc. Other Raw Material Used Polyester, Viscose and Acrylic Staple Fiber, Pet-Chips, Cotton Waste and Waste Cotton Yarn 5-10 counts (both for Knit and Woven) Synthetic and Filament Yarn All kinds of Cotton & Knit Fabrics Source: Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA) Table 8: Growth in the Primary Textile Sector (Spinning) Years No. of Mills Spindle Capacity Growth in No. of Mills Growth in Spindle Capacity 1995 84 1,701,823 10.52% 19.56% 2000 116 2,289,280 38.09% 34.52% 2005 230 4,937,353 16.75 % 25.58% 2006 260 5,500,000 8.7% 11.39% 2007 283 6,000,000 8.85% 9.09% 2008 341 7,200,000 20.0% 20.0% 2009 350 7,600,000 2.6% 5.6% 2010 373 8,700,000 6.6% 14.5% 2011 394 9,600,000 5.6% 10.3% Source: Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA) Table 9: Bangladesh Garments Exports Earning by Fiscal Year (July-June) In Million US$ Item/Year 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Knitwear 5,533 6,429 6,483 9,482 9,486 Woven 5,267 5,919 6,013 8,432 9,603 Home Textiles 291 418 403 789 906 Specialized Textiles 67 146 186 165 139 Total 11,158 12,912 13,085 18,868 20,134 Earning Growth 16.2% 15.7% 1.3% 44.2% 6.7% Source: Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA) Table 10: Bangladesh: Foreign Currency (F. C) Retention by Primary Textile Sector 2009 - 10 2010 - 11 2011 - 12 De etention of Retention of scription Ex Rport F.C Export . F.C Ex Retention of port . F.C. Knitwear export using local input 4,862 3,647 7,111 5,333 7,115 5,336 Knitwear export using imported input 1,621 405 2,371 593 2,371 593 Woven export using local input 2,405 1,804 3,373 2,530 3,841 2,881 Woven export using imported input 3,608 902 5,059 1,265 5,762 1,441 Home Textile export using local input 301 226 592 444 680 510 Home Textile export using imported input 101 26 197 49 228 57 Total 12,898 7,010 18,703 10,214 19,997 10,818 Retention of F.C 54.35% 54.61% 54.10% Source: Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA) Table 11: Bangladesh: Duty Structure of Textile Sector imports (FY 2012-13) Items Custom Supplementary VAT Adv. Regulatory Advance Duty Duty Income Duty Trade VAT Tax Raw Cotton 0 0 0 0 0 Man-made 0% 0% 15% 5% 0 4% Fibres Yarn 12% 0 15% 5% 0 4% Fabric 25% 45% 15% 5% 5% 4% Textile dyes- 5% 0 15% 5% 0 4% chemicals Source: National Board of Revenue (NBR), Government of Bangladesh Figure1. Bangladesh: Cotton Growing Areas Source: Cotton Development Board, Bangladesh Note: With a total cultivable land of 8.5 million hectare, land area suitable for cotton cultivation is estimated at 242,000 hectares. Cotton production is taking place in 35 to 40 thousand hectares spreading on 35 districts out of total 64 districts in Bangladesh.
Posted: 08 April 2013

See more from Textiles, Apparel and Accessories in Bangladesh

Expert Views    
Cotton and Products Annual   By Foreign Agricultural Service
Textile and Garments Sector Opportunities   By UK Trade & Investment
Bangladesh- Cotton and Products Annual 2013   By Foreign Agricultural Service