An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Canada

Posted on: 25 Jun 2012

This 2012 report provides an economic overview of the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. It is meant to be a multi-purpose reference document to provide: •an introduction to the agriculture and agri-food system; •a snapshot of structural changes that are occurring throughout the system in response to various factors; and •background data and information to inform public discussions on challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system.

An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 2012 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System Project Manager Kathleen Kittson Project Team Julie Smith, Charlene Saunders, Nasreen Islam and other members of the Agri-Food Industry and Competitiveness Analysis Section. This publication comprises data and analysis provided by all three Divisions of the Research and Analysis Directorate as well as contributions from other Divisions and Branches of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. March 2012 Research and Analysis Directorate Strategic Policy Branch Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada NOTE TO READERS This publication reflects the latest data available as of August 2011. Due to rounding, totals may not add to the sum of their components. 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In such cases, some restrictions on the reproduction of materials or graphical elements may apply and it may be necessary to seek permission from the rights holder prior to reproducing the material. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2012 AAFC 11660E ISSN 1708-4164 Catalogue A38-1/1-2011E-PDF Project 11-014-r Electronic versions of Research and Analysis publications are available on the Internet at: http://www.agr.gc.ca/pol/pub Aussi disponible en français sous le titre : « Vue d’ensemble du système agricole et agroalimentaire canadien » Table of Contents Foreword .......................................................................................................... xi Highlights......................................................................................................... xiii Section A Special Feature ......................................................................................................... 1 A1. Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System.............................................. 3 Section B The Agriculture and Agri-Food System and the Canadian Economy........................... 13 B1. GDP and Employment.................................................................................................................. 15 B2. International Trade ....................................................................................................................... 21 B3. Productivity and Innovation in the Agriculture, Agri-Food and Agri-Based Products Industries...... 35 Section C Components of the Agriculture and Agri-Food System............................................... 55 C1. Consumers................................................................................................................................... 57 C2. Food Distribution (Retail/Wholesale and Foodservice) .................................................................. 71 C3. Food and Beverage Processing ..................................................................................................... 79 C4. Primary Agriculture ...................................................................................................................... 97 C5. Inputs to Primary Agriculture ....................................................................................................... 119 C6. Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts ........................................................................ 131 Section D Government and the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector.............................................. 141 D1. Government Expenditures............................................................................................................ 143 D2. Producer Support Estimate and Agricultural Policies in Other Countries ....................................... 151 Acronyms/Initialisms........................................................................................ 155 Glossary ............................................................................................................ 157 The Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System................................................................................. 157 Consumers.......................................................................................................................................... 158 Farm Definitions .................................................................................................................................. 159 Farm Income Definitions ..................................................................................................................... 160 Trade Categories ................................................................................................................................. 162 Government Support Categories......................................................................................................... 162 Government Support Measures........................................................................................................... 163 Economic and Statistical Terminology ................................................................................................. 164 Environmental Terminology ................................................................................................................ 165 Units of Measure ................................................................................................................................. 167 Data Sources and References........................................................................... 169 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System III List of Charts Section A – Special Feature A1: Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System................................. 3 A1.1 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Contribution to Employment, 2010 .............................................. 4 A1.2 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Share of Provincial Employment, 2010 .......................................... 4 A1.3 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Contribution to Employment, 1987-2010...................................... 5 A1.4 Average Annual Growth Rates in Employment by Sector, 1987-2010.................................................... 5 A1.5 Share of Agriculture Employment by Age Group, 1987-2010................................................................ 6 A1.6 Share of Food and Beverage Processing Employment by Age Group, 1991-2008.................................. 6 A1.7 Agriculture Employment as a Share of Total Employment in Selected OECD Countries, 1960-2008...... 7 A1.8 Share of Total Employment in the Service Sector in Australia, Canada and the U.S., 1970-2010............ 7 A1.9 Share of Total Agriculture Employment by Class of Worker, 1987-2010 ................................................ 8 A1.10 Growth in Average Off-Farm Income for Farms, 1995-2009.................................................................. 8 A1.11 Capital to Labour Ratios in the Agriculture and Food Processing Industries, 1961-2007........................ 9 A1.12 Agriculture and Food Processing Industry’s Education Level Compared to Labour Force, 2006 ............ 9 A1.13 Provincial Contribution to Canadian Food and Beverage Processing Shipments by Sub-Industry, 2009 ..... 10 A1.14 Food and Beverage Processing Employment by Sub-Industry, 2010 ..................................................... 10 A1.15 Distribution of Establishments and Workers in the Food Processing Industry by Size, 2008 .................. 11 A1.16 Share of Selected Occupations in the Food and Beverage Processing Industry, 2006............................ 11 A1.17 Percent of Enterprises that Faced Obstacles to Innovation Due to a Lack of Skilled Workers by Food Processing Sub-Industry, 2009 .................................................................................................... 12 Section B – The Agriculture and Agri-Food System and the Canadian Economy B1: GDP and Employment..................................................................................................... 15 B1.1 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Contribution to GDP, 2010 ........................................................... 16 B1.2 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Contribution to GDP, 1997-2010................................................... 16 B1.3 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Contribution to Employment, 2010 .............................................. 17 B1.4 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Contribution to Employment, 1997-2010...................................... 17 B1.5 Agriculture and Food Processing Industries’ Contribution to Provincial GDP, 2010............................... 18 B1.6 Provincial Contribution to Total Canadian Agriculture and Food Processing GDP, 2010........................ 18 B1.7 Agriculture and Agri-Food System’s Share of Provincial Employment, 2010 .......................................... 19 B1.8 Provincial Contribution to Total Canadian Agriculture and Food Processing Employment, 2010 .......... 19 B2: International Trade ........................................................................................................ 21 B2.1 World Agriculture and Agri-Food Export Share by Country of Origin, 2010 .......................................... 22 B2.2 World Agriculture and Agri-Food Import Share by Country of Destination, 2010 ................................. 22 B2.3 Destinations of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Exports, 2010...................................................... 23 B2.4 Destinations of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Exports, 1988-2010 ............................................. 23 B2.5 Origins of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Imports, 2010 ............................................................. 24 B2.6 Origins of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Imports, 1988-2010 .................................................... 24 B2.7 Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Exports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010 .......................... 25 B2.8 Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Imports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010 ......................... 25 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System V B2.9 Canadian Exports of Primary and Processed Agriculture and Agri-Food Products, 1992-2010...................... 26 B2.10 Canadian Imports of Primary and Processed Agriculture and Agri-Food Products, 1992-2010 ..................... 26 B2.11 Commodity Composition of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Export Sales, 2010 ................................. 27 B2.12 Commodity Composition of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Export Sales, 1988-2010 ........................ 27 B2.13 Canadian Grains and Grain Product Exports by Country of Destination, 2010............................................. 28 B2.14 Canadian Grains and Grain Product Exports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010 .................................. 28 B2.15 Canadian Oilseeds and Oilseed Product Exports by Country of Destination, 2010....................................... 29 B2.16 Canadian Oilseeds and Oilseed Product Exports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010............................ 29 B2.17 Canadian Live Animals, Red Meats and Other Animal Product Exports by Country of Destination, 2010 ..... 30 B2.18 Canadian Live Animals, Red Meats and Other Animal Product Exports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010................................................................................................................................................... 30 B2.19 Commodity Composition of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Import Sales, 2010................................. 31 B2.20 Commodity Composition of Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food Import Sales, 1988-2010........................ 31 B2.21 Canadian Fresh and Processed Fruits and Vegetable Imports by Country of Origin, 2010............................ 32 B2.22 Canadian Fresh and Processed Fruits and Vegetable Imports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010 ......... 32 B2.23 Canadian Beverage Imports by Country of Origin, 2010 ............................................................................. 33 B2.24 Canadian Beverage Imports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010........................................................... 33 B2.25 Canadian Grains and Grain Product Imports by Country of Origin, 2010 .................................................... 34 B2.26 Canadian Grains and Grain Product Imports (Price and Volume Indexes), 1988-2010 ................................. 34 B3: Productivity and Innovation in the Agriculture, Agri-Food and Agri-Based Products Industries.. 35 B3.1 Gross Output, Input and Total Factor Productivity Growth in Primary Agriculture, 1961-2006 .................... 36 B3.2 Average Annual Contributions of Input and TFP Growth to Gross Output Growth in Canadian and U.S. Primary Agriculture, 1961-2006 ........................................................................................................... 36 B3.3 Input, Output and TFP Growth in the Food Processing Industry, 1961-2007 ............................................... 37 B3.4 Average Annual Contributions of Input and TFP Growth to Gross Output Growth in Canadian and U.S. Food and Beverage Processing Industry, 1988-2007............................................................................. 37 B3.5 Government Research Expenditures on Agriculture and Agri-Food, 1990-91 to 2010-11.............................. 38 B3.6 Public R&D Spending to Support the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector as a Share of Adjusted Value of Production, 1991-95 to 2006-10 ............................................................................................................. 38 B3.7 Real Private Sector R&D in Primary Agriculture, 1980-2010 ......................................................................... 39 B3.8 Saskatchewan Pulse Growers R&D Expenditures and Check-Offs, 1984-2008.............................................. 39 B3.9 Pulse and Canola Production in Canada, 1990-2010 ................................................................................... 40 B3.10 Average Weight of Cattle and Hog Carcasses, 1960-2006............................................................................ 40 B3.11 Percent of Cropland Under Conventional, Conservation and No-Till, 1991-2006......................................... 41 B3.12 Percent of Producers Using On-Farm Food Safety Practices by Farm Type, 2008 .......................................... 41 B3.13 Percent of Farmers Reporting the Adoption of New Organizational Strategies or Business Models, 2007..... 42 B3.14 Percent of Producers Reporting Changing Their Management Practices, 2009............................................ 42 B3.15 Real Private Sector R&D Expenditures in Food Processing, 1980-2010 ........................................................ 43 B3.16 Food and Beverage Industry R&D Expenditures as a Share of Value-Added in Selected OECD Countries, 1990-2006 ................................................................................................................................. 43 B3.17 Percent of Enterprises Reporting a Process, Product, Organization or Marketing Innovation, 2009.............. 44 B3.18 Percent of Enterprises Reporting the Focus of Their Long-Term Business Strategies, 2009 ........................... 44 B3.19 Percent of Enterprises Reporting Using the Following Types of Advanced Technologies, 2009 .................... 45 B3.20 Percent of Enterprises Reporting Acquiring or Integrating Advanced Technologies by Means, 2009............ 45 B3.21 Percent of Enterprises Reporting Obstacles to Innovation, 2009.................................................................. 46 B3.22 Percent of Enterprises Reporting Changing Competition Practices Following Entry of New Competitors in Main Market, 2009.................................................................................................................................. 47 B3.23 Number of Bioproduct Firms in Canada by Region, 2009 ............................................................................ 48 B3.24 Bioproduct Activity Reported by Firms, 2009............................................................................................... 49 B3.25 Type of Biomass Used as Inputs, Canada, 2009 ........................................................................................... 50 B3.26 Firm Size and Concentration of Bioproduct Activities, Canada, 2009........................................................... 51 B3.27 Share of Bioproduct Firms by Length of Time in Operation and Time Engaged in Bioproduct-Related Activities, 2009............................................................................................................................................ 51 B3.28 Revenues and R&D Expenditures of Bioproduct Firms, 2008-2009 .............................................................. 52 B3.29 Number of Employees in the Bioproducts Industry by Type, 2009............................................................... 52 B3.30 Perceived Barriers to Production or Development of Bioproducts, 2009 ...................................................... 53 VI An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System List of Charts Section C – Components of the Agriculture and Agri-Food System C1: Consumers ............................................................................................................................ 57 C1.1 Distribution of Personal Expenditures on Goods and Services, 2010............................................................ 58 C1.2 Distribution of Real Personal Expenditures on Goods and Services, 2002-2010 ........................................... 59 C1.3 Real Per Capita Disposable Income, 1981-2010 ........................................................................................... 60 C1.4 Consumer Credit as a Percent of Personal Disposable Income, 2005-2011 .................................................. 60 C1.5 Real Personal Expenditures on Food, 1981-2010.......................................................................................... 61 C1.6 Real Per Capita Expenditures on Food Purchased from Stores and from Restaurants, 1981-2010 ................. 61 C1.7 Share of Household Expenditures on Food Purchased from Stores and from Restaurants by Income Quintile, 2009............................................................................................................................................. 62 C1.8 Share of Household Expenditures Spent on Food by Income Quintile in Canada and the U.S., 2009 ........... 62 C1.9 Share of Household Expenditures Spent on Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Selected OECD Countries, 1991-2009 ................................................................................................................................. 63 C1.10 Consumer Price Indices (CPI) for Food, Shelter, Energy and All Items, 1982-2010........................................ 64 C1.11 Canadian Retail Food Price Inflation by Category, 2009 and 2010 ............................................................... 64 C1.12 Per Capita Consumption of Dairy Products, Fruits and Vegetables and Fats and Oils, 1990-2010 ................ 65 C1.13 Per Capita Consumption of Beef, Pork, Poultry and Fish, 1990-2010 ........................................................... 65 C1.14 Food Waste in the Canadian Food Supply by Category, 2009...................................................................... 66 C1.15 Consumer Preferences for Purchasing Canadian Products, 2011.................................................................. 67 C1.16 Consumer Preferences for Purchasing Locally-Grown Food, 2011................................................................ 67 C1.17 Proportion of Households Ranking Health Higher than the Environment as Motivation to Consume Organic Food, Selected OECD Countries, 2010 ........................................................................................... 68 C1.18 Percent of Consumers Unwilling to Pay a Premium for Organic Food, Selected OECD Countries, 2010 ....... 68 C1.19 Importance of Food Label Information for Canadian, U.S. and Japanese Consumers, 2009 and 2010 ......... 69 C1.20 Canadian, U.S. and Japanese Consumers’ Ratings on Various Food Issues, 2009 and 2010 ......................... 70 C2: Food Distribution (Retail/Wholesale and Foodservice).......................................................... 71 C2.1 Number of Canadian Food Stores and Average Sales, 1990-2010 ................................................................ 72 C2.2 Share of Canadian Food Store Sales, Chains vs. Independents by Region, 2010........................................... 72 C2.3 Market Share of Top Four Retailers in Selected Countries, 2009................................................................... 73 C2.4 Average Profit Margin Ratio for Food and Beverage Retailers, 1999-2010..................................................... 73 C2.5 Food and Beverage Sales by Retail Channel, 1999 vs. 2010 ......................................................................... 74 C2.6 Private Label Share of Grocery Sales by Department, 2010.......................................................................... 74 C2.7 Commercial Foodservice Sales and Number of Establishments, 1998-2010 ................................................. 75 C2.8 Commercial Restaurant Bankruptcies, 1991-2010........................................................................................ 75 C2.9 Foodservice Market Share, Chains vs. Independents, 2010.......................................................................... 76 C2.10 Sales and Market Share by Foodservice Category, 2010............................................................................... 77 C2.11 Profit Margins for Foodservice and Drinking Places, 1999-2009 .................................................................. 77 C2.12 Institutional Foodservice Market, 2010........................................................................................................ 78 C3: Food and Beverage Processing .............................................................................................. 79 C3.1 Food Processing Input Composition and Output Disposition, 2007 ............................................................ 80 C3.2 Distribution of Total Manufacturing GDP by Sector, 2010 ........................................................................... 81 C3.3 Distribution of Total Manufacturing Employment by Sector, 2010............................................................... 81 C3.4 Distribution of Food and Beverage Processing Establishments by Province, 2009 ........................................ 82 C3.5 Distribution of Food and Beverage Processing Shipments by Sub-Industry, 2010 ........................................ 82 C3.6 Distribution of Food Processing Shipments and Number of Establishments by Employment Size, 2008 ...... 83 C3.7 Concentration Ratios in the Manufacturing Sector, 2008............................................................................. 84 C3.8 Concentration Ratios in the Food and Beverage Processing Sub-Industries, 2008........................................ 84 C3.9 Food and Beverage Processing Shipments, 1990-2009................................................................................ 85 C3.10 Real Value of Food and Beverage Processing Shipments and the Industrial Product Price Index, 1992-2010 .................................................................................................................................................. 85 C3.11 Average Annual Growth Rates in Food and Beverage Processing Shipments, by Sub-Industries, 2005-2009 and 2010................................................................................................................................... 86 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System VII List of Charts C3.12 Average Annual Growth Rates in Food and Beverage Processing Shipments, by Province, 2005-2009 and 2010..................................................................................................................................................... 86 C3.13 Food and Beverage Processing Import and Export Intensities by Sub-Industries, 2010................................. 87 C3.14 Destination of Food and Beverage Processing Industry Shipments, 2010 .................................................... 87 C3.15 Destination of Meat Product Processing Industry Shipments, 2010 ............................................................. 88 C3.16 Destination of Bakery and Tortilla Processing Industry Shipments, 2010 .................................................... 8 C3.17 Destination of Grain and Oilseed Milling Industry Shipments, 2010............................................................ 89 C3.18 Destination of Seafood Industry Shipments, 2010 ....................................................................................... 89 C3.19 Total Variable Input Costs in the Food Processing Industry, 2009 ................................................................ 90 C3.20 Average Weekly Earnings in Food and Beverage Processing and Total Manufacturing, 1991-2010 ............... 90 C3.21 Raw Materials Price Index for Grains, Oilseeds, Vegetables and Sugar, 1981-2010 ....................................... 91 C3.22 Raw Materials Price Index for Cattle, Hogs and Fuel, 1981-2010 .................................................................. 91 C3.23 Investment in Capital Stock in the Food Processing Industry, 1990-2010.................................................... 92 C3.24 Capital Stock in the Food Processing Industry, 1961-2010........................................................................... 92 C3.25 Profit Margins in Food and Soft Drink Processing and Total Manufacturing, 1999-2010 .............................. 93 C3.26 Debt to Equity Ratio in Food and Soft Drink Processing and Total Manufacturing, 1999-2010..................... 93 C3.27 Stock of Inward FDI in the Food Processing Industry by Source Country, 2000-2010................................... 94 C3.28 Stock of Inward FDI in the Beverage and Tobacco Processing Industry by Source Country, 2000-2010........ 94 C3.29 Stock of Outward FDI in the Food Processing Industry by Country of Destination, 2000-2010 .................... 95 C4: Primary Agriculture.............................................................................................................. 97 C4.1 Disposition of the Value of Agricultural Production, 2007............................................................................ 98 C4.2 Number and Size of Farms in Canada, 1941-2006 ....................................................................................... 99 C4.3 Distribution of Farms by Province, 2006...................................................................................................... 99 C4.4 Top Commodities by Province and Territory................................................................................................ 100 C4.5 Market Receipts by Commodity Share, 2000 and 2010................................................................................ 101 C4.6 Regional Market Receipts by Commodity Share, 2010 ................................................................................. 101 C4.7 Export Values as a Share of Market Receipts, Canada, the U.S. and the EU, 1999-2009 ................................ 102 C4.8 Export Volumes as a Share of Production, Canada, the U.S. and the EU, 2007-2009.................................... 102 C4.9 Canada Corn, Wheat and Soybean Prices, 1982-83 to 2010-11.................................................................... 103 C4.10 Cattle Price Cycle, 1980-2010...................................................................................................................... 103 C4.11 Market Receipts by Commodity, 2005-2010 ................................................................................................ 104 C4.12 Regional Market Receipts Relative to Five-Year Average, 2010 ...................................................................... 104 C4.13 Farm Cash Receipts, Direct Payments and Net Operating Expenses, 1990-2010........................................... 105 C4.14 Realized Net Income and Net Cash Income (Adjusted for Inflation), 1990-2010........................................... 105 C4.15 Net Value-Added in Agriculture, 2001-2010 ................................................................................................ 106 C4.16 Distribution of Net Value-Added in Agriculture, 2010 .................................................................................. 106 C4.17 Number of Farms by Revenue Class, 1999-2009.......................................................................................... 107 C4.18 Distribution of Total Operating Revenues by Revenue Class, 1994-2009...................................................... 107 C4.19 Distribution of Farms by Business Organization, 1999 and 2009 ................................................................. 108 C4.20 Net Market Income and Government Payments by Business Organization, 2009 ........................................ 108 C4.21 Distribution of Farms by Young Operators and Older Operators, 1997 and 2009 ........................................ 109 C4.22 Sources of Farm Family Income for YFEs and Other Farms, 2009 ................................................................. 109 C4.23 Average Net Operating Income by Revenue Class, 2009.............................................................................. 110 C4.24 Average Net Operating Income by Province, 2009 ...................................................................................... 110 C4.25 Average Net Operating Income by Farm Type, 2009 ................................................................................... 111 C4.26 Average Income of Farm Families by Source of Income (Unincorporated Farms), 2009................................ 112 C4.27 Average Income of Farm Families by Source of Income (Unincorporated Farms), 2004-2009 ...................... 112 C4.28 Average Farm Family Income by Farm Type, 2008 ....................................................................................... 113 C4.29 Sources of Off-Farm Income for Farm Families (Unincorporated Farms), 2008............................................. 114 C4.30 Average Non-Farm Net Self-Employment Income for Farm Families by Farm Type, 2008 ............................. 114 C4.31 Average Farm Total Net Worth, 1995-2009.................................................................................................. 115 C4.32 Average Farm Total Net Worth by Province, 2007-2009............................................................................... 115 C4.33 Average Assets, Liabilities and Net Worth by Farm Type, 2009 ..................................................................... 116 C4.34 Average Quota Value of Supply-Managed Farms, 1997-2009 ...................................................................... 116 C4.35 Debt to Asset Ratios for All Farms, 1995-2009.............................................................................................. 117 C4.36 Debt to Asset Ratios by Farm Type, 2009..................................................................................................... 117 VIII An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System List of Charts C4.37 Rates of Return for Incorporated Grain and Oilseed Farms with Revenues of $250,000 to $500,000, 2000-2009 .................................................................................................................................................. 118 C4.38 Rates of Return for Incorporated Hog Farms with Revenues of $250,000 to $500,000, 2000-2009.............. 118 C5: Inputs to Primary Agriculture................................................................................................ 119 C5.1 The Value Chain of Agriculture-Specific Input and Service Suppliers ........................................................... 120 C5.2 Farm Net Operating Expenses and Depreciation, 2010................................................................................ 121 C5.3 Farm Net Operating Expenses and Depreciation, 2000-2010....................................................................... 122 C5.4 Farm Input Price Index, 2002-2010 ............................................................................................................. 122 C5.5 Canadian and World Feed Grain Prices, 1992-93 to 2010-11........................................................................ 123 C5.6 Canadian Feeder Calf Prices and Beef Cow Inventories, 1980-2010 ............................................................ 123 C5.7 Fertilizer Prices by Region by Fertilizer Year (July to June), 2001-02 to 2009-10............................................ 124 C5.8 Anhydrous Ammonia and Natural Gas Prices, 1991-2010 ............................................................................ 124 C5.9 Farm Expenses on Pesticides and Seed, 1981-2010...................................................................................... 125 C5.10 Share of Total Expenses Spent on Pesticides and Seed, 1981-2010 .............................................................. 125 C5.11 Farm Fuel Prices and Expenses, 1993-2010.................................................................................................. 126 C5.12 Industrial Product Price Index for Agriculture, Other Industrial Machinery and Motor Vehicles, 1982-2010 .................................................................................................................................................. 126 C5.13 Rail and Trucking Rate Index, Western Canada, 2002-03 to 2009-10 .......................................................... 127 C5.14 Distribution of Primary Agriculture Employment by Sector, 2010 ................................................................ 128 C5.15 Wage and Salary Inputs in Primary Agriculture, Value and Share of Total Inputs, 1999-2007....................... 128 C5.16 Total Rent and Farmland Value, 1971-2009 ................................................................................................. 129 C6: Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts................................................................ 131 C6.1 Environmental Priorities Reported by the General Population for Agriculture, 2007, 2009 and 2011............ 132 C6.2 Environmental Priorities Reported by Producers for Agriculture, 2007, 2009 and 2011 ................................ 132 C6.3 Farmers Receiving Farm-Related Training, 2004 and 2007 ........................................................................... 133 C6.4 Farmers Receiving Environmental Management Training by Province, 2004 and 2007 ................................ 133 C6.5 Producers Reporting Having an EFP by Region, 2001 and 2006................................................................... 134 C6.6 Producers Reporting the Adoption of BMPs With and WIthout EFP, 2006 .................................................... 134 C6.7 Producers Using Soil Conservation Practices by Region, 2006 ..................................................................... 135 C6.8 Rate of Adoption of BMPs by Revenue Class, 2006 ...................................................................................... 136 C6.9 Rate of Adoption of BMPs by Age of Operator, 2006 ................................................................................... 136 C6.10 Sources of GHG Emissions in Agriculture, 1990-2008.................................................................................. 137 C6.11 Emissions and Emission Intensity of the Agriculture Sector, 1990-2008 ....................................................... 137 C6.12 Change in Emissions and Removals Associated with Land Management Changes, 1990 and 2009.............. 138 C6.13 Percentage Change in GHG Emissions per Unit of Production, 1981-2006 .................................................. 138 C6.14 GHG Emissions in the Food Processing Industry by Sub-Industry and Region, 2002.................................... 139 Section D – Government and the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector D1: Government Expenditures .................................................................................................... 143 D1.1 Total Government Expenditures in Support of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector, 1985-86 to 2010-11....................................................................................................................................................... 144 D1.2 Federal and Provincial Government Expenditures in Support of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector, 1985-86 to 2010-11..................................................................................................................................... 144 D1.3 Total Government Expenditures in Support of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector and as a Share of Agriculture GDP, 1985-86 to 2010-11.......................................................................................................... 145 D1.4 Total Government Expenditures in Support of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector by Province, 2010-11....................................................................................................................................................... 146 D1.5 Total Government Expenditures in the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector as a Share of Sector GDP by Province, 2010-11................................................................................................................................... 146 D1.6 Federal Government Expenditures in Support of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector by Major Category, 2010-11....................................................................................................................................... 147 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System IX List of Charts D1.7 Provincial Government Expenditures in Support of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Sector by Major Category, 2010-11....................................................................................................................................... 147 D1.8 Government Research Expenditures in Agriculture and Agri-Food, 1990-91 to 2010-11............................... 148 D1.9 Support to Farm Producers Through Tax Rebates and Exemptions, 1991-92 to 2010-11 .............................. 148 D1.10 Combined Federal/Provincial Corporate Income Tax Rates for Processors, Ontario and Quebec, 1960-2010................................................................................................................................................... 149 D1.11 Growth in Public Engineering Infrastructure Stocks in Ontario and Quebec by Level of Government, 2001-2010 .................................................................................................................................................. 149 D2: Producer Support Estimate and Agricultural Policies in Other Countries ............................... 151 D2.1 PSE in Selected Countries, 1986-2010 ......................................................................................................... 152 D2.2 Composition of Support to Producers in Canada, 1986-2010...................................................................... 152 D2.3 Composition of Support to Producers in the EU, 1986-2010........................................................................ 153 D2.4 Composition of Support to Producers in the U.S., 1986-2010 ..................................................................... 153 X An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System List of Charts Foreword This 2012 report provides an economic overview of the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. It is meant to be a multi-purpose reference document to provide: • an introduction to the agriculture and agri-food system; • a snapshot of structural changes that are occurring throughout the system in response to various factors; and • background data and information to inform public discussions on challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system. Charts and tables with brief accompanying texts are used to summarize information and to provide base performance indicators. The 2012 report begins with a special feature section that provides a description of employment trends in Canada’s agriculture and agri-food system. It also discusses characteristics of the agriculture labour force such as its age distribution and educational attainment. The publication continues by reviewing each segment of the system, starting downstream with consumers to food distribution, and heading upstream to food and beverage processing, primary agriculture and input suppliers. It also contains a section that considers the environmental impacts of agricultural production in Canada including how Can- ada’s agricultural producers are addressing environmental concerns. The report concludes with a review of govern- ment expenditures in support of agriculture and agri-food, including international comparisons of government measures of support. It describes the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system as a modern, highly complex, integrated, internationally competitive and growing part of the Canadian economy. It is a resilient system, responding to the challenges and opportunities it faces by restructuring and adapting to changing consumer demands, advancing technology, North American integration and globalization. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System XI Highlights Importance of the System to the Canadian Economy • The agriculture and agri-food system encompasses several industries including the farm input and service supplier industries, primary agriculture, food and beverage processing, food distribution, retail, wholesale and foodservice industries. • It continues to play an important role in federal and provincial economies, making a significant contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment. In 2010, it directly provided one in eight jobs, employing two million people and accounted for 8.1% of total GDP. • While primary agriculture accounts for a small share of the total economy (1.7% of GDP), it is at the heart of the agriculture and agri-food system and has grown on average by 1.5% per year since 1997. Global Context • The agriculture and agri-food sector has become increasingly internationally focussed over the past 15 years. • The value of Canada’s world agriculture and agri-food trade has increased in response to trade liberalization and global economic growth. • The composition of trade has also changed with increasing exports of higher value-added processed goods that meet changing global demands. • At the same time, the emergence of major competitors in growth economies such as China and Brazil has added to the challenges and opportunities of competing in global markets. • Export opportunities are critical for the growth of most Canadian agriculture and agri-food industries. In 2010, Canada was the fifth-largest exporter and sixth-largest importer of agriculture and agri-food products in the world [if the EU is treated as a bloc], with exports and imports valued at $35.5 billion and $28 billion, respectively. • The competitiveness of the agriculture and agri-food sector depends on its ability to remain profitable and viable over the long term in relation to its competitors in relevant markets. Long-run sales growth in domestic and international markets shows that Canada has remained relatively competitive in markets for agriculture and agri- food products in 2010. Components of the Agriculture and Agri-Food System • Changing consumer and societal demands are influencing changes throughout the whole agriculture and agri- food system. Consumers are demanding more variety, more convenience, more environmentally-friendly and healthier food choices, as well as food that addresses their values, e.g. organic and halal products, accompanied by proper assurances of quality and safety. • Canadians enjoy some of the lowest food costs in the world, with spending on food from stores accounting for almost 10% of personal household expenditures in recent years. • The food and beverage processing industry transforms primary production, and was the most important manufacturing industry in Canada in 2010. It is important for the agriculture industry, since 38% of agricultural production is used as raw material inputs by the food processing industry. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System XIII • Food and beverage processing experienced growth in 2010 leading to higher GDP, but a higher and more volatile exchange rate and higher input costs are forcing the sector to adjust its business strategies to remain competitive. • There is an increasing number of farms diversifying production, producing niche products such as organics, adopting environmentally-friendly production methods and producing non-traditional products and services such as agro- tourism. • Input suppliers and service providers also perform important functions in the agriculture and agri-food system. In 2010, producers spent over $34.5 billion in operating expenses, with commercial feed constituting the largest component. Recent decreases in the costs of fuel, fertilizer and pesticides eliminated some of the cost pressures on farmers in 2010. Government Expenditures in Support of the Sector • Total government (federal and provincial) support to the agriculture and agri-food sector increased slightly from 2009- 2010 to reach an estimated $7.9 billion in 2010-11, or 33% of total sector GDP. • Program payments continue to account for the largest portion of both federal and provincial government expenditures in support of the sector in 2010-11 at 41%, followed by spending on research and inspection at 25%. • Government support to the sector varies across provinces. On the basis of government support as a percentage of agriculture and agri-food GDP, farmers in PEI, Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Manitoba received the most support. • Government spending in support of public R&D in agriculture and agri-food is important for the innovation and competitiveness of the sector. This spending has been increasing over the past three years and is now 33% higher than it was in 1990-91. • Agricultural policies in Canada and other countries have evolved over time. Some countries have made major reforms to their agricultural policies, leading to reductions in levels of support and modifications to the types of support provided. • Canada’s Producer Support Estimate (PSE) for all commodities was estimated at 18% in 2010, compared to 7% for the U.S. and 20% for the EU. In 2010, the PSE declined for the main OECD countries mainly because of higher gross farm receipts and reduced market price support due to higher world commodity prices. Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System • The Special Feature section this year focuses on employment trends in Canada’s agriculture and agri-food system. • Employment in the agriculture and agri-food system increased by 14% between 1997 and 2010. • The agriculture and agri-food system is a major employer in most provincial economies, contributing jobs and economic activity. • In 2010, employment in foodservice and food retail/wholesale grew by over 30% compared to 1987, while that in food processing followed a stable trend with modest increases since 2000. • Employment in primary agriculture, as a share of Canada’s total employment, is comparable to the G7 average at 2.3% of the total, but it is higher than in the U.S. and the UK. XIV An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System Highlights Section A Special Feature Section A1 Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System Introduction: Employment in both the primary agriculture and food processing industries has been declining as a share of employment in the agri-food system, while jobs in the food retail and foodservice industries are fast-growing areas of the system. This section looks at the trends in employment, its characteristics and some of the related challenges. Employment in the Canadian agriculture and agri-food system accounts for approximately 12% of total employment in Canada • The agriculture and agri-food system Chart A1.1 Agriculture and Agri-Food System's Contribution employs over two million people, and to Employment provides approximately one in eight jobs 2010 in Canada. 14 2.1 Million People Primary agriculture and food processing make 12 Foodservice up about 3.2% of total employment in Canada. 10 5.1 Foodservice is the largest contributor, at 5.1%, Food Retail/Wholesale 8 followed by the food retail/wholesale industry FBT Processing at 3.7%. In 2010, the share of employment 12.4% 6 3.7 accounted for by food retailing was higher than Primary Agriculture 4 the share represented by food processing and 1.6 primary agriculture employment taken 2 Input & Service Suppliers together. 1.6 0.4 0 2010 Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Labour Force Survey and AAFC calculations. • Employment in the agriculture and agri- Chart A1.2 Agriculture and Agri-Food System's Share food system is also important to most of Provincial Employment provincial economies. 2010 20 Employment in the foodservice industry is impor- Foodservice 18 tant in all provinces. Food Retail/Wholesale FBT Processing 16 In Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan, Primary Agriculture 14 employment in the agriculture and agri-food 12 system accounted for 18% and 17% respec- 10 tively, of provincial employment. Primary agri- 8 culture is also a major employer in these two 6 provinces at 4% and 7% of the total, especially compared to other p 4rovinces. 2 0 B.C. Alta. Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. N.L. Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Labour Force Survey and AAFC calculations. Note: Provincial input & service suppliers have been excluded because of confidentiality with many of its component industries. 2010 data is preliminary. Note(s): Much of the data in this section is from Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey. The labour force is composed of those mem- bers of the civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who, during the reference week, were employed or unemployed. Employed persons are those who either worked during the reference week, or those who had a job but were not at work during the reference week. 4 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System Section A1 Total Provincial Employment (%) Percent The foodservice and food retail/wholesale industries account for an increasing share of employment in the agriculture and agri-food system • Employment in foodservice and food Chart A1.3 Agriculture and Agri-Food System's Contribution retail/wholesale has grown faster than to Employment in the other parts of the system. In 2010, 1987-2010 2,500 each of these industries employed over 30% more people compared to 1987. 2,000 During this time, employment in primary agri- Foodservice culture has been decreasing by more than 1% 1,500 per year. Employment in FBT processing has fluctuated, 1,000 Food Retail/Wholesale but generally followed a stable trend, with modest increases since 2000. 500 FBT Processing Primary Agriculture Input & Service Suppliers 0 Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Labour Force Survey and AAFC calculations. • The importance of service sector jobs in Chart A1.4 Average Annual Growth Rates in Employment by Sector the overall economy has increased over 1987-2010 time. Since 1987, service sector employment rose by Foodservice an average rate of 1.9% per year, similar to the growth in foodservice employment. Service Sector At the same time, employment in total manufac- Total turing grew by an average annual rate of 1.3%. Manufacturing FBT processing employment hardly grew over FBT Processing this period. But primary agriculture employment fell by 1.7% per year on average, reflecting the Primary significant productivity gains and consolidation Agriculture that has occurred in the industry over this -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 period. Percent Source: Statistics Canada and AAFC calculations. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 5 Thousand People 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System The changing age structure of the workforce in the primary agriculture and food processing industries is expected to have an impact on the sector’s labour supply over the coming decades • The largest share of employed workers in Chart A1.5 Share of Agriculture Employment agriculture is now in the 55+ age group. by Age Group W 1987-2010hile historically most workers in agriculture 45 were in the 25 to 44 age group, workers aged 40 55 and over now account for a greater share of 35 agriculture employment since 2008. Age 55+ 30 Age 25-44 The share of farm workers in the 15 to 24 age 25 Age 45-54 group has declined steadily during the past 20 decade, while farm workers in the 45 to 54 and 15 55 plus age groups have increased steadily. Age 15-24 10 This is also the case in the total labour force 5 where those older employees (aged 45+) have grown as a share of the total by 3.7% per year, 0 on average, since 1987. Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Labour Force Survey and AAFC calculations. • Most workers in food and beverage process- Chart A1.6 Share of Food and Beverage Processing Employment ing are between the ages of 25 to 54. by Age Group H 1991-2008owever, this share has fallen steadily over the past two decades. 90 80 The number of workers aged 55 and over has 70 grown on average about 5% per year, and now 60 makes up a larger share of employment than Age 15-24 50 workers under the age of 24. Age 25-54 40 Age 55+ 30 20 10 0 Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, special tabulation. 6 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System Section A1 Percent Percent 1991 1987 1992 1989 1993 1991 1994 1993 1995 1996 1995 1997 1997 1998 1999 1999 2001 2000 2003 2001 2002 2005 2003 2007 2004 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 Over the last half century, primary agriculture has experienced a long- term decline in employment both in Canada and around the world • Primary agriculture accounts for a declin- Chart A1.7 Agriculture Employment as a Share of Total Employment ing share of national employment in most in Selected OECD Countries developed countries due to the shift 1960-2008 toward knowledge and service-based jobs. 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2008 Percent The rate of decline in primary agriculture’s Australia 10.9 7.5 6.5 5.5 4.8 3.3 employment share was fastest during the Canada 1950s in all OECD 13.0 7.5 5.1 4.4 2.8 2.3countries. In the 1960s it fell France 21.6 12.9 8.3 4.9 3.3 2.6 to half that in most countries. It has continued Germany 13.1 8.1 5.2 4.1 2.6 2.3 to decline, albeit at a slower rate, over the past Japan 29.0 15.9 10.0 6.7 4.9 4.2 fifty years. UK 4.6 3.2 2.7 2.2 1.4 1.1 In Canada, this share followed a similar trend U.S. 8.1 4.4 3.5 2.9 2.5 1.5 comparable to certain other G7 economies. It G7 16.5 9.5 6.2 4.4 3.1 2.3 fell sharply from 13% in the 1960s to 7.5% in the 1970s. It has since declined to 2.3% in Source: OECD, Annual Labour Force Statistics Database, Summary Tables. 2008. In Britain and the U.S., this share now accounts for just over 1% of employment. • The trend toward a more service-based Chart A1.8 Share of Total Employment in the Service Sector economy in Canada reflects similar in Australia, Canada and the U.S. developments in the U.S. and Australia. 1970-2010 The share of employment in the service sector AUSTRALIA CANADA U.S. averages around 80% in both Canada and the U.S., and 77% in Australia. Share of Total Employment (%) 1970 57.1 63.3 61.7 Between 1970 and 2010, service sector employ- 1980 64.3 68.8 66.2 ment as a share of total employment grew in all 1990 70.8 71.8 74.0 three countries. 2000 75.1 76.0 78.2 2010 77.5 79.1 80.8 Source: OECD, Annual Labour Force Statistics Database, Summary Tables. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 7 Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System Other long-term structural changes in agriculture that have had an impact on employment include the declining use of unpaid family labour and the rise in off-farm employment • Unpaid family labour accounts for a sig- Chart A1.9 Share of Total Agriculture Employment nificantly smaller share of employment in by Class of Worker agriculture than it did in the past, while 1987-2010 the share of hired labour has increased. Hired Workers Self Employed with Paid Help Since the late-1980s, the number of hired work- Self Employed with No Paid Help 60 ers as a share of total agriculture employment Unpaid Family Labour has risen to almost 40% of the total, while the 50 share of unpaid family workers has dropped the 40 most. 30 Employment in agriculture is still primarily char- acterised by self-employed producers with no 20 paid help, which accounts for almost half of 10 agriculture employment. However, employ- ment in this group has also declined steadily 0 over the past decade and a half. Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Labour Force Survey and AAFC calculations. • Income from off-farm employment has Chart A1.10 Growth in Average Off-Farm Income for Farms helped to supplement income for farm- 1995-2009 ers. 50,000 Since 1995, off-farm income has risen from 45,000 Total Off-Farm Income $22,254 per farm to over $41,000 in 2009. 40,000 Net Operating Income Investment income has also contributed to this 35,000 increase. 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Source: Statistics Canada, Taxation Data Program and AAFC calculations. Note: Average accounts for both incorporated and unincorporated farms. Total off-farm income includes taxable capital gains. Note(s): The Labour Force Survey (LFS) reports employment according to the “main job” of the respondent, that is, the job in which the respondent worked the most during the reference week. For example, a worker reporting employment in agriculture is someone who works on a farm as their main job. A farm worker who works in farming as a second job is assigned to another industry. This feature of the LFS can pose challenges for interpreting the data in industries where multiple job holding is common since employment and hours worked for the second job are not collected. 8 An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System Section A1 Do Percentllars 1987 1989 1995 1996 1991 1997 1993 1998 1995 1999 2000 1997 2001 1999 2002 2001 2003 2004 2003 2005 2005 2006 2007 2007 2008 2009 2009 As the agriculture and agri-food sector becomes more capital intensive, there will be an increasing need for highly-skilled labour • Capital to labour ratios, which are an Chart A1.11 Capital to Labour Ratios indicator of capital intensity in both in the Agriculture and Food Processing Industries agriculture and food processing, have 1961-2007 increased over time. 1.4 Capital intensity in the agriculture industry rose 1.2 steadily and peaked in 1980. This reflects a high 1.0 rate of capital accumulation that occurred in the 1970s, but also falling employment. Since 0.8 2000, the capital to labour ratio has climbed 0.6 mostly due to a continued decline in labour. 0.4 Meanwhile, capital intensity in food processing Agriculture has risen steadily since the 1960s, reflecting 0.2 Food Processing continued capital accumulation relative to the 0.0 amount of labour employed in the industry. Source: Statistics Canada and AAFC calculations. • Compared to the general population, Chart A1.12 Agriculture and Food Processing Industry's Education Level employees in the agriculture and food Compared to Labour Force processing industries tend to have lower 2006 education levels. Total Labour Force 70 Agriculture and food processing both have higher Agriculture 60 shares of workers with no post-secondary Food Processing education at 37% and 28% respectively, than in 50 the overall labour force. The total labour force has 40 about 15% of people with no post-secondary education. 30 The share of the agriculture and food process- 20 ing industries’ labour force with certificates or 10 diplomas is comparable to those in the total 0 labour force, but are lower for those with uni- No Post-Secondary Certificate or University Degree versity education. Diploma Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population and AAFC calculations. An Overview of the Canadian Agriculture and Agri-Food System 9 Ratio Percent 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 Employment Trends in Canada’s Agriculture and Agri-Food System Employment in the food and beverage processing industry varies across the country because the industry is not evenly distributed across provinces • There were 273,000 employees in food and beverage processing in 2010. Regionally, food and bever- age processing plants are primarily located in Ontario and Quebec. Together these provinces account for over 60% of the value of food processing shipments. Other important sectors and regions include seafood processing, in eastern Canada and grain and oilseed milling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as well as meat processing in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec and dairy in Quebec and Ontario. Based on employment, central Canada also accounts for the largest share of food and beverage processing employ- ment, at 66% of the total. Chart A1.13 Provincial Contribution to Canadian Food and Beverage Processing Shipments by Sub-Industry 2009 1 Animal Food 2 Grain & Oilseed 3 Sugar & Confectionery 4 Fruit & Vegetable 5 Dairy 6 Meat 7 Seafood 8 Bakeries 9 Other Food 10 Beverage 1 6 6 1 5 4 5 1 36% 3 2 7 7 35 4 2 6 1 71% 59% 4 47% 8 8 36% 8 3 4 10 6 1 2 9 1 5 9 9 9 10 8 8 7 10 47% 9 2 2 4 42% 5 10 56% 10 7 4 6 46% 32% 5 34% Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Survey of Manufactures and Logging (2009)
Posted: 25 June 2012

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