Five years ago, the US barely exported alfalfa hay to China. In 2008, the United States exported over 17,613 tons valued over US$5 million to China, the result of ATO Guangzhou and National Hay Association market activities that built appreciation of the product.
THIS REPOPT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE
BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S.
Voluntary - Public
GAIN Report Number: CH9625
China - Peoples Republic of
Why sales of U.S. alfalfa to South China are poised to grow
Market Development Reports
Joani Dong, Director
Five years ago, the US barely exported alfalfa hay to China. In 2008, the United States exported over 17,613 tons
valued over US$5 million to China, the result of ATO Guangzhou and National Hay Association market activities that
built appreciation of the product. Post believes South China?s appetite for U.S. alfalfa will grow given declines in
Chinese hay supply and increased demand. As of April 1 of 2009, AQSIQ no longer requires fumigation for imported
U.S. alfalfa hay. With proper pricing, promotion and reasonable freight rates, the road is paved for sales.
Table of Contents
1. China hay supply is declining: insufficient processing, export demand, declining planting areas
in top production provinces, rising grain prices and lack of favorable governmental policies ??.4
2. Melamine tainted milk scandal could advance market demand for imported alfalfa hay ???.9
3. Fumigation no longer required by Chinese AQSIQ for U.S. hay from USDA/APHIS registered
4. U.S. alfalfa?s pricing and competitors ??????????????????????.11
5. Participation in promotional activities to promote U.S. alfalfa to China ?????????.12
A P P E N D I X 11
Attachment 1 - AQSIQ Sanitary and Phytosanitary Requirements for Import of Alfalfa hay from
the US to China ????????????????????????????????14
Attachment 2 - Quarantine Pests and Animal Diseases of Concern to China ????????.17
Attachment 3 ? Post Contacts ???????????????????????.??? 18
The story of U.S. alfalfa in China began in 2004 when USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service?s ATO
Guangzhou (ATO/GZ) implemented the South China Dairy Improvement Program. It
demonstrated to South China dairymen through field trials among three farms that U.S. alfalfa
meant increased milk production. It consisted of a Quality Samples Program (QSP), technical
consultation, marketing seminars and three Cochran Fellowship Programs (CFP) that brought
dairymen to the States to get to know where and how alfalfa is grown and harvested. All this built
momentum and interest, not to mention appreciation of quality product that resulted in much
improved milk production.
(Note: Please refer to GAIN report CH7605, South China is Ready for U.S. Alfalfa, published
March 7, 2007)
A look at the following data in both charts illustrates growth starting with a trickle in 2004 and
strong sales in 2008. The second chart indicates that the US has over 92 percent of import market
share; the rest mainly goes to Australia. According to World Trade Atlas, China bought 155 tons
hay valued US$485,000 from Australia in 2008.
U.S. alfalfa hay exports to China, CY 2004-08
Calendar Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Quantity (tons) 127 251 210* 2,321 19,348
41* 451 4,394
(US$1,000 12 41)
Source: BICO data, Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Statistics
(BICO, commodity code: 1214.900010)
*Note: Adjusted from the original BICO data (420 tons and US$82,000) to deduct non-commercial shipment of 210 tons valued US$41,000 paid by USDA
funding for the ATO/GZ?s QSP.
Chinese Imports of U.S. alfalfa hay, CY 2004-08
Calendar Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Quantity (tons) 1 0.5 15* 1,796 17,613
Value 2 15* 339 5,130
(US$1,000 4 )
Source: World Trade Atlas, China Customs (commodity code: 1214.9000)
*Note: Adjusted from the original World Trade Atlas data (225 tons and US$56,000) to deduct a non-commercial shipment of 210 tons valued
US$41,000 paid by USDA funding for the ATO/GZ?s QSP.
The next question is whether U.S. alfalfa hay exports will keep growing. The answer is
positive. From January to February in 2009, there were 5,619 tons exported to China, an increase
of 146 percent from the same period last year, worth US$1.6 million. With continued growth, the
China market could become comparable to South Korea which imported over 159,000 tons valued
US$38 million in 2008. Besides data painting an optimistic picture, other factors tell us why the
road is paved for sales.
1. China hay supply is declining: insufficient processing, export demand, declining planting
areas in top production provinces, rising grain prices and lack of favorable governmental
According to a survey report issued by the China?s Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) Grasslands
Division, China has 25 million acres ?artificial? grasslands (meaning human labor and irrigation are
involved), out of which 7 million acres that can yield 21-25 million tons dried hay yearly.
China?s major alfalfa production areas by descending order
China?s major alfalfa production areas by descending order
1 Gansu Jiuquan, Zhangye, Yumen
2 Shandong Dongying, Binzhou
3 Hebei Cangzhou, Wuqiao
4 Shaanxi Northern area, Guanzhong area
5 Beijing Shunyi, Changping
6 Inner Mongolia Hetao, Northern area
7 Liaoning Fuxin, Dalian, Shenyang
(Note: Ningxia, Xinjiang, Shanxi and Heilongjiang are also key producing provinces).
There are over 190 hay processing plants with total production capacity of 4.6 million tons yearly,
half of which fall under 10,000 tons, 16 percent or 33 plants over 50,000 tons and 9 with 100,000
tons. However, they only process 1.8 million tons which accounts for 39 percent of their
capacity. Eighty percent of the processed products are hay bales, 20 are meal and pallet. Local
livestock use the bulk; 700,000 tons are sold to other provinces or cities such as Guangdong and
Shanghai while some are exported, mainly to South Korea, Japan and Malaysia. Export prices
range between US$120-190 per ton.
China alfalfa exports (metric tons)
Calendar Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Korea, South 30,518 25,943 23,363 37,833 22,264
Japan 10,740 1,890 1,670 2,006 2,474
Malaysia 3,297 2,327 1,745 1,096 1,950
-World- 45,805 30,781 27,420 41,420 26,904
Source: World Trade Atlas, China Customs
China has over 12 million dairy cattle, including 7-8 million lactating. If each lactating cow were
fed five kilograms (11 pounds) of alfalfa hay a day, it would require 15 million tons processed hay
products a year. Since alfalfa can also be fed to lambs, goats, beef cattle, horses, swine and poultry,
demand could easily exceed 20 million tons yearly. As the above MOA?s survey suggests, the
Chinese hay industry is only capable of processing 4.6 million tons annually. Hay farmers
increasingly switch to other crops such as corn, soybean and wheat as grain prices escalate. That is
why processing plants can?t produce at full capacity.
Alfalfa plantings in Jiuquan, Gansu
(Source: ATO Guangzhou)
Large dairies in South China, Shanghai and Beijing consume most processed hay products.
According to Guangdong (in South China) farmers, as of early 2008, hay supply has been spotty
and poor quality. A look at Guangdong?s two major hay suppliers - Gansu and Shandong provinces
provides a snapshot of China?s declining hay supply.
Harvesting alfalfa in Jiuquan, Gansu An alfalfa field after harvesting in Jiuquan, Gansu
Hay piles at a processing plant in Jiuquan, Gansu
(Source: ATO Guangzhou)
Gansu is China?s largest alfalfa producer in terms of plantation area and production. When Post
visited Gansu and interviewed local grassland administration officials in October 2008, they stated
hay production was falling.
In 2005, Gansu had 2.7 million acres of grassland, of which 1.3 million were for alfalfa. It
produced 365,600 tons hay products, out of which 110,000 tons were shipped to other provinces
such as Guangdong. In 2006, grasslands shrank to 1.7 million acres. There were only 990,000 acres
for alfalfa, a drop by 23 percent. Production suffered accordingly.
In Jiuquan, Gansu?s largest alfalfa production area, similar declines (from 50,000 acres in 2007 to
33,000 in 2008) were reported. Local farmers are reluctant to grow alfalfa because of low profit.
On average, it costs RMB480 per mu (US$440 per acre; 1US$=RMB6.82, 1mu=0.16 acre) for
seed, fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation and harvest/bailing (machinery) costs. Because of the saline-
alkali soil, annual hay yield is limited to one ton per mu (six tons per acre) generating RMB800-
1,000 (US$117-147) depending on quality, leaving RMB320-520 (US$47-76) as profit. If corn or
other crops are grown, farmers could earn at least RMB800 (US$117) from the same piece of land.
Therefore, most alfalfa is grown on saline-alkali low yielding lands and least attended. After land?s
fertility is improved, other more profitable crops replace alfalfa.
The largest hay processor owns three plants with total capacity of 300,000 tons yearly. According
to an interviewed manager, his plant annually produces 50,000 tons alfalfa cubes (crude protein:
14-17 percent; fiber: 30 percent; moisture: 5-8 percent; ashes: less than 13 percent). The EXW (Ex
Workshop) price is RMB2,000 per ton (US$293 per ton). If bound for Guangdong, its hay will be
transported to Xi?an by rail, then trucked to its destination which adds an extra RMB800 (US$117).
The plant collects hay from 5,000 acres, half managed by contracted farmers and half by its own. It
harvests three times a year, a total of 800-900 hay kilos per mu (5-5.6 tons per acre). The company
is responsible for harvest/bailing. Irrigation (three to four times a year) relies on underground
water. Urea and phosphate fertilizers are applied.
Taking cues from technical guidance imparted by USDA dairy experts, Guangdong farmers now
prefer alfalfa bale over cubed because baled hay has longer fiber that helps cows ruminate.
However, many plants do not have advanced double compress baling machinery. Thus, long
distance hay transportation costs per ton cannot be reduced.
Alfalfa cube processing machinery . . . and final products in Jiuquan, Gansu
(Source: ATO Guangzhou)
Shandong has 965,000 acres of grasslands that produces hay to meet livestock demand.
According to internet sourced information, a large local hay producer used to grow alfalfa on
33,000 acres in the Yellow River Delta and contract with 7,300 farmers who grow 50,000 acres of
alfalfa in Henan, Hebei and Shaanxi. As China?s largest hay supplier, it sold 150,000 tons hay
products valued RMB170 million (US$25 million) to over 150 dairy farms in Guangdong,
Shanghai and other 11 provinces as well as Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asian and Mideast
countries. Its aim was to produce 1 million tons of hay yearly so the company used U.S. variety
alfalfa seeds and imported advanced farming and processing machinery.
Harvesting alfalfa in Dongying, Shandong
In the Yellow River Delta area (latitude 35? South), farmers annually harvest alfalfa five to six
times between May 10 and October 20. Given the saline-alkali soil, the yield was less than six tons
per acre. In other areas, the yield could reach 9 tons per acre. Every five years, the alfalfa field is
rotated for other crops.
When grown to 24 inches, alfalfa would be harvested by imported harvest-bailing machines on
field, then shipped to plants and processed into double compressed hay bales by imported Italian
processing machines capable of processing 12 tons per hour or
40,000 tons per year. Average EXW (Ex Work) price is RMB1,200 per ton (US$176 ton).
However, according to Guangdong farmers, this company stopped supplying to South China since
early 2008. Apart from internal management reasons, lack of governmental support such as
subsidies for farming and lack of favorable policies including low interest bank loan endorsements
and preferential taxation are major reasons for the business slowdown.
To conclude, rising grain prices, lack of favorable government policies and insufficient processing
capacity will drag China?s processed alfalfa hay production. This leaves a niche market for U.S.
imported forage production.
2. Melamine tainted milk scandal could advance market demand for imported alfalfa hay
Although sales of dairy products dropped after this misconduct was disclosed in September 2008,
caused six deaths and sickened 294,000 children, the China dairy industry will sooner or later
regain growth to meet consumer demand. One of culprits was said to be lack of good quality forage
for North China cows causing low protein levels in milk. It drove traders, who collect raw milk
from small dairy farmers, to add melamine to milk from undernourished cows to make the milk
appear to have higher levels of protein for dairy processor quality checks.
It is noteworthy that was no melamine found in raw milk at Guangdong dairies. The reason why the
four GD dairy companies had melamine problems in their milk powder products (such as infant
formula) was due to short supplies of local raw milk so their local processing plants had to source
milk powder from North China which had been made from melamine tainted raw milk. So far, no
GD fresh milk or milk drink product has been found to have melamine problems.
Guangzhou?s (GZ) local dairy companies saw sales revenues increase by 20 to 30 percent after the
scandal disclosure in North China. According to media news, Starbucks in Guangzhou dropped
milk supplied by Mengniu and switched to a local company, Kowloon Dairy, the same dairy
processor contracted with McDonald?s.
Guangdong dairies are on good footing owing to:
1. Large scale farming. According to the Guangdong (GD) Agriculture Department, GD has larger
scale dairies. There are 62 dairies in GD. Each has over 200 cows compared with normal
individual household farming in the north. Such farms account for a substantial 71 percent of the
livestock of cows in GD.
2. International standards. Local dairy companies have been abiding by international or
European standards for years. GD became the dairy supply source for the Hong Kong (HK) market
for more than 20 years ago. The profit from supplying HK has been very high as current
procurement prices for raw milk are RMB6,000 (US$880) per ton compared to RMB2,000
(US$293) in the North China market. Many dairy farms in GZ and Shenzhen had enormous
incentive to follow European or international standards to serve the HK market. Even now, local
procurement prices for raw milk are RMB3,000 to 4,000 (US$440 to 587), the highest in China.
3. Secure supply chain. In the GD supply chain, fresh milk is mostly delivered directly from
farms to processors without procurement stations in the middle, which is the most vulnerable part
of the quality control process for adulterating melamine as reflected in the recent crisis in North
China. GD province only has four stations, and they are set up by dairy companies rather than by
brokers. The long and professional cooperation between the farms and the companies effectively
ensure milk quality.
4. Use of high quality forage. More importantly, South China dairy farmers use high quality
forage to feed cows. The farm, which supplies Kowloon Dairy, participated in ATO/GZ?s QSP to
receive U.S. alfalfa hay for feed trials in 2006. Since then, it has been importing and feeding U.S.
alfalfa hay to its lactating cows.
A Guangzhou dairy company is planning to build a new large dairy of 5,000 head to meet increased
market demand. China?s No. 1 and No.2 dairy companies from the North ? Mengniu and Yili have
bought dairy processing plants and looked into building dairy farms in Guangdong. Therefore, in
the short term, GD will have a larger demand for U.S. hay. Now it is importing from Washington,
Oregon and Idaho and soon from California. As ocean freights have declined recently, owing to
lower fuel prices, U.S. hay CIF prices are expected to drop. It will further spur sales which may
expand from South China and Shanghai to North China, i.e., big cities such as Tianjin, Beijing and
3. Fumigation no longer required by Chinese AQSIQ for U.S. hay from USDA/APHIS
Since April 1, 2009, the Chinese General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine (AQSIQ) no longer requires submission of fumigation certificates for imported U.S.
alfalfa hay products if processed and shipped from processing facilities registered with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
(USDA/APHIS). (Note: For detailed requirements, see Appendix (Attachment 1, page 11)
Alfalfa shipments without APHIS phytosanitary certificates will be no longer allowed to enter
China. For those with APHIS certificate, should any contamination be found, shipments will be
fumigated, returned or destroyed upon arriving at Chinese ports. Fumigation at Guangzhou ports
costs RMB500 (US$88) per 40-foot container. If demurrage occurs, it costs RMB250 (US$37) per
40 foot container daily.
For those U.S. exporters who don?t have processing capabilities, please refer to the Appendix
(Attachment 3) for a list of 30 processing facilities registered with USDA/APHIS to export to
China as of April 1, 2009. This list is revised as new processors are registered. It takes up to two
weeks to get certified depending on the schedule of the trade specialist. Registration lasts
indefinitely. APHIS normally inspects twice the first year and once for each of the following
The following APHIS officials may be contacted about questions regarding registration of facilities.
Through AQSIQ?s web site (www.aqsiq.gov.cn), Chinese importers may find the list of APHIS
registered facilities for export.
Mr. Kenneth (Ken) Werner Mr. Osvaldo Perez
Trade Director ? China, Japan and Mongolia APHIS Director China
USDA APHIS APHIS, Beijing (USDA/APHIS)
4700 River Road, Unit 140, 4A 03.7 U.S. Embassy Beijing
Riverdale, MD 20737 #55 An Jia Lou Road, Beijing 100600
Tel: (301) 734-8392 Tel: (8610) 8531-3030
Fax: (301) 734-7639 Fax: (8610) 8531-3033
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Email: email@example.com
4. U.S. alfalfa?s pricing and competitors
Despite declines in production, in the mid- and long-term, Chinese alfalfa hay is still the biggest
competitor. The U.S. hay industry should pay close attention if Chinese government releases news
about favorable policies for domestic hay industry and any developments in China?s hay processing
According to a manager interviewed April 2009, he feeds over 1,700 head, among which 1,000 are
lactating, at a large dairy farm in Guangzhou. On average, each cow produces 6 tons of milk yearly.
Milk processors pay him RMB3,900 (US$572) for a ton of milk, which costs him RMB2,000
(US$293) for feed and RMB1,600 (US$234) for management fees (veterinary, labor, electricity and
maintenance). He annually buys 1,000 tons U.S. baled alfalfa hay fed to his lactating cows by 5
kilograms (11 pounds) per cow daily.
Chinese hay dealers may ship alfalfa baled hay (protein 18 percent, ADF 40, NDF 48) from Gansu
or Ningxia to his farm at RMB2,500 (US$367) per ton, which he can accept, given the above profit
margin and feed ration. However, he is more willing to pay a premium of RMB100-200 (US$15-
30) for quality U.S. alfalfa hay (protein 18-20 percent, ADF 30, NDF 40). If prices reach
RMB2,800 (US$410), he deems it expensive. If prices go beyond RMB3,000 (US$440), he cannot
afford it. Given farmers need to pay, on top of CIF prices, 9 percent for tariff and 3 percent for
import agency and land transportation from port to farm, it means if U.S. alfalfa exporters can ship
hay to Guangzhou ports at CIF US$330-365, their products will be competitive. Nevertheless, if
CIF prices reach or exceed US$400, sales will be impacted.
Ocean freight is key in pricing. Current freights are at a reasonable level of US$50-60 per ton and
much lower than those in 2008 at US$100-120 because of lower fuel prices. This significantly
When alfalfa is not available or too expensive, his farm will switch to feed sheep grass (three
kilogram, or 6.6 pound per cow daily) with increased amounts of grains such as soybean meal.
Compared to alfalfa, sheep grass is low in protein (9 percent protein) and less palatable. In May of
2009, sheep grass arrives at South China farms at RMB1,200 (US$176) per ton. It costs RMB600
(US$88) per ton to truck sheep grass or alfalfa hay from North China such as Heilongjiang, Gansu
Post also learned that Canadian, Australian and Spanish are interested in exporting alfalfa hay to
China. In South China, there is no farm buying hay from any of these countries which may need to
work with AQSIQ to conduct pest risk assessment for their hay products.
5. Participation in promotional activities to promote U.S. alfalfa to China
ATO Guangzhou recommends the following:
1. The U.S. hay industry may promote U.S. hay products more proactively to:
Organize U.S. exporters to attend major Chinese dairy events such as the China?s Dairy
Industrial Association annual meeting and expo to promote sales and help establish as well
as maintain presence.
Encourage or even partially fund key Chinese farmers/importers delegations to visit the U.S.
hay industry, preferably during harvesting seasons (June-September). According to past
experience, these visits help boost sales.
Hold dairy related seminars to promote U.S. advanced nutrition management practices.
Look into creative marketing strategies such as register ?U.S. alfalfa hay? as a geographic
identification (GI) in China. The U.S. hay industry may promote this GI through media and
convey a positive product image to Chinese dairy consumers. Then such GI may be
authorized to dairy processors who collect raw milk from farms using imported alfalfa
2. The U.S. hay industry should work closely with APHIS and USDA/FAS to ensure
implementation of AQSIQ?s sanitary and phytosanitary requirements for U.S. alfalfa hay.
3. The U.S. hay industry should encourage and facilitate Chinese dairy farmers to apply with
China?s Taxation Bureau to decrease imported baled alfalfa?s tariff from nine percent to five or
even less. In general ?unprocessed or primarily processed (such as dried and compressed)? products
have lower tariffs than ?processed (such as being ground and reshaped)? ones. Now that imported
alfalfa meal/pallet?s tariff is five percent, baled hay should be adjusted to match or be reduced.
Furthermore, in October 2007, China decreased soybeans? tariff from three to one percent to boost
domestic livestock production. The same policy is likely to apply to other imported feedstuff. The
post-melamine scandal period is the best time to seriously act to lower tariffs.
4. In 2009, the U.S. Livestock Genetics Export, Inc. will coordinate with ATO/GZ to carry out a
QSP for frozen dairy bovine semen trials for five designated farms that aims to prove the veracity
of the U.S. dairy pedigree and progeny testing system. The bottom line is better genetics and
increased milk production. On-farm consultation and technical seminars will be held. The U.S. hay
industry could participate and talk about how alfalfa intake could benefit breeding or nutrition
management for pregnant cows. It may further promote hay exports.
5. Given most viable exporters to China congregate in western States such as Washington, Oregon,
Idaho, California and Utah, the Western United States Agricultural Trade Association (WUSATA)
could coordinate promotion programs to facilitate member states to export alfalfa hay to China.
A P P E N D I X
Unofficial translation by APHIS Beijing office
AQSIQ Sanitary and Phytosanitary Requirements for Import of Alfalfa Hay from the US to China *
1. Quarantine Pests and Animal Diseases of Concern to China
(See next page).
2. Requirements before shipment
2.1 Growing and Harvesting
2.1.1 Hay raw material growing, drying and storage places should be separated from animal
feedlots and pastures and ensure to be free of animal waste, excreta and other articles.
2.1.2 The process of alfalfa hay harvesting, raking, baling in the field, bale collecting, field
transportation and stacking beside the field should avoid mixing with miscellaneous roots, soil and
2.1.3 Farms that export hay to China should have effective monitoring, prevention and integrated
pest management measures to control and avoid the occurrence of quarantine pests of concern to
China listed in Appendix 1 during the growing and harvest seasons.
2.2 Processing and Storage
2.2.1 Alfalfa hay for export to China must come from processing facility registered at US Animal
and Plant Health Inspection Service (hereafter referred to as ?APHIS?).
- establish an effective tracing system;
- keep the processing area and facility clean and avoid across infestation.
2.2.2 Before baling, hay must have a process to exteriorly eliminate contamination and
decontamination, and to insure compliance with the following requirements:
(1) Free of quarantine pests of concern to China listed in Article 1;
(2) Free of pests such as mites, mollusks, etc;
(3) Free of plant residues such as hay roots and seeds and other plant residues;
(4) Free of soil and animal excrements;
2.2.3 Before processing the alfalfa hay for export to China, if the facility is used for processing
alfalfa hay not for export, the pressing and processing facility and the processing place should be
cleaned and swept thoroughly.
2.2.4 Before loading, hay for export to China should be stored in the storage facilities with the
(1) Have a relative independent closed space
(2) Take measures at entry and exit to prevent contamination by pests
(3) The floors of the facilities are clean and bright and easy to sweep. Have drainage system so as
to sweep and disinfect
2.2.5 Hay for export to China should not be stored in the same storage house with alfalfa or other
produces that are not for export to China. The storage house should be cleaned regularly so as to
ensure the environment sanitary and clean.
2.3 Inspection before departure
2.3.1 Containers for shipping alfalfa hay to China should be clean. When necessary, the container
should be swept and disinfected thoroughly against animal diseases.
2.3.2 APHIS should sample and inspect alfalfa hay for export to China before departure according
to this provision. Having inspected and found eligible for exportation, official Phytosanitary
Certificate should be issued follow the format of international standards noting hay name (e.g.
Alfalfa Hay) , weight, destination, name and address of consigner and consignee, container number,
Name of the processing facility (The registration numbers of the processing facility could be placed
in the section of ?Distinguishing Marks? of the certificate), County and State of growing area
placed in the ?Origin? section of the certificate; Having inspected and found live pests, hay should
not be allowed to export to China, or having being fumigated and found eligible for exportation,
hay will be allowed to be exported to China (Please find the Treatment Index in Appendix 2). For
those being fumigated before departure, APHIS should note the information of concentration and
duration of the chemical fumigation.
APHIS should note in the Additional Declaration of the Phytosanitary Certificate: ?This shipment
is inspected and compliance with China?s sanitary and phytosanitary requirements of import alfalfa
hay and it is free of quarantine pests of concern to China?.
Please see the sample Phytosanitary Certificates issued by APHIS in the Appendix 3.
2.3.3 There should be at least one packing mark in each container of each shipment noting the name
of the processing facility, registration number and the typeface ?To Be Exported to the People?s
Republic of China? in English.
3. Entry Inspection
3.1 Checking of Certificates
Check if certificates comply with the related provisions of Article 2.3.
Check if the American alfalfa hay to be imported is attached an Entry Animal and Plant
Quarantine Permit issued by AQSIQ.
3.2 Checking of shipments
According to the above mentioned provisions in Articles 2.2.2, shipments of imported alfalfa hay
will be inspected by opening the package at multiple sample points. When necessary, samples will
be sent to laboratory for culture inspection under suitable conditions.
Shipments will be fumigated, returned or destroyed if the following situations occur:
(1) No Phytosanitary Certificate issued by APHIS, or the certificate is not filled in a normative
(2) Not in compliance with the provisions in Article 2.2.2.
If violating the above mentioned situations, the Chinese side will consider the severity and take
measures such as suspension of the processing facilities, production area, the whole program, etc.
* Note: The Chinese version is available at http://www.aqsiq.gov.cn
Quarantine Pests and Animal Diseases of Concern to China
No. Scientific Name
1 Bruchophagus roddi
2 Frankliniella occidentalis
3 Helicoverpa zea
4 Liriomyza trifolii
5 Naupactus leucoloma
6 Mayetiola destructor
7 Phymatotrichum omnivorum
8 Phytophthora megasperma f.sp.medicaginis
9 Verticillium albo-atrum
10 Clavibacter michiganense subsp. insidiosum
11 Xylella fastidiosa
12 Alfalfa enation rhabdovirus
13 Peanut stunt virus
14 Tobacco ringspot virus
15 Tomato ringspot virus
16 Ditylenchus dipsaci
17 Xiphinema americanum
18 Amaranthus blitoides
19 Cenchrus echinatus
20 Convolvulus arvensis
21 Cuscuta campestris
22 Cuscuta epithymum
23 Emex australis
24 Lolium temulentum
25 Orobanche minor
26 Setaria parviflora
27 Solanum carolinense
28 Solanum elaeagnifolium
29 Sorghum halepense
FAS/Office of Agricultural Affairs (OAA), Beijing
U.S. Embassy Beijing
#55 An Jia Lou Road, Beijing 100600
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Agricultural Trade Office (ATO), Beijing
U.S. Embassy Beijing
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Tel: (86 10) 8531-3950
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Agricultural Trade Office (ATO), Shanghai
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Agricultural Trade Office (ATO), Chengdu
Suite 1222, 19 4th Section Renminnan Lu
Chengdu, Sichuan, PRC 610041
Tel: (86 28) 8526-8668
Fax: (86 28) 8526-8118
Agricultural Trade Office (ATO), Shenyang
Tel: (86 24) 2322-1198
Fax: (86 24) 2322-1733
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Beijing
U.S. Embassy Beijing
#55 An Jia Lou Road, Beijing 100600
Beijing, China 100020
Tel: (86 10) 8531-3040
Fax: (86 10) 8531-3033