China Agricultural Trade Report in 2012

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in China

Posted on: 20 Mar 2013

According to China Customs data, China's total agricultural trade, including fish and forestry, increased by more than nine percent in 2012 to top $205.6 billion.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary Public - Date: 2/25/2013 GAIN Report Number: China - Peoples Republic of Post: Beijing China Agricultural Trade Report in 2012 Report Categories: Agriculture in the Economy Approved By: Michael Riedel Prepared By: M. Melinda Meador and Wu Bugang Report Highlights: According to China Customs data, China's total agricultural trade, including fish and forestry, increased by more than nine percent in 2012 to top $205.6 billion. While agricultural exports rose a moderate five percent year on year to $74.8 billion, strong import momentum of $130.8 billion resulted in an agriculture trade deficit of $56 billion, nearly 20 percent higher from the previous year. China-U.S. agriculture trade reached $40.4 billion in 2012, up more than 17 percent from the previous year. China’s statistics indicate that agricultural imports from the United States rose to a record $30 billion, with exports to the United States of $10 billion. Soybeans, cotton, and corn were the top three United States agricultural imports to China in 2012. General Information: Source: China Customs China’s total agricultural trade (including fish and forestry) reached $205.6 billion in 2012, up 9.3 percent on a yearly basis. China maintained strong import momentum in agriculture with total import value reaching $130.8 billion, an increase of nearly 12 percent from the previous year. Agricultural exports increased by a moderate five percent year on year to $74.8 billion. The trade deficit in agriculture expanded to $56 billion, a 20 percent rise from 2011. China’s Top 10 Trade Partners in Agriculture and Value Share in 2012 Source: China Customs Key trading partners: Source: China Customs The United States is China’s largest agriculture trading partner. The total China-United States trade in agriculture reached $40.4 billion in 2012, up more than 17 percent from the previous year. China remained the largest export market for United States agricultural products and the United States was the second largest export destination for China-origin agricultural commodities. In 2012, China’s agricultural imports from the United States continued an upward trend to reach a record $30 billion, representing an increase of nearly 20 percent on a yearly basis. The import value has more than doubled since 2009. Soybeans, cotton, and corn were the top three agricultural commodities imported from the United States. China’s agricultural exports to the United States increased to $10 billion, up nearly 11 percent year-on- year. Plywood, apple juice, and pet food were the top three agricultural exports to the United States. Source: China Customs Brazil was China’s second largest trading partner in agriculture, with total agricultural trade reaching $19.4 billion in 2012, up nearly 19 percent from the previous year. In 2012, China’s agricultural imports from Brazil jumped more than 19 percent year on year to $18.7 billion. The main import commodities included soybeans, soybean oil, and cane sugar. Brazil was China’s second largest supplier of agricultural goods. China’s agricultural exports to Brazil increased by more than 7 percent year on year to $734 million. The top three export commodities were pulses, frozen Alaska pollock fillets, and garlic. Source: China Customs Japan was China’s third largest trading partner in agriculture. The total China-Japan agriculture trade reached $ 13.7 billion in 2012, an increase of 8.6 percent from the previous year. In 2012, China’s agricultural exports to Japan rose by 8.7 percent year on year to $13.2 billion. The top export commodities included prepared/preserved chicken meat, prepared/preserved eels, and frozen fish fillets. Japan was China’s largest export market for agricultural products. China’s imports of agricultural goods from Japan increased by 6.5 percent year on year to $469 million. The main import commodities included food preparations, frozen/dried/salted scallops, and odoriferous substances for food/drink. ASEAN countries, such as Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia were also major agriculture trading partners with China. Thailand (China’s 4th largest trade partner): Total China-Thailand trade in agriculture increased by 3.6 percent year on year to $10.8 billion in 2012. China’s agricultural imports from Thailand increased by 1.0 percent year on year to $8.6 billion. The main import commodities included rubber, cassava, and non-coniferous wood. Agricultural exports to Thailand increased by 15 percent to $ 2.2 billion. The main export commodities included grapes, apples, and mandarins/tangerines. Indonesia (China’s 6th largest trade partner): Total China-Indonesia trade in agriculture dropped by 1.0 percent year on year to nearly $9.0 billion in 2012. China’s agricultural imports from Indonesia dropped by 2.5 percent to $6.9 billion. The primary import commodities included palm oil, rubber, and edible fats/oil. Agricultural exports to Indonesia decreased by 11 percent year on eary to $2.0 billion. The top export commodities included garlic, tobacco, and mandarins/tangerines. Malaysia (China’s 8th largest trade partner): Total China-Malaysian trade in agriculture dropped by 16 percent year on year to nearly $8.0 billion in 2012. China’s agricultural imports from Malaysia dropped by 22 percent year on year to $5.7 billion. The main import commodities included palm oil, rubber, and palm kernel/babassu oil. Agricultural exports to Malaysia increased by 2.7 percent year on year to $2.3 billion. The main export commodities included frozen shrimps and prawns, mandarins/tangerines, and prepared/preserved shrimps and prawns. Food Price Inflation: Source: China National Statistics Bureau Driven largely by weakening economic performance, China’s food Consumer Price Index (CPI) continued to decline after peaking in July 2011. Currency Exchange: US Dollars vs Chinese Reminbi: Source: the People’s Bank of China The Chinese currency has appreciated nearly 5.0 percent against the US dollar since January 2011. Table 1: China’s Top 10 Agricultural Import Origins in 2012 Rank Country (region) Import value (USD) % share in 2012 1 United States 30,149,501,986 23.1 2 Brazil 18,671,956,242 14.3 3 Thailand 8,569,791,557 6.6 4 Australia 7,757,073,770 5.9 5 Canada 7,011,477,832 5.4 6 Indonesia 6,920,123,417 5.3 7 Malaysia 5,691,025,312 4.4 8 Argentina 5,109,992,283 3.9 9 New Zealand 5,076,761,099 3.9 10 Russia 4,270,832,447 3.3 Source: China Customs Table 2: China’s Top 10 Agricultural Export Destinations in 2012 Rank Country (region) Export value (USD) % share in 2012 1 Japan 13,234,440,230 17.7 2 United States 10,224,659,322 13.7 3 Hong Kong 5,711,343,743 7.6 4 South Korea 4,525,987,602 6.1 5 Russia 2,452,853,881 3.3 6 Germany 2,341,433,943 3.1 7 Malaysia 2,295,386,592 3.1 8 Thailand 2,199,555,441 2.9 9 Vietnam 2,179,318,499 2.9 10 Indonesia 2,037,463,402 2.7 Source: China Customs Table 3: China’s Top 10 Agricultural Imports in 2012 Rank Commodity Tariff (MFN) Value (USD) % Largest % Share supplier Share 1 Soybeans 3% 34,927,413,481 26.7 United States 44 2 Cotton 1% (TRQ), 11,807,741,726 9.0 United States 31 40%(MFN) 3 Palm oil, refined 9% 6,452,537,917 4.9 Malaysia 54 4 Natural rubber (TSNR) 20% 5,338,795,487 4.1 Thailand 46 5 Coniferous wood, 0 3,746,159,901 2.9 Russia 37 rough 6 Coniferous wood, 0 2,851,370,902 2.2 Canada 43 sawn/sliced 7 Non-coniferous wood, 0 2,569,810,802 2.0 Papua New 18 rough Guinea 8 Wool 1% (TRQ), 2,397,368,602 1.8 Australia 79 38% (MFN) 9 Soybean oil, crude 9% 2,272,164,489 1.7 Brazil 50 10 Whole hides and skins 5%-8.4% 2,221,422,358 1.7 United 55 States Source: China Customs Table 4: China’s Top 10 Agricultural Exports in 2012 Rank Commodity Value (USD) % Largest % share buyer share 1 Plywood 2,735,526,122 3.7 United 23 States 2 Prefabricated buildings 1,628,240,687 2.2 Australia 17 3 Wood articles 1,602,810,776 2.1 United 23 States 4 Garlic 1,387,665,145 1.9 Indonesia 24 5 Prepared/preserved chicken meat/offal 1,205,268,800 1.6 Japan 88 6 Cuttle fish & squid, frozen 1,174,633,309 1.6 Japan 17 7 Apple juice concentrate 1,129,078,189 1.5 United 50 States 8 Frozen fish 1,111,313,252 1.5 South Korea 33 9 Animal (not fish) guts, bladders, stomachs 1,099,917,229 1.5 Germany 24 and parts 10 Eels, prepared/preserved 1,039,981,130 1.4 Japan 51 Source: China Customs Table 5: China’s Top 10 Agricultural Imports from the U.S. in 2012 Rank Commodity Import value (USD)) % share in 20122 1 Soybeans 15,374,245,007 51 2 Cotton 3,686,912,845 12 3 Corn 1,658,078,380 5.5 4 Whole hides & skins 1,219,662,125 4.1 5 Brewing or distilling dregs and waste 772,640,553 2.6 6 Offal of swine, frozen 744,934,317 2.5 7 Coniferous wood in the rough 601,260,893 2.0 8 Oak wood, sawn or sliced 321,966,477 1.1 9 Soybean oil 261,700,355 0.9 10 Non-coniferous wood, sawn or sliced 246,808,907 0.8 Source: China Customs Table 6: China’s Top 10 Agricultural Exports to the U.S. in 2012 Rank Commodity Export value (USD) % share in 2012 1 Plywood 621,825,329 6.1 2 Apple juice 561,410,242 5.5 3 Dog and cat food 466,909,575 4.6 4 Tilapia fillets, frozen 444,084,806 4.3 5 Articles of wood 371,703,216 3.6 6 Plywood, veneer panels & similar lam wood 252,368,029 2.5 7 Canned citrus 233,420,925 2.3 8 Pacific, Atlantic and Danube salmon fillets, frozen 216,142,721 2.1 9 Fish, prepared/preserved 194,316,886 1.9 10 Wooden frames paintings, photographs, mirrors 188,192,661 1.8 Source: China Customs
Posted: 20 March 2013

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