Grain and Feed Annual 2012

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in China

Posted on: 23 Mar 2012

For MY 2012/13, corn production is forecast at 190 MMT assuming an above average yield and good temperatures.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 3/2/2012 GAIN Report Number: CH12022 China - Peoples Republic of Grain and Feed Annual 2012 Approved By: Laura Scandurra Prepared By: Joshua Emmanuel Lagos and Jiang Junyang Report Highlights: For MY 2012/13, corn production is forecast at 190 MMT assuming an above average yield and good temperatures. In MY 2011/2012 corn production is estimated at 191.7 MMT due to expanded acreage and record yields. For MY 2011/12 and 2012/13, wheat production is projected at 118 MMT. The current winter crop conditions are rated above normal. MY 2011/12 and 2012/13 rice production is forecast at 200 MMT. In MY 2011/12 and 2012/13 China corn imports are projected at 4 MMT due to continued strong feed and industrial demand. For MY 2011/12 and 2012/13, China?s wheat imports are forecast at 1.5 MMT and 1 MMT on continued demand for high quality wheat for processed flour products. Executive Summary: For MY 2012/13, corn production is forecast at 190 MMT assuming an above average yield and good temperatures. In MY 2011/2012 corn production is estimated at 191.7 MMT due to expanded acreage and record yields. For MY 2011/12 and 2012/13, wheat production is projected at 118 MMT. The current winter crop conditions are rated above normal. MY 2011/12 and 2012/13 rice production is forecast at 200 MMT. In MY 2011/12 and 2012/13 China corn imports are projected at 4 MMT due to continued strong feed and industrial demand. For MY 2011/12 and 2012/13, China?s wheat imports are forecast at 1.5 MMT and 1 MMT on continued demand for high quality wheat for processed flour products. **This report supplements the oilseeds (CH12020), poultry (CH12017), livestock (CH1143), and seed (CH12009) reports, which all can be found on the FAS Gain system. Wheat Production For MY 2011/12, wheat production is estimated at 118 MMT, up 3 MMT from last year due to favorable weather. For MY 2012/13, total planted area is stable, and production is projected to be unchanged on expectations of continued good weather conditions and an above average yield. Winter wheat acreage accounts for 93 percent of China?s total wheat area, or 24.3 million Ha. For MY 2012/13, weather reports stated that the north China Plain experienced less snow coverage than in previous years, but it is currently unclear what impact this may have for the upcoming crop. Generally, on an annual basis, dry northerly winds and less rainfall commonly occurs during the winter, often causing dryness. Although drought can potentially be a concern, irrigation is readily available in major wheat production provinces. The current winter crop conditions are rated above normal. A recent MOA survey noted that more farmers were using better farm management practices, such as deep plowing and better fertilizer application, although it is unknown on what scale this might be occurring. In the last few years, Post?s field survey found that some farmers have begun planting higher quality seeds that allow for more populations per hectare, which would potentially raise yields. For more information on wheat varieties, production practices, and other aspects, please see Gain report CH11014. For more information on wheat seed production, please see Gain report CH12009. In order to encourage wheat production, since 2004 the government has raised the floor purchase price for winter wheat (see Policy section). This guaranteed floor price reportedly has provided a strong incentive for farmers to raise planted acreage. In MY2012/13, relatively higher profit potential for other competing crops, such as winter rapeseed, may affect further increases in wheat acreage. Consumption For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, feed consumption is expected to rise due to higher corn prices. During the summer of CY 2011, the price spread between wheat and corn reached more than RMB 400 per ton, and since October 2011 the average spread has been around RMB 100 per ton. Depending on prices, some feed mills use higher quality milling wheat in their feed formulas. Chinese feed mills have replaced 100 percent of corn for some poultry feed, such as duck feed, as well as approximately 20 to 40 percent of corn for hog feed (primarily for grower and finisher pigs). That being said, some larger feed mills attest that they can utilize 100 percent of wheat in their hog feed formulas. For feed safety concerns, mills may also prefer wheat because of high toxin levels (such as mycotoxin) that can be found in Chinese domestic corn (reportedly due to excessive rainfall during harvest). For more information on the livestock sector, please see Gain report CH12017 and CH1143. In MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, industrial use is projected to rise approximately 1 percent to 98.5 MMT and 99.5 MMT, respectively. Starch and ethanol producers, and other industrial users, are expected to substitute more wheat for corn because of rising corn prices. Consumer demand continues to grow for convenience foods, including instant noodles, biscuits, and bakery products. Unlike traditional homemade or home-style Chinese food products, convenience foods require wheat flour with specific gluten and protein content. Domestic flour millers meet these requirements by utilizing imported wheat and blending it with domestic varieties. Trade For MY 2011/12, Chinese wheat imports are estimated at 1.5 MMT, 50 percent higher than the previous year. Total wheat imports are projected to exceed the private Tariff Rate Quota (TRQ) of 960,000 tons, as reports indicate that 500,000 tons were recently purchased using the state TRQ. Industry contacts said that a state owned enterprise utilized the state TRQ to buy less expensive Australian wheat, and sold the wheat to the feed market in Guangdong to take advantage of rising corn prices. This transaction may be market arbitrage, and not an indication of low wheat stocks. In MY 2012/13 wheat imports are forecast at 1 MMT. The state TRQ is not projected to be used for wheat imports. The private TRQ is primarily utilized to import high quality wheat (See wheat consumption section). For MY 2012/13, China?s wheat exports are estimated at 1 MMT, unchanged from the previous year. The government of China controls exports by providing export licenses only to state trading companies, such as COFCO. Since 2008, the Chinese government also has actively discouraged exports by removing the VAT export rebate (13 percent), which makes the wheat less price competitive in the international market. China primarily exports flour or processed products to neighboring countries, including North Korea, Hong Kong, and South Korea. In CY 2011, China provided some food aid (wheat and rice) to Ethiopia. Marketing A private company or state owned enterprise must attain a license from the government to purchase and distribute grain. Special low interest loans to purchase wheat are available only for state grain companies. In order to mitigate price increases, in January 2011 the government stipulated a temporary policy that only large flour mills could attend wheat auctions (See Gain report CH11014). However, during MY 2011/12 most purchases have been made outside government auctions (many mills and businesses contracted directly with farmers or distributors). That being said, if flour prices significantly rise, the government could instruct state owned grain reserve companies to supply wheat to large-scale flour mills. These mills would then be required to increase their production, and sell the product at a government-set price. Stocks There are no official statistics available for wheat stocks. For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, Post estimates ending stocks at 61.7MMT and 58.2 MM. Most of China?s wheat stocks are held in northern China by state owned enterprises such as Sinograin. Corn Production For MY 2011/12 corn acreage and production is estimated to rise 2 and 8 percent to 33.4 million Ha and 191.75 MMT. Many farmers shifted from soybeans to corn in expectations of a higher profit margin. Favorable weather conditions contributed to record yield. In MY 2012/13, acreage is estimated to rise slightly to 33.7 million Ha, and production is to remain steady at 190 MMT, which assumes a better than average yield and good temperatures. For more information on corn seed production, please see Gain report CH12009. For more information on oilseeds, please see Gain report CH12020. For MY 2011/2012, in northeast China, there was sufficient rainfall for the major producing provinces, and little to no flooding. Fall temperatures were relatively favorable as the corn matured. According to feed mill reports, in the north China plain, such parts of Henan and Hebei province, excessive rain lowered the corn quality and elevated toxin levels, causing some of the corn to be unusable for feed. Although biotechnology is viewed as one tool to improve production, no biotech corn varieties have been fully approved for commercial use (See Gain report CH11050). Consumption Corn is used for: 1) feed; 2) the industrial production of sugar, starch and biofuels; and 3) food. Feed Consumption For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, feed corn consumption is estimated to increase on rising livestock inventories and meat production, as well as continued farm consolidation. From July 2011, hog inventories rose after surviving a major disease outbreak from the previous year, which included a diarrhea and food and mouth disease epidemic. Due to high consumer demand, within the last few years, pork and poultry (broilers and layers) production has generally risen approximately 3 to 4 percent every year. Hogs and poultry make up approximately 63 and 22 percent of total meat production. For information on livestock, please see Gain report CH12017 and CH1143. As the livestock sector consolidates, more small backyard farmers continue to exit the business and move to urban cities for work, while larger scaled operations continue to grow. Larger farms use more industrial feeds that are comprised of a higher proportion of corn (or wheat). Small backyard farms purchase concentrate and premix (includes vitamins, minerals, and other microingredients), and blend these products with raw feed (ratios are often a lot lower than industrial feed products) to reduce cost. MOA?s China Industrial Feed Association tracks national industrial feed production, but there are no official numbers for overall feed usage. MOA?s industrial feed production table (below) illustrates this relative shift within the livestock industry through the higher use of compound feed in lieu of concentrate and premix. This trend is expected to continue into the future. China: Feed Production by Type (1,000 tons) Total Compound Concentrate Premix 2009 148,132 115,350 26,863 5,925 2010 162,000 130,000 26,480 5,790 2011 169,000 N/A N/A N/A Growth in 2010 9.36% 12.7% -1.4% -2.2% Growth in 2011 4% N/A N/A N/A Source: China Feed Industry Office; N/A = not available According to MOA?s 12th 5-Year Plan for the Development of the Plantation Industry in China, the government plans to promote other substitute feed ingredients that can be used instead of corn, such as crop stover and other byproducts from the food processing industry, as well as early season indica rice, wheat, and barley. In MY 2011/2012, because of relatively high corn prices, which have risen due to high demand from the livestock sector, many feed mills have begun substituting some corn with wheat (See wheat consumption section). This trend is expected to continue into MY 2012/13. Industrial Use Industrial use includes the production of starch sweetener, other industrial (papermaking and textile production), food-grade (e.g. monosodium glutamate), and ethanol. However, starch sweeteners and ethanol comprise the majority of production. For MY 2011/2012, industrial use is estimated at 48 MMT, up 10 percent from the previous year due to increased starch sugar and food-grade ethanol production. For CY 2011 and CY 2012, ethanol production is estimated to grow more than 10 percent annually, primarily due to high demand for hard alcohol, such as bai jiu. The ethanol sector primarily uses corn, but also can utilize other feedstocks such as wheat, rice, sweet potatoes, sorghum, and cassava. For CY 2011, the China Brewery Association published data illustrating hard alcohol production rising 30.7 percent to 10 billion liters. For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, sugar prices are expected to remain high on less supply and strong demand from the food processing industry. As a result, demand for less expensive corn starch sugar is expected to grow (see Gain report CH11047). Unlike last year, international sugar prices are expected to be lower (due to larger exportable supplies by major suppliers such as Brazil and India), which may cause Chinese starch sugar to be less price competitive in foreign markets. Some Chinese policy-makers may believe that growing demand in the starch and ethanol sector has escalated food prices. A recently published draft Grain Law (see Policy section) states that the food processing sector should develop in ?an appropriate way,? or suggests that companies should not grow rapidly, which might adversely affect China?s grain supply and food security. Trade For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, imports of corn are estimated at 4 MMT and 4 MMT due to rising feed and industrial demand. For MY 2011/12, imports have primarily been purchased by the Chinese government using a state quota, which includes a VAT exemption. To date, U.S. exports to China are approximately 2.5 MMT, with remaining contracts estimated at 1 MMT. Industry sources believe this corn has been used to replenish the strategic reserves, and that the government may continue stock the reserves with either imported or domestic corn. During MY 2011/12, because of relatively lower domestic corn prices, imported corn prices generally have not been price competitive, although recently there has been a price shift. Currently, the U.S. No. 2 yellow corn CIF price (including VAT and in-quota tariff) for March to June delivery to Guangdong is about USD $20 lower than domestic corn. The private sector might purchase imported corn if international prices are competitive as domestic supplies tighten. According to the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine (AQSIQ), the United States, Thailand, and Peru are the only countries that have corn market access, although reportedly some neighboring SE Asian countries trade small quantities of gray market corn through Yunnan and Guangxi provinces. In February 2012, Chinese state media reported that China granted a quarantine protocol for Argentine corn, but this has not been officially confirmed by AQSIQ. Depending on relative pricing, Chinese feed mills substitute corn with DDGS and feed quality wheat, but imported DDGS has become more popular due to its higher quality (protein and lipid content) and price advantages (no VAT or TRQ). For CY 2010, China became the largest importer of US DDGS, purchasing 3.1 MMT. In December 2010, China initiated an anti-dumping (AD) case against US DDGS, which in CY 2011 caused imports to drop 46 percent to 1.68 MMT. The AD investigation has been extended until June 2012. For MY 2010/11 and MY 2011/12, China?s corn exports are unchanged and estimated at 200,000 MT. The government manages corn exports with tax incentives and export quotas, and within the last few years has not encouraged corn exports with policy incentives. As in previous years, the majority of China?s corn exports are expected to be destined for North Korea as food aid. Countries Allowed to Export Grains to China Wheat Australia, Canada, France, Kazakhstan, Hungary, United Kingdom, United States, Serbia and Mongolia Corn Thailand, United States, Peru Barely Australia, Canada, Denmark, France and Argentina. AQSIQ Official Notice (Updated in January 2011) Stocks While official stock data is not available, from MY 2011/12 to MY 2012/13 Post estimates corn ending stocks to fall from 57 to 55 MMT. With rising meat production and continued consolidation in the livestock industry, Post expects China?s feed demand to continue to put pressure on domestic grain production and supplies. Unlike last year, to date the Chinese government has not required state owned corn processing companies to stop purchasing corn (See Gain report Ch11014 for more information). Rice Production In MY 2011/12, total (rough) rice production is estimated at 200.7 MMT, up 2 percent from last year. Total estimated planted area is 29.9 million Ha, unchanged from the previous year. Early-season Indica rice production is estimated at 32.76 MMT, up 4.5 percent due to favorable weather in major producing provinces. Japonica rice experienced high yields due to sufficient rainfall and good temperatures in northern China, particularly in Heilongjiang province. For MY 2012/13, total (rough) rice production is forecast at 200 MMT, which assumes average yields. Acreage is forecast to rise slightly, as the government may encourage more planting by raising the floor price (see Policy section). For more information on rice seed production, please see Gain report CH12009. Consumption For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, overall rice consumption is projected to rise to 138.5 and 141 MMT. Traditionally, southern Chinese prefer Indica rice while northern Chinese favor Japonica rice. That being said, although more expensive than Indica, on a national level Japonica rice has slowly become more popular due to its perceived superior flavor. Some sources estimate that 60 percent of China?s population eats rice on a daily basis. Although overall household rice consumption has declined slightly due to shifts in rural household purchases (see General Economic Trends section), in MY 2011/12 industry contacts noted that high corn prices have caused some feed mills or livestock producers to substitute more feed quality rice for corn, particularly in household or small commercial farms in southern China. Moreover, anecdotal evidence suggests there has been a shift towards producing more processed convenient foods (using rice as a main ingredient) for middle class consumers. While there is no reliable data for both of these factors, for MY 2011/12 and 2012/13, Post estimates that feed and industrial (more processed rice products) demand, as well as a population increase (which is less than 1 percent a year) has caused overall rice consumption to rise. Trade In MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, rice imports are estimated at 500,000 MT and 600,000 MT. Most imports are Thai fragrant rice varieties, which are consumed at high-end hotels or restaurants located in affluent coastal cities. For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, rice exports are estimated at 500,000 MT and 600,000 MT, rising on continued strong demand from South Korea and Japan. Only two state trading companies are licensed to export rice. In MY 2011/12, some rice was exported to North Korea as food aid. Stocks Official national reserve data is not available. Japonica rice is mainly stored in Heilongjiang, while Indica is stocked in some southern provinces. For MY 2011/12, ending stocks are estimated at 44.5 MMT (milled), and are projected down to 43.5 MMT due to growing feed and industrial consumption, and population growth. Barley Production In MY 2011/12 barley production is estimated at 2.5 MMT, 26 percent higher than last year due to high yields and increased acreage. Planted area is estimated at 650,000 Ha, up more than 10 percent. Increased brewery demand has pushed up prices, and influenced farmers to expand planted area in Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, and Gansu provinces. MY 2012/13 production is forecast to rise slightly to 2.6 MMT, assuming average yields and continued planted area expansion on strong demand. China does not consider barley to be an important feed grain, and the crop receives no financial or other assistance. Consumption Chinese barley is mostly used for brewing. For CY 2011, beer production is estimated at 48.9 million kilolitres, up 10 percent from last year. Barley production can only meet approximately half of domestic malting barley demand, which is estimated at 4 MMT for MY 2011/2012. According to industry sources, the protein level for domestic barley is relatively higher than imported barley, and is not very suitable for malting. Trade For MY 2011/12, imports are estimated at 2 MMT, up 20% from the previous year on more competitively priced exportable supplies from Australia and Argentina. For MY 2012/13, imports are forecast at 2.2MT, a 10 percent increase on expectations of continued expansion in the brewery sector. Australia, Canada, France, Denmark, and Argentina are currently the only countries that have market access to China. Sorghum Production For MY 2011/12, production is estimated up 6 percent to 2.6 MMT due to higher than average yields. Sorghum planted area is 580,000 Ha. In MY 2012/13 planted area and production is forecast to increase 3 and 2 percent on growing demand from ethanol producers (e.g. hard liquor or bai jiu) and assumed favorable weather. Most sorghum is planted on marginal land with no irrigation facilities, and producers receive no government support. Some ethanol plants reportedly have developed contracts with farms to maintain a stable supply. Consumption The majority of China?s sorghum is used to produce hard liquor or bai jiu. In CY 2011, hard liquor production is estimated at 11.5 MMT, up 30 percent from the previous year. As the middle class continues to grow, hard liquor consumption is forecast to rise. Local governments support hard liquor production facilities since their product generates sales tax revenues. General Macroeconomic Trends Rural Household Grain Consumption Projected to Decline For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, overall household consumption of grains is projected to continue to fall, as more middle class consumers increase purchases of animal proteins. Currently, China?s population is around 52 percent urban and 48 percent rural, annually increasing less than 1 percent per year. Rural households have shown the strongest shift in grain consumption. According to National Statistics Bureau (NSB) data, from CY 2005 to CY 2010, rural per capita consumption of grains dropped from 208.56 kg to 181.44 kg, while per capita consumption of meat, poultry and dairy products rose steadily. Per capita grain consumption for urban households has remained relatively stable in recent years. Policy Extension Services According to MOA, more local authorities have been engaging in extension activities to help farmers improve crop management. For example, MOA states that 50 counties and 500 towns had demonstration projects, or agricultural parks, that focus on improving grain yield. The Ministry believes these efforts have influenced some farmers to use new techniques, including placing plastic film over seedlings, and more efficient/effective fertilizer application. 12th Five-Year Plans According to the State Council?s 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) for Modern Agriculture Development, which is one of the more important planning documents for agricultural development, the government of China will strive to stabilize grain acreage, improve grain yield and quality, and give more support to major grain producing regions. More specifically, the Plan mentions that in southern China the government should encourage rice farmers to double crop in order to produce rice two times a year, and promote expanded acreage for Japonica rice in the Yangtze and Huai river region (northeast China). For wheat, the Plan focuses on stabilizing acreage and promoting higher quality (low or high gluten) wheat for flour processing, while stipulating for corn that increased acreage is the priority. The Plan?s production goals are below. Modern Agricultural Development Plan Production Goals from 2010-2015 2010 2015 Annual Growth Rate (in%) Grain Production Capacity (in MMT) above 500 above 540 Grain Acreage (in million Mu*) 1,648 above 1,600 Meat Production (in 1,000 tons) 79,260 85,000 1.41 Egg Production (in 1,000 tons) 27,630 29,000 0.97 Dairy Production (in 1,000 tons) 37,480 50,000 5.93 *1 ha= 15 Mu Source: State Council MOA?s 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) for the Development of the Plantation Industry specifies a goal to maintain at least a 95 percent self-sufficiency in grains (including soybeans), but to strive for 100 percent self-sufficiency in rice, wheat, and corn. However, it may be difficult for MOA to achieve this goal, as increased demand for more expensive meat proteins from China?s growing middle class will pressure China?s domestic grain supplies. Limited arable land, water, and other resource constraints are expected to challenge further grain production increases. New FDI Catalogue On December 29, 2012, the Ministry of Trade and Commerce (MOFCOM) announced a new Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) catalogue, which took effect on January 30, 2012. In comparison to the previous 2007 catalogue, the processing of rice, flour and corn is restricted, as well as the processing of edible oil, which includes peanuts, cottonseed, camellia seed, sunflower seed, and palm oil. Restricted could be interpreted to mean that a Chinese company must have a controlling stake in the joint venture, although other terms could also apply. Government Subsidies Since 2004, China implemented a series of policies to promote further agricultural production, including providing direct payments to grain farmers, subsidies for the purchase of farm machinery, and price support programs. In 2006, China added a direct subsidy for fuel and fertilizers (See Gain report CH8012). For MY 2011/12 and MY 2012/13, the government of China is expected to continue expanding these support programs. Grain Production Support Program Government Support Programs in 2005-2011 (in RMB) Direct Payment Seed Subsidy Machinery Subsidy Fuel/fertilizer Subsidy Total 2011 15.1 billion 22 bilion 17.5 billion 83.5 billion 138.1 billion 2010 15.1 billion 20.4 billion 15.5 billion 78.6 billion 129.6 Billion 2009 15.1 billion 19.85 billion 13 billion 75.6 billion 123.55 billion 2008 15.1 billion 12.07 billion 4 billion 63.8 billion 95 billion 2007 15.1 billion 6.66 billion 2 billion 27.6 billion 51.36 billion 2006 14.2 billion 4.1 billion 600 million 12.5 billion 31.4 billion 2005 13.2 billion 3.9 billion 300 million 0 17.4 billion Note: In 2007 and 2008 seed subsidy covered soy bean, rice, wheat, corn, rapeseed and cotton. In 2009 and 2010, the seed subsidy was extended to potatoes, hulless barley, and peanuts. (Exchange rate:1$=6.3 RMB (2011)). Source: government websites and state media Draft Grain Law In February 2012, the State Council issued the first ever Grain Law (currently a draft). The purpose of the law is to promote grain production, maintain and improve logistics for grain distribution, and safeguard national grain security. It covers grain and oilseed production, distribution, and processing, and defines the government?s role and responsibility in managing production, trade, and stock reserves, as well as market information dissemination. Although not very clear, market information dissemination may include providing more detailed production, supply, and distribution data. Of note is that the draft Grain Law stresses the importance of rationally utilizing grains for food and industrial use, including the prevention of waste, and supports establishing or improving agricultural subsidies and awards for grain production, which are distributed to the provincial level. For CY 2011, the award fund for major grain and oilseed producing counties rose 21.6 percent to RMB 22.5 billion. The Chinese government is currently soliciting comments, which are due on March 31, 2012. No implementation date is specified in the current draft (Post will publish the draft Grain Law in a separate report). Price Support Programs Grain Procurement Prices Increase Since 2004, the Chinese government has gradually raised the floor price for corn, rice, and wheat in order to encourage production. If domestic grain market prices fall below the floor price, state grain companies will purchase the grain at the floor price from farmers (See more details in Gain report CH11014). In MY 2012/13, the indica rice and wheat floor price rose by 17.6 percent and 9 percent from the previous year. The floor price is forecast to continue to rise for all grains. Government Floor Price for Grains in 2009-2012 (RMB per ton) Growth in Growth in 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2011 Purchase Period Rice Early Indica (unmilled) 1,800 1,860 2,040 2,400 17.6% 9.68% July-Sept Japonica (unmilled) 1,900 2,100 2,560 2,800 9% 21.90% Nov-Feb Wheat White Wheat 1,740 1,800 1,900 2,040 7% 5.56% May- Sept Red Wheat 1,660 1,720 1,960 2,040 9% 13.95% May- Sept Wheat Average Floor Price 1,700 1,760 1,960 2,040 9% 9.66% May- Sept Corn Corn Average Floor Dec 2011-April, Price 1,500 1,800 1,980 10% 2012 Grain Tariff Rate Quota After accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), China established Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQs) for wheat, corn, rice, and several other commodities. Since 2004, the quotas have not changed. Grain Tariff Rate Quota (TRQ): Allocation (Metric Tons ) Commodity TRQ Private State Enterprise Tariff rate within Tariff rate out of Share Share TRQ TRQ Wheat 9,636,000 10% 90% 1% 65% Corn 7,200,000 40% 60% 1% 65% Rice (short and long 5,320,000 50% 50% 1% 65% grain) PSD Tables Table 1. Wheat PSD Table Wheat 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 Jul 2010 Market Year Begin: Jul 2011 1000 Market Year Begin: Jul 2012 MT Market Year Begin: USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Harvested (1000 Ha) 24,320 24,257 24,200 24,200 24,300 Beginning Stocks 54,425 54,425 60,091 59,272 61,772 Production 115,180 115,180 117,920 118,000 118,000 MY Imports 927 927 1,500 1,500 1,000 TY Imports 927 927 1,500 1,500 1,000 TY Imp. from U.S. 156 156 0 500 400 Total Supply 170,532 170,532 179,511 178,772 180,772 MY Exports 941 760 1,000 1,000 1,000 TY Exports 941 760 1,000 1,000 1,000 Feed and Residual 13,000 13,000 17,500 17,500 22,000 FSI Consumption 96,500 97,500 96,000 98,500 99,500 Total Consumption 109,500 110,500 113,500 116,000 121,500 Ending Stocks 60,091 59,272 65,011 61,772 58,272 Total Distribution 170,532 170,532 179,511 178,772 180,772 Table 2. Corn PSD Table Corn 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 et Year Begin: Oct 2010 Market Year Begin: Oct 2011 1000 Market Year Begin: Oct 2012 MT Mark USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Harvested (1000 Ha) 32,500 32,500 33,400 33,400 33,700 Beginning Stocks 51,302 51,302 53,415 49,415 56,965 Production 177,245 177,245 191,750 191,750 190,000 MY Imports 979 979 4,000 4,000 4,000 TY Imports 979 979 4,000 4,000 3,000 TY Imp. from U.S. 1,028 0 Total Supply 229,526 229,526 249,165 245,165 250,965 MY Exports 111 111 200 200 200 TY Exports 111 111 200 200 200 Feed and Residual 124,000 128,000 134,000 131,000 135,000 FSI Consumption 52,000 52,000 57,000 57,000 61,000 Total Consumption 176,000 180,000 191,000 188,000 196,000 Ending Stocks 53,415 49,415 57,965 56,965 54,765 Total Distribution 229,526 229,526 249,165 245,165 250,965 Table 3. Rice PSD Table Rice, Milled 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 arket Year Begin: Jul 2010 Market Year Begin: Jul 2011 1000 Market Year Begin: Jul 2012 MT M USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Harvested (1000 Ha) 29,820 29,873 29,940 29,996 30,150 Beginning Stocks 40,534 40,534 42,572 42,558 44,558 Milled Production 137,000 137,000 140,500 140,500 140,000 Rough Production 195,714 195,714 200,714 200,714 200,000 Milling Rate (.9999) 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 MY Imports 540 544 475 500 600 TY Imports 600 400 TY Imp. from U.S. 0 0 0 Total Supply 178,074 178,078 183,547 183,558 185,158 MY Exports 502 520 600 500 600 TY Exports 500 600 600 Consumption and Residual 135,000 135,000 138,500 138,500 141,000 Ending Stocks 42,572 42,558 44,447 44,558 43,558 Total Distribution 178,074 178,078 183,547 183,558 185,158 Table 4. Barley PSD Table Barley 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 arket Year Begin: Oct 2010 Market Year Begin: Oct 2011 1000 Market Year Begin: Oct 2012 MT M USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Harvested (1000 Ha) 650 580 675 650 680 Beginning Stocks 699 699 546 169 359 Production 2,500 1,972 2,600 2,500 2,600 MY Imports 1,656 1,657 1,800 2,000 2,200 TY Imports 1,656 1,657 1,800 2,000 2,200 TY Imp. from U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 Total Supply 4,855 4,328 4,946 4,669 5,159 MY Exports 9 9 15 10 10 TY Exports 9 9 15 10 10 Feed and Residual 100 50 100 100 100 FSI Consumption 4,200 4,100 4,400 4,200 4,400 Total Consumption 4,300 4,150 4,500 4,300 4,500 Ending Stocks 546 169 431 359 649 Total Distribution 4,855 4,328 4,946 4,669 5,159 Table 5. Sorghum PSD Table Sorghum 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013 : Oct 2010 Market Year Begin: Oct 2011 1000 Market Year Begin: Oct 2012 MT Market Year Begin USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Harvested (1000 Ha) 580 548 600 580 600 Beginning Stocks 275 275 250 467 557 Production 1,800 2,456 1,850 2,600 2,650 MY Imports 25 4 75 10 10 TY Imports 25 4 75 10 10 TY Imp. from U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 Total Supply 2,100 2,735 2,175 3,077 3,217 MY Exports 50 68 50 70 70 TY Exports 50 68 50 70 70 Feed and Residual 50 200 100 250 250 FSI Consumption 1,750 2,000 1,800 2,200 2,500 Total Consumption 1,800 2,200 1,900 2,450 2,750 Ending Stocks 250 467 225 557 397 Total Distribution 2,100 2,735 2,175 3,077 3,217 Price Tables Table 6. Corn Price Table China's Average Corn Wholesale Prices (Renminbi Per Metric Ton, USD $1.00 = RMB 6.3) Producing Region/1 Consuming Region/2 January (2010) 1,670 1,920 February 1,650 1,890 March 1,760 2,000 April 1,840 2,000 May 1,860 2,070 June 1,800 2,020 July 1,840 2,070 August 1,860 2,100 September 1,860 2,140 October 1,830 2,100 November 1,924 2,188 December 1,911 2,158 January (2011) 1,910 2,156 February 1,937 2,216 March 2,040 2,261 April 2,081 2,257 May 2,110 2,330 June 2,174 2,392 July 2,201 2,377 August 2,220 2,451 September 2,288 2,574 October 2,274 2,508 November 2,145 2,399 December 2,108 2,395 /1 Jilin Province/2 Guangdong Province Source: China National Grain and Oils Information Center Table 7. Wheat Price Table China Average Wheat(Grade2) Wholesale Price (Renminbi Per Metric Ton, USD $1.00 = RMB 6.3) Henan Province Jiangsu Province January (2010) 2,000 1,956 February 2,000 1,943 March 1,992 1,937 April 1,980 1,930 May 1,980 1,930 June 1,970 1,925 July 1,990 1,975 August 2,000 1,970 September 2,020 2,005 October 2,045 2,025 November 2,071 2,070 December 2,078 2,110 January (2011) 2,066 2,110 February 2,070 2,126 March 2,080 2,200 April 2,072 2,160 May 2,060 2,126 June 2,042 2,091 July 2,015 2,051 August 2,036 2,050 September 2,064 2,063 October 2,120 2,115 November 2,123 2,125 December 2,130 2,111 Source: China National Grain and Oils Information Center Table 8. Rice Price Table China's Average Wholesale Japonica Rice (milled) Price (Renminbi Per Metric Ton, USD $1.00 = RMB 6.3) Jiangsu Province Heilongjiang Province January (2010) 3,214 3,342 February 3,321 3,309 March 3,442 3,365 April 3,685 3,473 May 3,821 3,574 June 3,761 3,568 July 3,743 3,532 August 3,669 3,558 September 3,695 3,589 October 3,706 3,620 November 3,965 3,870 December 4,068 4,040 January (2011) 4,059 4,053 February 4,031 4,050 March 4,009 4,092 April 4,004 4,079 May 4,019 4,070 June 4,083 4,100 July 4,156 4,120 August 4,193 4,106 September 4,213 4,074 October 4,200 4,040 November 4,133 4,040 December 3,970 4,040 Source: China National Grain and Oils Information Center Trade Tables Table 9. Corn Trade Table China Corn Exports by Destination, MY 2010/2011 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jun-Sept Total World 19,911 10,160 46,947 33,497 110,515 Korea North 19,851 10,120 46,854 33,497 110,322 Pakistan 0 40 0 0 40 Vietnam 0 0 0 0 0 Russia 0 0 0 0 0 Bangladesh 0 0 0 0 0 Chile 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 35 0 35 Korea South 60 0 9 0 69 Laos 0 0 50 0 50 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10051000,10059000 China Corn Exports by Destination, MY 2011/2012 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jun-Sept Total World 45,392 45,392 Korea North 45,279 45,279 Pakistan 91 91 Vietnam 20 20 Russia 1 1 Bangladesh 0 0 Chile 0 0 Japan 0 0 Korea South 0 0 Laos 0 0 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10051000,10059000 China Corn Imports by Origin, MY 2010/2011 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jun-Sept Total World 345,575 5,216 30,458 598,219 979,468 United States 310,369 4,674 12,463 597,963 925,469 Laos 21,710 0 1,583 0 23,293 Myanmar 13,333 0 14,516 0 27,849 India 0 28 1,795 236 2,059 Peru 125 75 0 0 200 Argentina 0 18 8 0 26 Austria 0 0 0 0 0 Brazil 0 0 0 0 0 Chile 0 0 1 0 1 China 0 0 60 0 60 Others 38 421 32 20 511 HS Codes:10051000,10059000 China Corn Imports by Origin, MY 2011/2012 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jun-Sept Total World 1,118,844 1,118,844 United States 1,070,379 1,070,379 Laos 33,584 33,584 Myanmar 13,887 13,887 India 968 968 Peru 25 25 Argentina 0 0 Austria 0 0 Brazil 0 0 Chile 0 0 China 0 0 others 1 HS Codes:10051000,10059000 CHINA CORN IMPORTS BY MONTH (Metric Tons) 2005 2006 2,007 2,008 2009 2010 2011 January 20 2,433 611 167 41 12,022 1,878 February 113 77 2,243 145 279 1,113 1,035 March 138 6 3,515 587 626 2,069 2,303 April 154 232 12 978 591 3,588 7,215 May 37 184 227 4,832 682 4,882 12,010 June 0 274 129 1,832 1,111 64,520 11,233 July 69 94 279 3,365 1,188 193,777 172,623 August 321 52,150 1,733 2,964 2,335 432,070 244,502 September 483 4,097 1,329 1,274 7,179 512,778 181,094 October 339 2,025 3,073 5,693 18,815 251,934 304,325 November 217 2,767 10,055 18,649 16,919 78,555 244,756 December 2,083 877 11,991 8,686 33,817 15,085 569,763 JAN-DEC TOTAL 3,975 65,216 35,198 49,173 83,582 1,572,393 1,752,737 (05/06) (06/07) (07/08) (08/09) (09/10) (10/11) *(11/12) OCT-SEP MY TOTAL 62,186 15,748 41,264 47,059 1,296,370 979,467 1,118,844 * year to date HS Code: 1005.1000, 1005.9000 Source: PRC Customs CHINA'S CORN EXPORTS BY MONTH (Metric Tons) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 January 413,848 937,538 15,857 26 41,981 640 February 1,005,517 770,248 29,261 2,670 324 470 March 771,717 1,127,187 18,148 7,777 5,931 9,050 April 40,086 578,553 26,235 1,874 6,611 9,912 May 16,658 28,041 0 15,966 16,122 27,491 June 3,923 160,399 37,131 30,884 9,421 9,544 July 5,508 251,308 14,259 11,136 12,203 10,012 August 5,487 227,792 25,093 11,862 9,047 13,286 September 6,798 384,063 0 3,436 5,764 10,200 October 73,467 213,226 25,007 2,746 4,830 41,422 November 261,589 125,454 23,506 4,417 8,546 1,947 December 469,401 43,943 38,039 36,242 6,535 2,023 JAN-DEC TOTAL 3,073,999 4,847,753 252,537 129,036 127,315 135,997 (06/07) (07/08) (08/09) (09/10) (10/11) *(11/12) OCT-SEP MY TOTAL 5,269,587 548,608 172,183 150,810 110,516 45,392 * year to date HS Code: 1005.1000, 1005.9000 Source: PRC Customs Table 10. Wheat Trade Table China Wheat Imports by Origin, MY 2010/2011 (in Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 319,078 31,531 257,892 307,248 915,749 United States 2,657 3,409 2,405 114,441 122,912 Australia 169,318 11,930 249,590 129,950 560,788 Canada 115,502 3 0 57,750 173,255 Kazakhstan 26,076 9,660 0 0 35,736 Italy 1,207 1,128 1,273 1,495 5,103 Korea South 866 1,027 1,019 1,400 4,312 Taiwan 556 543 528 540 2,167 Thailand 551 1,225 1,289 539 3,604 Russia 62 132 0 84 278 Hong Kong 293 311 307 302 1,213 Others 1,990 2,163 1,481 747 6,381 Source: China Customs HS Code: 100110,100190,110100,190219,19023030,19023090,190240 China Wheat Imports by Origin, MY 2011/2012 (in Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 419,275 294,252 713,527 United States 188,380 131,531 319,911 Australia 168,245 93,961 262,206 Canada 57,860 56,750 114,610 Kazakhstan 0 4,640 4,640 Italy 1,371 2,296 3,667 Korea South 1,105 1,301 2,406 Taiwan 625 1,138 1,763 Thailand 402 414 816 Russia 193 412 605 Hong Kong 296 402 698 Others 798 1,407 2,205 Source: China Customs HS Code: 100110,100190,110100,190219,19023030,19023090,190240 CHINA'S WHEAT IMPORTS BY MONTH (1,000 Metric Tons) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 January 48 20 3 4 88 62 February 4 48 2 93 97 118 March 98 2 2 29 194 78 April 72 6 2 37 133 13 May 62 6 2 72 193 12 June 51 4 2 194 193 282 July 50 3 3 87 135 110 August 49 6 2 9 92 130 September 67 5 2 76 93 179 October 76 3 2 14 14 62 November 33 7 2 96 9 11 December 15 3 34 205 8 221 JAN-DEC TOTAL 625 113 58 917 1,248 1,278 JUL-JUN MY TOTAL (06/07) (07/08) (08/09) (09/10) (10/11) *(11/12) 376 40 474 1,385 915 713 * year to date Source: PRC Customs HS Code: 100110,100190,110100,190219,19023030,19023090,190240 final China Wheat Exports by Destination, MY 2010/2011 (in Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 114,116 164,365 113,297 138,467 530,245 Hong Kong 41,559 45,443 44,651 44,202 175,855 Korea North 21,685 51,170 17,388 42,924 133,167 Ethiopia 0 0 2 3 5 Zimbabwe 0 5 0 0 5 Korea South 6,714 9,657 7,639 7,609 31,619 Canada 3,590 4,864 3,830 3,556 15,840 Kenya 7 0 7 30 44 United States 5,021 5,006 4,932 4,359 19,318 United Kingdom 4,741 4,614 4,233 4,198 17,786 Djibouti 0 0 0 0 0 Others 30,799 43,606 30,615 31,586 136,606 Source: China Customs HS Code: 100110,100190,110100,190219,19023030,19023090,190240 final China Wheat Exports by Destination, MY 2011/2012 (1,000 Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 151,082 167,726 318,808 Hong Kong 42,793 45,162 87,955 Korea North 42,600 32,397 74,997 Ethiopia 9,591 14,947 24,538 Zimbabwe 0 9,731 9,731 Korea South 8,049 8,906 16,955 Canada 4,213 5,641 9,854 Kenya 21 5,549 5,570 United States 4,304 4,606 8,910 United Kingdom 4,750 4,287 9,037 Djibouti 801 4,111 4,912 Others 33,960 32,389 66,349 Source: China Customs HS Code: 100110,100190,110100,190219,19023030,19023090,190240 final CHINA'S WHEAT EXPORTS BY MONTH (1,000 Metric Tons) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 January 61 221 132 28 26 38 February 52 76 69 23 24 25 March 45 108 43 31 37 50 April 203 179 31 35 45 50 May 143 306 32 36 44 49 June 63 347 31 29 47 39 July 118 345 36 38 34 40 August 125 305 36 41 33 51 September 180 358 33 46 47 60 October 67 238 29 41 50 61 November 351 357 29 43 56 52 December 273 411 34 57 59 55 JAN-DEC TOTAL 1,681 3,252 535 449 501 570 (06/07) (07/08) (08/09) (09/10) (10/11) *(11/12) JUL-JUN MY TOTAL 2,351 2,353 379 490 529 319 * year to date Source: PRC Customs HS Code: 100110,100190,110100,190219,19023030,19023090,190240 final Table 11. Rice Trade Table China Rice Imports by Origin MY 2010/2011 (Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sept Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 55,608 134,345 129,189 225,144 544,286 Thailand 22,820 123,656 104,601 92,757 343,834 Vietnam 31,507 4,740 21,545 127,231 185,023 Pakistan 70 141 2,419 16 2,646 Laos 64 3,964 0 4,044 8,072 Myanmar 1,040 1,100 0 1,000 3,140 Uruguay 0 0 0 0 0 Taiwan 18 0 7 0 25 Others 89 744 617 96 1,546 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10061011,10061019,10061091,10061099,10062010,10062090 ,10063010,10063090,10064010,10064090 China Rice Imports by Origin MY 2011/2012 (Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sept Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 134,520 89,531 224,051 Thailand 66,821 61,443 128,264 Vietnam 66,824 18,175 84,999 Pakistan 165 6,069 6,234 Laos 0 3,418 3,418 Myanmar 0 352 352 Uruguay 0 73 73 Taiwan 1 2 3 Others 709 0 709 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10061011,10061019,10061091,10061099,10062010,10062090 ,10063010,10063090,10064010,10064090 China Rice Exports by Destination MY 2010/2011(Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sept Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 103,594 167,955 104,118 145,309 520,976 Korea South 20,572 11,860 23,008 107,675 163,115 Korea North 22,884 33,742 12,243 12,950 81,819 Japan 5,120 216 14,672 1,580 21,588 Vietnam 0 7,736 0 854 8,590 Hong Kong 8,504 7,913 8,290 7,796 32,503 Kenya 0 0 0 0 0 Mongolia 2,474 2,890 750 3,128 9,242 Zimbabwe 0 0 0 0 0 Indonesia 1,123 1,544 433 935 4,035 Yemen 0 0 0 0 0 Others 42,917 102,054 44,722 10,391 200,084 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10061011,10061019,10061091,10061099,10062010,10062090 ,10063010,10063090,10064010,10064090 China Rice Exports by Destination MY 2011/2012(Metric Tons) Country Jul-Sept Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Total World 60,849 205,221 266,070 Korea South 17,610 90,612 108,222 Korea North 20,101 46,947 67,048 Japan 0 11,207 11,207 Vietnam 0 9,748 9,748 Hong Kong 7,217 6,579 13,796 Kenya 4,000 5,548 9,548 Mongolia 3,984 5,111 9,095 Zimbabwe 0 4,921 4,921 Indonesia 2 3,473 3,475 Yemen 0 3,000 3,000 Others 7,935 18,075 26,010 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10061011,10061019,10061091,10061099,10062010,10062090 ,10063010,10063090,10064010,10064090 CHINA'S MONTHLY RICE IMPORTS (Metric Tons, Milled Basis) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 January 106,306 81,658 100,810 27,316 63,124 55,512 February 52,320 37,824 34,306 12,797 10,086 21,818 March 77,026 28,230 36,947 24,217 17,766 51,859 April 61,766 33,538 26,472 24,224 26,495 82,873 May 31,455 23,829 10,568 14,706 30,737 86,908 June 44,157 32,466 4,818 17,699 28,032 55,362 July 41,202 18,382 2,231 14,226 19,596 53,180 August 31,025 17,350 2,805 13,515 13,395 56,549 September 78,904 47,900 5,028 33,882 22,616 24,791 October 52,811 40,742 3,544 23,319 6,369 16,391 November 45,570 40,404 17,317 40,976 30,379 12,832 December 96,468 69,219 50,724 90,655 97,597 60,308 TOTAL 719,010 767,111 295,570 337,532 366,192 578,383 HS Codes: 1006.1011, 1006.1019, 1006.1091, 1006.1099, 1006.2010, 1006.2090,1006.3010, 1006.3090, 1006.4010, 1006.4090 Source: PRC Customs CHINA'S MONTHLY RICE EXPORTS (Metric Tons, Milled Basis) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 January 132,225 89,970 137,767 45,195 67,680 56,058 February 103,195 161,320 207,315 69,801 68,638 16,606 March 66,573 179,239 255,400 68,245 90,580 31,454 April 107,292 61,364 31,940 139,096 67,969 42,139 May 101,494 51,144 14,414 74,034 34,236 68,646 June 92,886 57,329 10,955 61,710 18,258 34,525 July 79,838 87,746 23,827 49,176 51,745 12,101 August 88,380 110,516 95,414 26,845 19,269 21,131 September 75,221 57,974 48,559 36,461 32,580 27,617 October 108,215 127,126 56,541 72,593 51,900 36,740 November 114,142 161,460 46,941 66,145 47,474 110,657 December 167,439 194,471 40,245 73,801 68,582 57,825 TOTAL 1,236,899 1,339,658 969,317 783,102 618,911 515,499 HS Codes: 1006.1011, 1006.1019, 1006.1091, 1006.1099, 1006.2010, 1006.2090 1006.3010, 1006.3090, 1006.4010, 1006.4090 Source: PRC Customs Table 12. Barley Trade Table China Barley Imports by Origin, MY 2010/2011 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 357,979 234,597 695,434 368,992 1,657,002 Australia 170,800 178,753 466,858 278,946 1,095,357 France 155,719 27,363 117,084 38,873 339,039 Canada 31,460 26,481 28,151 86 86,178 Argentina 0 0 83,341 51,087 134,428 Denmark 0 2,002 0 0 2,002 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 0 0 0 0 0 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10030010,10030090 China Barley Imports by Origin, MY 2011/12 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 476,540 476,540 Australia 330,390 330,390 France 55,946 55,946 Canada 48,928 48,928 Argentina 41,276 41,276 Denmark 0 0 Germany 0 0 Mexico 0 0 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10030010,10030090 China Barley Exports by Destination, MY 2010/2011(Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 4044 2445 1626 1184 9,299 Korea South 4026 2357 1191 1170 8,744 United States 6 15 7 15 43 Hong Kong 1 0 0 0 1 Korea North 10 0 1 0 11 Philippines 0 0 1 0 1 Russia 0 72 0 0 72 Sri Lanka 1 0 0 0 1 Taiwan 0 0 5 0 5 Uzbekistan 0 0 420 0 420 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10030010,10030090 China Barley Exports by Destination, MY 2011/2012 (Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 1025 1025 Korea South 1022 1022 United States 3 3 Hong Kong 0 0 Korea North 0 0 Philippines 0 0 Russia 0 0 Sri Lanka 0 0 Taiwan 0 0 Uzbekistan 0 0 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10030010,10030090 Table 13. Sorghum Trade Table China Sorghum Import by Origin, MY 2010/2011(Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 3983 0 50 0 4,033 Australia 3486 0 0 0 3,486 Canada 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 Myanmar 497 0 50 0 547 Source: China Customs China Sorghum Import by Origin, MY 2011/2012(Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 0 Australia 0 Canada 0 Japan 0 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10070010,10070090 China Sorghum Export by Destination, MY 2010/2011(Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 13,306 18,616 14,929 20,940 67,791 Taiwan 10,978 16,484 13,984 20,544 61,990 Korea South 2,133 909 682 249 3,973 Korea North 0 0 3 15 18 Japan 48 55 119 100 322 Spain 0 0 0 0 0 Sweden 13 9 12 0 34 Malaysia 39 21 20 20 100 United States 21 0 23 4 48 Germany 0 6 0 0 6 Others 74 1,132 86 8 1,300 Source: China Customs China Sorghum Export by Destination, MY 2011/2012(Metric Tons) Country Oct-Dec Jan-Mar April-Jun Jul-Sept Total World 14,217 14,217 Taiwan 8,215 8,215 Korea South 3,369 3,369 Korea North 2,504 2,504 Japan 49 49 Spain 25 25 Sweden 24 24 Malaysia 20 20 United States 6 6 Germany 3 3 Others 2 2 Source: China Customs HS Codes:10070010,10070090
Posted: 23 March 2012

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