Biotechnology in Egypt

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Egypt

Posted on: 11 Aug 2010

Although it has not produced any commercial biotechnology crops, Egypt leads the Middle East and North Africa region in the development and acceptance of agricultural biotechnology

Voluntary - Public Date: 7/15/2009 GAIN Report Number: EG9012 Egypt Post: Cairo Biotechnology Report Categories: Biotechnology Approved By: Peter Kurz Prepared By: Salah Mansour Report Highlights: Although Egypt has planted GM corn and cotton in several regions throughout the country to conduct field trails, the situation of biotechnology in Egypt is rather complex in that stalled progress on commercial planting approval for Mon 810 results from bureaucratic territoriality, lack of institutional development, mistakes on the commercial side, the Parliament?s involvement, in addition to some political issues. Executive Summary: Egypt consumes large quantities of biotech products such as corn and soybeans. Although it has not produced any commercial biotechnology crops, Egypt leads the Middle East and North Africa region in the development and acceptance of agricultural biotechnology. The Ministry of Agriculture is a strong supporter of biotechnology. Egypt is a large consumer of agricultural products (such as corn, soybeans, soy meal, and vegetable oils) derived through modern biotechnology and imported from the United States and Argentina. The government continues to maintain a general import policy that allows imports so long as the product imported is also consumed in the countries of origin. The Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) has developed a number of GM products for commercialization by working with leading biotechnology companies and universities in the United States, but still need to resolve some issues to commercialize potatoes and squash; including IPR issues and conducting risk assessment and food biosafety analysis. GMO products that AGERI has considered in research are: tuber moth and fungal -resistant potatoes, virus-resistant squash, sugar cane, figs, and tomatoes, corn borer-resistant, drought resistant, fungal resistant maize, and drought-tolerant rice and wheat. However, through collaboration with Monsanto, Cotton Research Institute (CRI) has developed an insect-resistant long-staple GM cotton strain, which is considered the crop #1 for commercialization. Despite the relatively advanced research and development, Egypt has made in agricultural biotechnology, public awareness about biotechnology is very limited and often either misconceived or misunderstood. Egyptian government leaders recognize the importance of biotechnology as a tool for national and global development and have set excellence in biotechnology and genetic engineering as a national goal. In 2008, U.S. has concluded a comprehensive program to help Egypt to establish a competent authority and to set a system for practical biotechnology applications. General Information: Biotechnology Trade and Production: Genetic engineering programs in Egypt started in 1990. In 1992 a cooperative research agreement was reached between AGERI and ABSP (Agricultural Biotechnology for Sustainability Productivity Project) to develop Egypt?s agricultural system and make it more friendly working environment. Teams of scientists from both Egypt and the United States were established to address specific commodity constraints and policy issues such as biosafety and intellectual property rights, and management and networking within the project. To date, Egypt has not produced any commercial biotechnology crops. Research is conducted on the following crops, which have not yet reached the stage of commercial release: Potatoes, engineered to resist infestation by potato tuber moth as well as developing fungal resistance varieties, developed through a collaboration involving AGERI, the ABSP project, and the International Potato Center?s (CIP) regional office in Egypt. Varieties of importance to Egypt have been transformed and are being field- tested. The project is at the threshold of commercialization. The mechanism to move the tuber-moth-resistant potatoes from the research arena to the commercial arena is still being explored and will be the focus of future efforts. AGERI has conducted six successive seasons of field-testing, but can?t be commercialized for IPR reasons as well as the need for conducting food biosafety analysis and risk assessment. Squash plants, resistant to a major viral pathogen, resulted from cooperation between two Egyptian research institutes, AGERI and the Horticulture Research Institute (HRI), and the ABSP project. They have been doing their trails for six seasons, and it hasn?t been commercialized yet. Yellow varieties of maize, modified for resistance to borers, applying technology produced by two international companies (Monsanto and Pioneer). AGERI has no gene to work with. These were the first GMOs BT maize to be imported into Egypt by the private sector for the purpose of field trials. In April 2007 and after receiving the necessary approvals, Monsanto? through a local company- has planted a variety called Ageeb yellow grain, which is GM corn with Mon 810 to resist corn borers. The GM corn has already been planted in four sites (Sids in Kafr El-Sheikh, Nubaria (new reclaimed lands), army farm at Cairo-Alexandria desert road, and El-Gharbia governorate). The company used 960 kilograms of GM imported seeds. The areas cultivated with these varieties varied from 4-80 acres. The small areas were allocated in the old land and the large areas in the newly reclaimed land. The area left around each farm ranges between 15-20 meters. In year 2008 Ageeb yg was the first GM crop to be commercialized in the country. The Egyptian government allowed the importation of about 28 tons of the transgenic corn seeds in to the Egyptian market for the purpose of the use as silage, but in the year 2009 the NBC stopped any more importation of any more transgenic corn seeds from outside the country (mainly south Africa) with the intension of completing the Biosafety framework in the country; yet they allowed the company to plant all the seeds (GM) that was produced locally to be planted in the new reclaimed areas. The National Biosafety Committee (NBC) was approached by another private sector company in Egypt with the intention of commercializing three corn varieties carrying the sane Bt genes as the already approved version (Bt corn- Mon810) for feed this year. Cotton, Egypt may be on the verge of launching the country?s first commercially grown genetically modified crop, a strain of cotton that could save the industry millions of pounds every year by boosting output and virtually eliminating chemical crop spraying. AGERI and CRI- both under Agriculture Research Center (ARC)- has found a commercial partner in the Monsanto Company, the US-based producer of the world No. 1 herbicide. The new cotton crop will contain a gene purchased from Monsanto that makes the plants resistant to certain insects, but it will retain its unique Egyptian characteristics in every other respect. The new plants produce the sought-after long staple fibers for which Egypt known. The selection was done by the breeders, making the collaboration a multi-disciplinary approach. The new cottonseeds contain a patented gene. Any future user of the gene must pay a royalty to Monsanto, but advocates say that increased output, along with the amount farmers will save on chemical fertilizers, will more than cover the price of the switchover. In May 2007 and for the first time, field trials of the new long staple cotton varieties namely Giza 86, 89,90,91,96 - have been cultivated under the supervision of AGERI. The mount used is 22 kilograms of cottonseeds planted in two areas: Bani Suief and El-Gemaiza, both are demonstrated plots at ARC working stations, one is 2 acres and the other is six acres, Wheat: Scientists in Egypt are in the process of producing drought-tolerant wheat by transferring genes called HVA1, P. Man, and P. Fructane from barely into a local wheat variety at AGERI facilities and at Sinai. These varieties are also resistant to salinity. AGERI is also trying some GM wheat varieties that are resistant to some insects that affects the harvest in the silos. Rice: Trials are also being conducted on rice in cooperation with EU by using tissue culture techniques at the Rice Research and Training Center in Sakha to overcome sterility in some japonica crosses, and to fix inherited traits such as protein content and starch characteristics. Research on the use of biofertilzers to increase rice yields in Egypt has demonstrated the beneficial effects of the blue-green algae, Cyanobacteria, for rice growth and yield increase. The Ministry of Agriculture has set up a program for the production of sufficient Cyanobacteria inoculum, to cover an area of about one million feddan (400,000 ha). Steps have been taken regarding the biosafety requirements in order to increase the level of plantation. The process for securing commercial release approval for crops genetically engineered outside of Egypt has an added step. The applicant must first obtain a permit for importing the initial seed material from the Supreme Committee for Food Safety (SCFS), Ministry of Health. The permit is then presented to the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) and the Seed Registration Committee (SRC), after which the seed is imported into the country. From this point forward, the remaining steps in the approval are exactly the same as for GMOs developed within Egypt. Procedures for commercializing GMO crops were established in 1998 by Ministerial decree No. 1648. For varieties produced within Egypt, the process is as follows: The applicant completes a permit application form providing details of the genetic material introduced, the process used for inserting it, and other relevant information. The applicant also provides data from food and feed safety studies and evidence supporting a determination of low or negligible environment risk. Where applicable, the applicant provides documents indicating approved of similar GMO?s for release in their country of origin. The application is submitted to the NBC, which, after examination and approval, forwards it to the SRC for their preliminary approval to proceed with standard field trials conducted at several locations. The SRC assigns a team of qualified inspectors drawn from relevant ARC units and/or private certified laboratories to supervise cultivation, ensure adherence to any biosafety requirements, confirm the new phenotype, and evaluate agronomic performance. The NBC has the right to confirm the nature of the genetic modification by taking samples from the field for molecular analysis. After successful completion of the field trials and submission of a report to the NBC, the NBC authorizes the applicant to submit an application to the SRC for final approval to commercially release the new variety. Pending this, three-year seasons of agronomic performance trails are conducted under the supervision of the SRC. Egypt is in the final stages of developing its own biotechnology products. The government continues to maintain a general import policy that allows imports so long as they are also consumed in the countries of origin. Biotechnology Policy: Responsible government ministries and their role The Ministry of Agriculture is a strong supporter of biotechnology, and its AGERI is developing a number of GM products for commercialization by working with leading biotechnology companies and universities in the United States. An-interministerial committee chaired by the Minister of Agriculture is responsible for formulating policy on biotechnology. AGERI is the main research body of agricultural biotechnology in Egypt. It is a part of the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), which is directed by the Ministry of Agriculture. Although there has been some collaboration with international firms in the private sector, AGERI has relied primarily on its own scientific resources. This explains the relatively slow progress of biotechnology in Egypt. AGERI has been working on a wide range of species, primarily on developing pest and disease resistance and drought tolerance. Species being worked on have included potato, tomato, cotton, corn, fava bean, cucurbits, wheat, banana, and date palm. It has received assistance from USAID in the past and this has encouraged some joint research with U.S. agricultural institutions. Although Egypt has ratified the Cartagena Protocol, it does not have national legislation on biotech. It has a general government policy regarding the importation of genetically modified crops into Egypt based on law # 53 for 1966. At present, there is no requirement to label GM food products but labeling will be required in the law. AGERI has high creditability with countries of the region in explaining the benefits of biotechnology, and officials from all over the region have been astonished and pleased to learn about Egyptian advances in biotechnology. Egypt is a convincing example of how developing countries will benefit from biotechnology. Table 1. Laboratories Located at AGERI Name of Laboratory Molecular Plant Pathology Molecular Manipulation and Gene Transfer Plant Molecular Biology Molecular Genetics and Genetic Mapping Micro Propagation Technology Plant Cellular and Molecular Genetics Immunology and Diagnosis Name of Laboratory Protein Nucleic Acid Sequencing and Synthesis Gene Expression Biocomputer and Network The Ministries of Health, Agriculture, and Higher Education and Scientific Research control almost all food policy decisions in Egypt. In addition, the Ministries of Foreign Trade and Industry, Supply and Home Trade, and Finance control the flow of food imports and exports through Egypt. Ministry of Agriculture: The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for arranging events and seminars that would explain biotechnology to farmers and to the public. It works closely with the Ministry of Health and is the main authority responsible for food cultivation issues. Within the Ministry, the Central Administration for Seed Testing and Certification (CASC) controls, tests, and registers new plant varieties. There are three bodies responsible for food safety and control: the Reference Laboratory for Safety Analysis of Food of Animal Origin (RLSAFAO); the Regional Laboratory for Food and Feed (GLFF); and the Food Biosafety System (FBS). To help in achieving this goal AGERI is hosting one of the ISAAA nodes EBIC (Egyptian Biotechnology Information Center) which addresses the public explaining the real benefit of the use of biotechnology applications. Ministry of Health: The Ministry of Health has different specialized departments and is charged with maintaining and improving the overall health of the population. Its responsibilities include: approving all food products for sale in Egypt, supervising food quality, regulating the use of preservatives in foods, and ensuring that products are labeled properly with expiration dates. The ministry has the following committees and organizations: The Supreme Committee for Food Safety ensures the safety of food production and consumption and controls food import permitting. The National Organization for Drug Control and Research overseas pharmaceutical research and controls distribution. Food Safety and Control General Directorate (FSCGD) The Central Public Health Laboratories (CPHL) The National Nutrition Institute (NNI) Egyptian Standardization organization (ESO) Ministry of Foreign Trade and Industry (MOFTI): The ministry executes its activities through the following organizations: The Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control (EOS) sets the standards for food and industrial products whether imported or locally produced. The General Organization for Export and Import Control Authority (GOEIC) Ministry of Environment: The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency ensures implementation of the Environmental Protection Law in Egypt. MOE is the focal point for the implementation of Cartagena protocol Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research: The ministry plays a complementary role to the Ministry of Agriculture. They both feed information to the Ministry of Health. If technology appears to be harmful, the ministry would oppose it. The main research body of the ministry is the National Research Center (NRC). The center arranges regular seminars that are attended by officials in government agencies. It has held seminars on food biotechnology in the past. Ministry of Supply and Home Trade: Controls the flow of imports and exports through Egypt, and has significant influence on the movement of GM food and agricultural products. In 1993, Al-Azhar University established a Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology to develop applications for fungi and biotechnology. Currently it carries out research in different subjects including biosynthesis of new forms of antimicrobial agents, metabolic regulations of mycotoxines production, fungi and allergy and fungal biotechnology, and biodegradations and biotransformations and enzymes. Role and membership of biosafety committee Egypt has a fairly advanced biosafety system, and it has ratified the Cartagena Protocol. In 1995, the Ministry of Agriculture formally instituted Egypt?s national biosafety system. A National Biosafety Committee (NBC) was established and includes representatives from the ministries of agriculture, education, industry, health, environmental affairs, private sector, policy makers, and consultants knowledgeable in policy and applicable laws, and non-technical members. The initial committee consisted of 10 members. Subsequent appointments expanded membership to 30. Current members include seven representatives from the ministries of Agriculture, Health, Environment, Industry, and Commerce; one representative from the Egyptian Academy of Science and Technology; 12 members from academic institutions; one attorney, eight people from government research institutes, and one seed expert. Based on area of expertise, members are appointed to one of three subcommittees that specialize in agriculture (crops), environment (biopesticides, biofertilzers, agents for bioremediation), and health (pharmaceuticals, human, and veterinary vaccines). The committee is responsible for ensuring the safe use of biotechnology products and facilitating access to modern biotechnolgy generated abroad. The system involves several ministries, organizations, and government agencies involved with the importation, exportation, and local production of natural products. The committee establishes policies and procedures to govern the use of modern biotechnology. This includes publishing the National Biosafety Committee guidelines (NBC guidelines) to be followed at the national level. The committee also provides technical advice to the regulatory authorities and institutions responsible for the development of biotechnology in Egypt. The guidelines describe the modalities of use, handling, transfer, and testing of GMOs. They address laboratory practices, greenhouse containment, and small-scale field-testing. Duties of the committee include formulating, implementing and updating biosafety guidelines, conducting risk assessment, issuing permits for field trials, coordinating with national and international organizations. The biosafety guidelines are not legally binding. They have only advisory status. There are no details regarding review, decision making, and reporting processes, and they have not been well publicized within the country. Nevertheless, the guidelines have functioned since 1995, with 56 approval and renewal (about 50% each) for small-scale field trials issued and several GM crops moving toward placing on the market. There is also an Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC). The NBC requires that all institutions conducting R-DNA research assemble an IBC. The IBC is responsible for insuring that the R-DNA is carried out in full conformity with the provision of the NBC guidelines. The IBC may establish additional procedures as deemed necessary to govern its institution?s activities. The IBC designates a biologic safety officer (BSO) that meets the requirements of NBC and who should be familiar with biosafety. Political factors that may influence regulatory decisions Egyptian government leaders recognize the importance of biotechnology as a tool for national and global development and have set excellence in biotechnology and genetic engineering as a national goal. The Egyptian government made a strategic decision that the first commercialized GMOs would be products of Egypt?s AGERI/NRC, rather than imported products grown commercially in their country of origin. In this way, the public?s introduction to biotechnology would be in the form of preferred local varieties engineered to overcome local diseases or pests problems-products developed at home to benefit Egyptian farmers, growers and consumers. Problems cited for the slow passage of GM crops to commercial stage include the lack of capacity to negotiate licenses to use genes and research techniques patented by others, especially for crops with export potential. In addition, there are difficulties in meeting regulatory requirements and a lack of effective public commercialization modalities and working extension networks. One of the problems is the lack of a dynamic private sector to take technologies to the farmer. It has also been estimated that regulatory costs might exceed the costs of research and experimentation needed to develop a given GM crop, which is the major problem in releasing such crops to the market. The Egyptian position in biotechnology issue is in the middle between the U.S. and Europe as Egypt chose to take the neutral situation in order not to disturb its trade with EU, but Egypt has already approved a GM Corn variety in the market after making sure of its safety Environmental requirements Egypt has no required environmental tests for GMO products. In addition to a field testing, an environmental risk assessment in the country is required by NBC for any ready to be commercialized crop. Field-testing of biotechnology crops A standard permit application form is used to request NBC approval of a proposed greenhouse study or field test. Upon submission of the application, all members of the appropriate subcommittee are given copies, and one member is designated the principal investigator. The principal investigator, who may consult with other subcommittee members, is assigned to thoroughly review the application, visit the field test location, inspect the facilities, and submit a report to the NBC. The proposed release is then discussed at a meeting of the full NBC, where a decision is made to issue or deny the requested permit. When a committee member is the applicant or had been involved in the research leading to the GMO to be considered, that member does not vote on the application. Applications for field-testing genetically modified plant material are submitted to the chair of the NBC. Genetically modified material to be imported requires an import permit that must be obtained in advance from the Supreme Committee on Food Safety, Ministry of Health and Population. Requests should be made a minimum of eight weeks prior to the proposed initiation of the importation or field test. The NBC, as the lead agency, sends duplicate copies to secondary agencies for their assessment (i.e. Supreme Committee on Food Safety), as applicable. Reviews from the secondary agencies are returned to the NBC, and a final assessment is performed. From this, a decision is made whether to authorize the field test. Mitigation procedures are taken to protect confidential information, such as exact trial sites, plasmid maps, and exact genetic change. Other information may initially be designated confidential; however its confidentiality is subject to provisions in the Access to Information and Privacy Act. Field-test permit applications must describe the plant species modified to exhibit a specific trait, to be tested at a specific location in a specific year. In Egypt, approval by the NBC to conduct a field test does not require the applicant to submit a report at its conclusion. During seed registration trials, an appointed team of inspectors carries out monitoring. As the purpose of the trial is to evaluate variety performance, monitoring is conducted primarily to ensure compliance with biosafety requirements, not to collect biosafety data. The biosafety system was developed in a way in which components are added only as they become necessary. For example, testing requirements for GMO seed certification were not clarified until the first applications for commercial release were submitted to SRC. Table 2. Crops under field trials Crop Cotton Wheat Maize Potato Melon Water melon Banana Sugar Cane Squash Cucumber Tomato Recombinant DNA construct Labeling requirements for packaged foods or feeds No decisions on the labeling of GMO-based food products have been made, as those products are not yet being sold in supermarkets. Egyptian law does not require that biotech crops or products that are utilized, consumed, or imported have a special approval or labeling, but the governmental authorities deal with biotech products as it deals with non- biotech products. In addition, there is no approval needed for importing biotech products. Egypt requires restrictive labeling for imports of food products in general, but there is no special labeling requirement for biotech packaged or non-packaged products. The expected new law will require labeling for GMO?s products. The Egyptian Standardization Organization (ESO) is working to develop a labeling for the GM crop that implies with Cartagena protocol. Trade barriers that hurt U.S. exports U.S. agricultural exports to Egypt currently face no import restrictions as a result of policy towards agricultural biotechnology. However, this could change if organizations such as the Ministry of Environment continue on their negative and often confusing rhetoric about the ?potential risk? of agricultural biotechnology and the need for Egypt to ?align itself with Europe on this issue rather than the United States?. The Ministry of Environment praises the European regulatory regime on agricultural biotechnology, which requires traceability, and labeling of products that are derived through modern biotechnology. Pending legislation that may affect U.S. exports The Ministry of Environment is taking the leadership role in drafting Egypt?s biosafety legislation and implementation regulations, which may complicate trading with Egypt. However, the draft biosafety legislation is not expected to be passed this year, but expected to be presented to the two legislative bodies during the new parliament year, which will start November 2009. After resolving the dispute between the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Environment, the draft is now in the Parliament ready for discussion. Marketing: There are mixed feelings about the benefits of food and agricultural biotechnology. While some people acknowledge that biotechnology may improve food quality and availability, they are also concerned about the cost of the technology. There is a belief that biotechnology could drive up prices for raw materials, ingredients, and seeds. In addition to the price, there is concern with religious beliefs Studies useful for the U.S. export community or U.S. policy makers Biotechnology market research: Global Based Initiative (GBI), a report for the GBI participants; Promar International, Morgan & Myers, & Roper Media and public Affairs (NOP World), August 2004. Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project (ABSP), Egypt Project Final Report. A project submitted by Dr. Johan Brink, supported by USAID and implemented by Michigan State University, 2002. Analysis of a National Biosafety System: Regulatory polices and Procedures in Egypt, Magdy Madkour, Amin El-Nawawy, and Patricia Traynor, Report prepared by AGERI and International service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), country report 62, 2000. Capacity Building and Outreach: USDA funded capacity building and outreach activities USAID financed the AGERI state-of-the art office complex building in 1990. In 2002, post organized a workshop for more than 15 regional Codex committee members, which was attended by Egyptian media and TV people. Post also developed a multi-year regional outreach program in cooperation with AGERI?s Biotech Information Center in 2003, and a number of activities were implemented to better inform stakeholders in the region about the benefits of agricultural biotechnology. A USDA Biotechnology Assessment Team has visited Cairo during the period Feb 16-22, 2006. The team has set-up a two phases activities funded by USAID to develop a Competent National Authority for Biosafety. FAS has seeked the support of the USDA agencies- APHIS, FDA, EPA, and others to provide government- to-government regulatory and policy information and guidance. FAS has also worked closely with the U.S. private and non-governmental sectors in implementing these activities. The project was broken into two phases. Phase 1: policy and regulatory development and phase 2: Assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture?s Competent National Authority. All activities under this program were completed in December 2008. The project has made significant progress in addressing Egypt?s need for a functioning Biosafety regulatory system. In the almost three years since its initiation, Egypt has moved from a completely stalled process to having three biotechnology crops in field trials and the approved of one event (Bt Corn-Mon810). With the approval of this event, Egypt became the first country in the Middle East and North Africa to approach the commercialization of an agricultural biotechnology crop. Following are the activities that have been implemented under the project: Round table workshop of ?Best International Practices for Biotechnology Regulatory System?, Sharm El- Sheikh, Egypt, 5-6 September 2006. ?Biotechnology Short Course? A workshop conducted with cooperation with Michigan State University, and AGERI, Cairo, March 19-21, 2007. Training on Biosafety permit Processing In Netherlands and Belgium. Two trips were organized for two experts from AGERI on March 11-17, 2007 and June 4-10, 2007 to review practical biotechnology applications. Environmental Risk Assessment for Release of Genetically Modified Crops Plants, AGERI, Cairo, April 15-18, 2007. Egyptian Legislators Study Tour on Canadian Regulations of Agricultural biotechnology. Ten legislators including heads of committees of Agriculture, health, and economics at People?s Assembly and Shura council have visited Canada during the period July 22-28, 2007. Five scientists from AGERI were trained on ?Field Trial Inspection? at University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska during the period July 28-August 3, 2007. Borlaug Fellowship Program: Seven young scientists have participated in this program, which have taken place in U.S. universities and research centers. A member of NBC has traveled to Belgium in September 2008 to meet with experts on European Union Biosafety laws and regulations. The objectives of the trip was to provide NBC with a through understanding of the proposed changes to the EU Biosafety regulations, and the effect these changes will have on Egypt. USDA has provided $5,000 funding for the development of the NBC website. This website allows the NBC to publish its regulations and procedures in a transparent manner and in the process institutionalize these procedures Future strategies The movement of the Biosafety law has not been addressed in the Parliament, hoping that it will be discussed and passed in the 2009/2010 session. This is the legislation that was stalled in the Parliament for about three years and thus created the need for the MOA to implement its own regulations, which have been quite effective. These new Biosafety regulations, if passed in the peoples? Assembly, would supersede the MOA regulations. USDA has a contract with an International expert, which will end this year to provide support and technical assistance to the NBC and MOA. There is need for assistance regarding procedures for GM risk analysis especially in regard to environment and food use. There is a possibility of using Embassy Science Fellow (ESF) program to provide 1-3 months short courses. A group of three Egyptian NBC secretariats will attend the ?Biotech Regulation Immersion? course which will start as a pilot in the University of Missouri, Columbia in August 2009. Author Defined: Appendix A. Table of biotechnology products approaching commercialization Crop Trait category Cotton Resistance to certain insects such as leaf worm and boll worm Wheat Drought tolerance Maize (already Resistance to stem borers, and approved) resistant to drought and fungal Rice Drought resistance Potato Resistance to infestation by potato tuber moth and fungal resistance varieties Squash Resistance to a major viral pathogen (ZYMV) Sugar cane Virus resistance Figs Virus resistance
Posted: 11 August 2010

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