The Ghanaian market continues to offer many opportunities for U.S. exporters of consumer-ready food products and remains a key access point for entry into the West Africa region.
THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE
BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S.
GAIN Report Number: GH1005
2010 Annual Report Update
Marcela Rondon and Elmasoeur Ashitey
The Ghanaian market continues to offer many opportunities for U.S. exporters of consumer-ready
food products and remains a key access point for entry into the West Africa region. Demand for
these products is expanding rapidly in Ghana, while the U.S. share has remained relatively low at
only 5 percent. This report presents background information and tips for exporters interested in
entering this market.
SECTION I MARKET OVERVIEW
Ghana is an important U.S. agricultural export market and offers expanding market opportunities
due to its remarkable record of economic growth as well as its liberal import policies. Ghana?s
estimated population of 23.8 million is growing at approximately 2.1 percent annually. Also, the
Government of Ghana (GOG) is positioning Ghana as the gateway to the larger West African
market (over 250 million people).
Ghana?s agricultural sector is largely subsistence-based, and employs over 60 percent of the
population and contributes about 37 percent of GDP. Agricultural growth for 2010 is estimated at 5
percent but this rate may not be achieved due to the recent floods in the northern part of Ghana.
Ghana?s agriculture consists of 80 percent crop production, 10 percent livestock, poultry and fishery
production, and 10 percent forestry. Domestically produced food products that are traditionally
consumed in Ghana include cereals (corn, rice, sorghum), tubers (cassava, yam), beans, and other
local fruits and vegetables. Despite some growth in the agriculture sector, Ghana remains a major
importer of agricultural food products, including bulk commodities such as rice and consumer-ready
food products such as poultry. There is a high demand for imported food products, especially
consumer ready products, due to the limited selection of products provided by the underdeveloped
domestic agricultural and food processing sector in Ghana. The leading suppliers of intermediate
and processed products to Ghana are the EU, Asia and South Africa. U.S. exporters are advised to
explore entering the expanding Ghanaian market and those interested in doing business in Ghana
can seek assistance of the USDA/FAS office in Accra to develop business relationships with local
companies, importers, and agents.
Ghana operates a relatively free market, and most tariffs are low. Ghana has stated its commitment
to the ECOWAS Common External Tariff (CET) which it adopted in 2005 and is implementing it.
Ghana harmonized its tariff rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with those of the ECOWAS. Although
Ghana has been slow to take full advantage of the enhanced market access offered under the African
Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), it is increasing efforts in this area.
Ghana was the second country (after Cote d?Ivoire), to sign an interim bilateral Economic
Partnership Agreement (referred to as EPA-light) with the European Commission in December
2007. The implementation of this agreement eliminated most tariffs on virtually all of Ghana?s
exports to Europe and on 80 percent of imports from the EU over the next 12 years (2022).
Advantages and Challenges
Ghana?s population of 23.8 million is The average per capita income in Ghana is
growing at an annual rate of nearly 2.1 estimated at $746.40. The monthly minimum
percent per annum. wage in Ghana is $62.2.
The Government of Ghana (GOG), in line Some freight consolidators in the United
with its WTO obligations, has liberalized States are unwilling or unable to meet
trade. ordering and shipping requirements of
Ghana has an active and entrepreneurial U.S. consumer ready foods are not readily
middle class and a fast growing private available in Ghana, while products from EU,
sector. South Africa, and Asia are in greater supply.
The HRI sector is expanding and is requiring Some U.S. firms view Ghana as too small a
more consumer ready products and market for entry.
Ghanaian consumption patterns have changed U.S. consumer ready foods typically have
towards Western foods as a result of shorter shelf life labeling and longer transit
urbanization, women working outside the times, thereby reducing shelf life of U.S.
home and shift in lifestyles of the large youth products in Ghana.
Middle-class incomes are rising and there is Infrastructure in Ghana is poor, energy and
higher demand for healthy foods. The retail production costs are increasing. The
sector is shifting to more western style shops infrastructure for processing, storage and
and convenience stores. distribution of consumer ready foods and
other perishable products is limited in Ghana.
U.S. grocery items entering Ghana can be re- The tropical climate is not conducive to
exported to neighboring West African displaying many imported food products in
countries (a market of 250 million people). the traditional open air-markets which still
remain prevalent in Ghana.
Ghana will continue to import HVP items as Most retail food outlets lack the expertise and
most are not produced domestically. Ghana?s capital needed to modernize and expand to
domestic food processing capacity is still meet the demands of the increasing retail
under-developed. market in Ghana.
Increasing rural to urban migration is raising Some U.S. exporters are not as responsive to
demand for consumer ready foods. Ghanaian importer requests regarding price quotations,
consumers perceive U.S. consumer ready packaging and documentation as their EU and
foods as being of high-quality and demand Asian competitors.
for these is growing.
SECTION II: EXPORTER BUSINESS TIPS
General and Agricultural Trade Situation
Ghana operates in a relatively free market environment and aims to make itself the gateway to the
larger West African market. Ghana is a significant exporter and importer, with total exports of all
products estimated at $5.73 billion (gold, cocoa, timber, diamonds) and imports estimated at $8.44
billion (petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, industrial raw materials) in 2009.
Ghana?s agricultural product imports in 2009 are estimated to be at 800 million down, from $1
billion due to the high cost of products (according to unpublished trade data). Ghana is an important
U.S. agricultural export market of bulk, consumer oriented commodities. Ghana is a major purchaser
of U.S. rice, poultry, and high-value food products (processed fruits and vegetables, vegetable oils,
fruit and vegetable juices, wines and beer, sugars and sweeteners) and forest products such as
hardwood lumber, and panel products. Major export competitors for the Ghanaian market are the
EU, South Africa and Asia. Ghana continues to maintain strong trade relations with the EU,
especially the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Trading with Asia, especially China, has
increased dramatically in the past few years.
In 2009 Ghana?s agricultural exports were approximately $1.6 billion, primarily wood and timber
products and cocoa (which accounts for two-thirds of total agricultural exports). Major export
destinations were the EU and the United States. In 2009, Ghana remained a net exporter of
agricultural, fish and forestry products to the United States. Ghanaian exports of these products to
the U.S. in 2009 reached $115 up from $77.7 million in 2008 due to larger cocoa bean and
processed cocoa product (cocoa paste and cocoa butter) shipments and forest products.
US Agricultural Exports to Ghana
The U.S. export of agricultural, fish and forestry products to Ghana in 2009 is $52 million down
from $86.5 million (FAS BICO data). Poultry and rice make up the largest portion of these US
exports. The downward trend in US exports in 2009 to Ghana occurred because there were no
exports of U.S. wheat to Ghana that year.
US Agricultural Export to Ghana CY 2009
Source: FAS BICO Report
US Agricultural Export to Ghana CY 2009
Source: FAS BICO Report
Buyers? Preferences and Regulations
Ghanaian importers prefer consumer-ready products with the following characteristics:
? Relatively small-sized products prepared and packaged for one-time use;
? Bulk, intermediate products and ingredients that can easily be re-packaged in Ghana without
huge additional production costs;
? Perishable food products processed and packaged for long shelf-life, and not requiring much
refrigeration (such as milk powder, instant beverage drinks, etc);
? Mixed containers of high-value products and brands;
? Food products packaged with long ?Best Before? dates.
Product Registration and Regulations
All processed food products must be registered with the Food and Drugs Board (FDB), Ghana, prior
to being exported to Ghana. The FDB is the GOG regulatory body for food product manufacturing,
importation, advertisement and distribution in Ghana.
The importer typically pays for the cost of the product registration unless the exporter agrees to pay
this cost. U.S. exporters are advised to contact the FAS/Accra office in Ghana when importers make
such requests from them.
Import Duties and Collections
The Ghana Customs Excise and Preventive Service (CEPS) is the GOG institution responsible for
the collection of import duty. In 2001 the Ghana TradeNet was established to provide a fully
integrated customs management software connected over a network to various operators who
interact with Customs in the processing of import and export transactions to and from Ghana. Some
of these operators include the banks, shipping companies, certification and licensing agencies as
well as users of trade information.
The Ghana TradeNet is made up of two main components:
1. The Ghana Customs Management System (GCMS), which provides the CEPS with a
fully integrated computerized system for the processing and management of Customs
Declarations and related activities. This system is designed to work in an Electronic Data
Interchange (EDI) environment, where Manifests and Single Administrative Documents
(SAD) are electronically received and automatically processed. In 2003 Ghana moved away
from the use of the Automated Customs Management System (ASYCUDA) in processing
Customs Declarations and adopted a modified Direct Trader Input system (DTI) that
provides for online submission of custom documents and duty payments.
Ghana Community Network (GCNet) is a platform enabling GCMS to share data and other
relevant information with all the parties involved in the processing of trade documents and customs
clearances. The GCNet operates a seamless electronic system that links all trade operators, revenue
agencies, and regulatory bodies through a "Single Window? system. The current set up contrasts
sharply with the pre-GCNet situation, when trade operators had to shuttle from one agency to the
other, while processing their trade and Customs transactions.
By using GCNet/GCSM, consignments could be cleared within 1-2 days, however, it takes
practically about a week as opposed to an average of 2-3 weeks clearance time in the past.
Port Concessions and Destination Inspection Scheme
In March 2002, Ghana adopted a port concession by transferring port operations to private sector
operators with the aim to significantly increase Ghana's cargo reception, storage, bonded
warehousing and clearance capabilities, as well as providing consumers with a broader commercial
choice. As such Ghana has become a cargo hub and transit route to land-locked Africa, attracting
more external business through Ghanaian ports and borders.
Ghana abolished pre-shipment inspection in 2000, and replaced it with the Destination Inspection
Scheme [DIS] backed by computerized risk management, X-ray scanning and physical inspection.
Currently, all imported products are subject to destination inspection unless specifically exempted
by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. There are no threshold value exemptions; therefore, all
imported products are subject to inspection, regardless of their value.
Inspection charges are currently pegged at 1% CIF value. Two companies, appointed by the GOG,
provide destination inspection services in Ghana: Gateway Services Limited (GSL) is responsible
for sea freight and Ghana Standards Board and Bureau Veritas (GSBV) is responsible for shipments
arriving by air and land. Depending on the imported goods, custom clearances may require the
approval of the Food and Drugs Board, Ghana Standards Board, National Drug and Nacortics
Board, and other agencies at the ports.
Documentations, Export and Customs Clearing
Method of payment
Letters of Credit (LC) are generally accepted as the method used to speed things up in the payment
of imported goods. The LC can be irrevocable or confirmed. Most importers utilize inter-bank wire
transfers for the payment of their imported goods. The exporter simply ships the items to the
importer upon receipt of his bank transfer payments. To establish an LC, a bank may require a
signed proforma invoice (attested), an Import Declaration Form (IDF), a pre-shipment notification
from the Ghana Shippers Council, a Marine Insurance (normally covered in Ghana but not a
precondition). This process may take up more than two weeks. Upon receipt of the bank transfer, the
cargo is shipped to Ghana. The shipping time from the U.S. to Ghana by sea is about three weeks on
average. Air transport takes about a day. It is advised that confirmed, irrevocable letters of credit
opened by Ghanaian banks with correspondent banks in the United States be used to guarantee
There are various stages in the customs clearance process of cargo from the ports of Ghana. The
process starts with the valuation of the cargo, declaration of cargo data on to the GCNET, payment
of duty and other relevant cargos, verification at the Compliance Section of CEPS, release by the
Shipping Agent, delivery by Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority (GPHA) and CEPS physical
examination or scanning of cargo before cargo is allowed to exit the port. Importers must appoint a
licensed Customs House Agent/clearing agent (Legislative Instrument 1178 1978) with a credible
reputation for the clearance of cargo at any freight station in Ghana. The Clearing agent will do the
following on your behalf:
All consignments imported into the country must be valued for tax and other purposes.
? Submit the final invoice, Import Declaration Form (IDF) from the Ministry of Trade &
Industry, a copy of the Bill of Lading and Packing list (itemizing the value of the packages)
two weeks before arrival of vessel to the designated Destination Inspection Company [DIC]
for preparation of the Final Classification and Valuation Report (FCVR). The FCVR
contains an assessment of the Dutiable Value, Import duty and VAT of the consignment;
? Pick up the Final Classification and Valuation Report [FCVR] from the DIC. Containerized
cargo selected for scanning through the Risk Management System procedure of the
Destination Inspection Companies is also indicated in the FCVR.
Tax Identification Number (TIN)
? 0btain a Tax Identification Number [TIN] form from the Internal Revenue Service
[IRS], if you are a first time importer. Importers require a Tax Identification Number (TIN) for
Customs clearance of commercial goods. The TIN is a unique identification number generated by
the Internal Revenue Service for every tax payer. This number has to be quoted in the entry that the
importer or his representative would send to the GCNET. Without a TIN, customs clearance of
cargo from the port is not allowed.
Entry of Cargo Data onto GCNET
? Submit a declaration on the cargo electronically to Customs through the GCNet which is
routed to the GCMS. The declaration includes;
i. Declaration regime (commercial or for domestic use),
ii. Consignee Name of vessel,
iii. Date of arrival of vessel,
iv. Number of packages Delivery terms (e,g. CIF, FOB,EX WORKS),
v. Total Invoice Value (TIV) as determined by CEPS or Destination Inspection
Company (Breakdown of the TIV into FOB, freight and Insurance),
vi. Break-down of Items per consignment Commodity code of the items (10
vii. Customs Procedure Code (CPC) of commodity (this indicates whether
Consignment is dutiable, free Exempt etc.),
? When the entry is validated, the GCMS generates and sends a response, commonly referred
to as a Declaration, to the front end declarant. The Declaration indicates all the taxes and
tariffs that have to be paid on the consignment and the name of the CEPS officer to verify
Payment of Duty
? Print out a hard copy of the response from GCMS and submit the signed Customs
Declaration and attach all supporting documents such as the Bill of Lading, the Invoice, the
IDF, the FCVR, the Packing List, an IRS Certificate as well as other relevant permits and
documents at either of the GCNet participating banks (i.e. ECOBANK, Ghana Commercial
Bank) in order to make payment. Special Bank Receipts are given to importers or their
representatives to acknowledge payment.
? A hard copy of the Declaration, the Bank receipt, and Bill of Lading and all other relevant
attaching documents are submitted to the designated Officer at CEPS Compliance Section
for Verification of the documents and receipts;
? When no discrepancy is found, the cargo is ruled for First Release [i.e. 'prior to physical
examination] or Final Release [i.e. without physical examination];
? Submit a hard copy of the Customs Declaration, the Bank receipt, and Bill of Lading and all
other relevant documentation as well as the Delivery Order (earlier purchased from the
Shipping Agent) to the Shipping Agents. This is to facilitate preparation of the cargo for
physical examination pending release or immediate release as recommended by the CEPS
? The Delivery Order, (DO) which is in triplicate (green, pink and white or yellow) copies,
must contain information such as the name of the consignee, name of vessel, date of arrival,
port of loading and the particulars of cargo as indicated in the bill of lading. Other
information that must be provided on the delivery order include the Customs House Agent
handling the cargo, the bill of lading number; the container number; the seal number and the
rotation number of the vessel;
? The Shipping Agent, on receipt of the documents, then prepares the bill for the consignment.
After payment of the bill the cargo is authorized for release;
? Effect payment of the relevant GPHA charges at the port;
? Deposit the green copy of the DO with the GPHA Operations for the container to
be dropped within 24 hours at the designated bay for physical examination by
CEPS, if necessary;
? Present Declaration and accompanying documents to CEPS at the port gate to
confirm clearance on the GCMS. GPHA security also checks the waybill covering
the goods before the goods leave the port.
? If your container is to be scanned, then deposit the declaration, the Delivery Order (DO) and
the Interchange or evidence of dropping container on the truck at the CEPS office at the
? Pick up your Scan number [appointment sheet] from the Scan operations office,
? Present the Appointment sheet to the Check-In Agent at the entrance of the scanner,
? Confirm final clearance of container after the scan at the CEPS office at the scanning.
SECTION III: MARKET SECTOR STRUCTURE AND TRENDS
Retail Food Sector
Ghana?s retail food sector consists of supermarkets (accounting for 1 percent of total retail sales),
convenience stores/small grocery stores (30 percent) and traditional open air markets (69 percent).
According to trade sources, retail food sales have grown about 10 percent annually since the
enacting of trade liberalization policies by the GOG in 1991. The relative stability of Ghana is
encouraging the growth of the expatriate population and Ghana is considered the gateway to other
West African countries.
In 2009, consumer-oriented food imports were estimated at $800 million and industry sources
forecast imports could climb to as high as $1 billion by the end of 2009. Some of these products are
re-exported to other African countries. The standard rate of duty for most food products is 20%
(rice) while raw materials are levied a duty of 10% (wheat). A general exemption from payment on
the import duty can be granted on items such as ingredients for the manufacture of poultry feeds if
certified as such by the Ministry of Agriculture. The major players for distributing imported
consumer oriented foods in Ghana are importers/distributors, wholesalers and retailers.
U.S. exports of consumer-oriented products in 2009 accounted for only 6 percent of total imports of
these products, compared to 35 percent for the EU and 30 percent for Asian and 29 for South Africa
and other suppliers. The low U.S. market share is mostly due to:
? Higher freight charges for shipments from the United States to Ghana. There are few direct
sea routes from the United States and most U.S. goods are transshipped through Europe,
adding to shipping costs;
? Lack of expiry dates/best before labels on some U.S. products creating difficulty for the
Ghanaian importer during clearing process and in marketing products;
? Some U.S. exporters are unwilling to meet Ghanaian importer demands, especially on
product specification and documentation;
? Insufficient contact between U.S. exporters of consumer oriented products and Ghanaian
? Strong competition from traditional suppliers such as Asia, South Africa, and the EU;
Source: Ministry of Trade, Ghana Statistical Service, industry
USDA?s BICO report indicates that the value of U.S. consumer oriented and intermediate food
exports to Ghana in 2009 reached $29.9 million, down from $43 million in 2008 and continue to
slow down in 2010. Poultry meat, breakfast cereals, processed fruits and vegetables, fruit and
vegetable juices, vegetable oils, pet food, and wines and beer make up most of these imports.
Food Processing (FP)
Although food processing is underdeveloped in Ghana, the sector accounts for nearly 30 percent of
Ghana?s manufacturing sector, and according to official sources in the manufacturing industry, has
an estimated 25 percent share of Ghana GDP. Manufacturers are focusing on packaging and selling
products in affordable small units for one-time use in order to boost sales and increase market share.
A growing concern among Ghanaian consumers with regard to food safety and healthy diets are also
increasing demand for higher quality products. As a result, domestic processors are developing and
improving food products in order to meet the needs of this niche market.
There has been increased interest shown by suppliers from the EU, Asia, and South Africa in the
Ghanaian intermediate/food ingredient sector and these suppliers have been quick to adapt to the
requirements of this growing sector. Ghanaian food processors perceive U.S. food ingredient
suppliers as reliable in terms of volume, standards, and quality but U.S. exporters are constrained
? Limited knowledge of the Ghanaian food ingredient market;
? Strong competition from the EU, South Africa, and Asian suppliers;
? Local infrastructure and operational capital are limited and local production costs are high;
? Ghanaian importers lack knowledge of food ingredients available from the U.S;
? Limited contact between Ghanaian businesses and U.S. exporters.
Major Exports to Food Processing Sector
Bulk Intermediate Processed
Corn Starch Baking mixes
Edible and inedible Fat
Dairy Products Yeast & Baking Powder
Ethanol Jam & Jellies
Fruit Juice Concentrate Fruit Mayonnaise
pre-mixes & syrup Salad Dressing
Ice Cream Pre-mixes Sauces, Spices
Other Beverage Bases Tomato Ketchup
Flavors, Sweeteners, Seasonings, etc
Micro nutrients, other
ingredients for food and
feedstuff processing, etc.
Food Service (HRI)
Ghana?s food service sector consists of hotels, restaurants and institutional contracts (HRI). The HRI
sector is valued above $500 million and has been expanding rapidly over the past five years. This
sector represents a growing market for imported food ingredients. Growth in the HRI sector is
driven by economic growth, changing consumption patterns, an expanding tourism sector.
Increasing urbanization, more women working outside the home and changing lifestyle of the large
youth population have led to greater consumption of western style convenience foods. The largest
and fastest growing segment of HRI is the quick service restaurants (QSR) and this segment is
expected to continue to experience strong growth as convenience QSRs become more and more
important in the Ghanaian way of life. In the hotel segment, major international hotels being built,
renovated, or expanded in Ghana include the Holiday Inn (operational), Marriot, Sheraton, Hilton,
Alisa Hotels, La Palm and others. This has resulted in increasing demand from the HRI sector for
high-quality food ingredients. U.S. products with best market prospects include potato chips, sauces,
seasonings, pastry mixes, canned foods, wine, beer, ice cream, and fruit juices. The import duty on
these products is 20 percent.
Fisheries in Ghana constitute an important sector in national economic development, and are
estimated to contribute 3 percent of the total GDP and 5 percent of the GDP in agriculture. Fish is
the cheapest, and preferred, source of animal protein, contributing about 60 percent of all animal
protein intake in Ghana. Ghana fish production has been fluctuating, and declining since 2000 from
460,000 MT down to 436,000 MT in 2008 according to the Ministry of Agriculture. While the
national average fish requirement is approximately 800,000 metric tons annually, the domestic fish
catch (production) and imports only provide about half of this requirement. As a result, Ghana is a
large net importer of seafood and in 2008 Ghana imported fish worth $275 million, up from $260
million in 2007.
Ghanaians perceive U.S. seafood to be of a higher quality than other supplies, although high freight
rates often make imports from the U.S. less competitive. Ghana?s seafood imports are mostly from
the African region (Mauritania, Angola, Morocco, Namibia and Senegal). The EU, especially,
Holland also supplies seafood to Ghana.
Ghana also exports some fresh tuna and processed canned tuna to the EU.
Sea food /frozen fish Data from 2006-2009 ( ?000 MT)
2006(Tons) 2007(Tons) 2008(Estimates) 2009(Estimates)
Total Market size 675 840 900 900
Total production 400 375 436.6 436.6
Total Exports 45 56.9 56 56
Total Imports 165.6 212 191 191
Imports from the US 0 0 0 0
Source: Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Estimates from industry sources.
Commercial fish farming as a major farming activity in Ghana is a recent development. Presently
there are six commercial aquaculture farms operating in Ghana. For the last five years aquaculture
production has increased from 950 MT in 2003 to 5,600 MT in 2008 as a result of proliferation of
commercial fish farming, especially the cage farms on the Volta Lake. There is a new aquaculture
company supported by the Danish government that is expected to produce over 5,000 MT of fish in
the near future. Tilapia is the major species farmed and constitutes over 80 percent of aquaculture
production, with catfish accounting for the remaining 20 percent. According to the Ministry of Food
and Agriculture (MOFA) estimates, the production from ponds and culture-based fisheries is worth
over US$ 1.5 million a year.
As a result of GOG collaboration with local and external stakeholders (including local farmers, local
companies, World Bank, WHO, FAO, NEPAD, etc), local production of aquaculture has been
increasing. According to the Government of Ghana (GOG) Ghana is aggressively pursuing ?the
Aquaculture Development Policy? as a profitable business venture. However, growth in the sector is
being threatened by increasing costs of aquaculture feedstuffs which now constitute more than 70
percent of total cost of production. Currently fish feed is being imported from Israel. This opens
export market opportunity for U.S. fish aquaculture feedstuffs, feed ingredients and technology into
The milk industry in Ghana is characterized by near total dependence on bulk milk imports
(primarily powdered milk and processed milk products). The total volumes average about 50,000-
120,000 tons of milk equivalent per year. Ghana exhibits very low levels of liquid milk
consumption. Domestic milk production in Ghana is low and is conservatively estimated at 36,000
liters. Only a very small amount of this enters formal marketing channels. Demands for dairy and
dairy products by the major dairy processors in Ghana are estimated to be approximately 100,000
tons annually. Ghana?s dairy processors (including ice cream, baby foods, chocolate milk, yoghurt,
and long-life milk producers) rely on combining and reconstituting milk powder imported mostly
from the European Union (Netherlands, Denmark). Processed infant formula, cheese, and butter, as
well as high-end ice cream, are also imported.
Dairy imports were valued at more than $100 million in 2008. U.S. dairy product exports to Ghana
grew from $290,000 in 2006 to $5.0 million in 2008, but dropped drastically to $83,000 likely due
to higher costs.
U.S. market share remains small despite the Ghanaian customer?s perception of the high quality of
U.S. processed dairy products because U.S. supplies are disadvantaged by the higher freight costs as
compared to products from the EU.
Growing population, increasing urbanization, and rising per capita income are expected to stimulate
rising demand for dairy based products. Meanwhile, domestic production remains insufficient due
to increasing production/processing costs, non-competitiveness of the industry, and the failure to
incorporate more advanced technologies.
Additionally, there is export potential for livestock genetics, fodders and dairy-based food
processing inputs which will likely increase if local infrastructure is improved and
production/processing costs lowered.
2006 2007 2008 2009(estimated)
Total Market Size 90 95 100 100
Total Local Production 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Total Exports 0 0 0 0
Total Imports 89.999 94.999 99.999 100
Imports from the U.S. 0.29 1.19 5.09 0.083(actual)
Note: Figures in millions of dollars and only include formally marketed products and estimates from industry
SECTION IV: MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY
New-to-market exporters from the United States should consider the following market entry
strategies and tactics:
? Appoint a local agent/distributor or representative in Ghana to register the products with the
appropriate GOG regulatory bodies, to introduce their products to the market, and to develop
consumer demand. For assistance contact the FAS Office, U.S. Embassy, Accra-Ghana;
? Identify and sell through consolidators based in the United States who are already serving the
West African region;
? Exhibit at trade shows in the United States, which are attended by Ghanaian importers. This
will also make follow-up contacts easier;
? Offer food product shipments in mixed lot containers and flexible shipping volumes.
? Support activities for in-store, and point-of-sale promotions in numerous small-sized outlets;
? Adopt a pricing strategy which encourages importers to initiate buying activities with U.S.
SECTION IV BEST PROSPECTS
Product Types Offering the Most Sales Potential
The following are the consumer-oriented products with the best prospects and most sales potential in
the Ghanaian market:
1. Frozen poultry and fish products
2. Fruit preparations and juices
3. Canned fruits and vegetables
4. Tomato puree/ketchup
5. Bottled vegetable cooking oil
6. Milk (liquid milk, skimmed and whole powdered milk)
7. Spices and sauces including soy sauce
8. Mixed seasoning
10. Breakfast cereals
12. Pasta products
13. Snack foods (biscuits, cakes, etc.)
14. Confectionery products (candies, gums, etc.)
15. Ice cream and yoghurt concentrates
16. Spirits, liqueurs
17. Beers and Wines
18. Non-alcoholic beverages (Tea, coffee, fruit drink)
19. Bakery and other food ingredients (yeast & baking powder)
20. Mayonnaise and salad dressing
21. Baby foods
22. Canned soups/powdered soups
23. Health food products
SECTION V: POST CONTACT AND FURTHER INFORMATION
Russell J. Nicely, Regional Agricultural Counselor
Marcela Rondón, Regional Agricultural Attaché
Office of Agricultural Affairs
US Consulate General
2 Walter Carrington Crescent
Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
Tel: (+1 234) 1 460-3577; 775-0830
Elmasoeur Zipporah Ashitey
Office of Agricultural Affairs
Embassy of the United States of America
NO 20, fourth Circular Rd, Cantonments,
P O Box GP194, Accra, Ghana