Citrus Semi-annual

An Expert's View about Citrus Fruits in Greece

Last updated: 29 Jul 2011

EU-27 citrus groves include orange, lemon, mandarin and grapefruit groves. Production is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions of Spain, Italy and Greece.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 7/08/2011 GAIN Report Number: SP1112 EU-27 Citrus Semi-annual EU-27 Citrus Semi-Annual Approved By: Robert Hanson, Agricultural Attaché Prepared By: Diogo Machado, Agricultural Specialist Report Highlights: EU-27 citrus groves include orange, lemon, mandarin and grapefruit groves. Production is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions of Spain, Italy and Greece. For MY 2010/11, the total EU citrus production is expected to be stable with a 3 percent decrease in orange production, a 4 percent increase in mandarin production, a 4 percent increase in lemon production, and an 8 percent increase in grapefruit production. Disclaimer: This report presents the situation for citrus (orange juice, oranges, grapefruits, lemons, tangerines, mandarins and other citrus) in the EU-27. This report contains the views of the authors and does not reflect the official views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data are not official USDA data. This report would not have been possible without the expert contributions from the following Foreign Agricultural Service analysts: Stefano Baldi FAS/Rome covering Italy Ornella Bettini FAS/Rome covering Greece and Cyprus Diogo Machado FAS/Madrid covering Spain and Portugal Barry Williams FAS/USEU Brussels Abbreviations used in this report: CMO Common Market Organization EC European Commission EU European Union FAS Foreign Agricultural Service FCOJ Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice GTA Global Trade Atlas HS Codes: Harmonized System codes for commodity classification used to calculate trade data Oranges 080510 Tangerines/Mandarins 080520 Lemons 080550 Grapefruit 080540 Orange Juice 200911, 200912, 200919 MS EU Member State(s) MT Metric ton (1,000 kg) MY Marketing year Orange November/October Tangerine November/October Lemon November/October Grapefruit November/October Other Citrus November/October Orange Juice November/October PO Production Organization PS&D Production, Supply and Demand TMT Thousand Metric Tons USD U.S. Dollar Commodities: Oranges, Fresh Production: EU orange production is concentrated in the Mediterranean region. Oranges are the second largest EU fruit crop after apples, with over 6.5 million tons produced in MY 2008/09 and 6.3 million tons in MY2009/10. More than 80 percent of the EU?s total production of oranges is sourced in Spain and Italy. The remaining 20 percent is distributed among other Member States (MS), mainly Cyprus, Greece and Portugal. For MY2010/11, an EU-wide orange crop of 6.1 million tons is forecasted. A 12 percent increase in Spanish production, along with an increase of four percent in Portugal and five percent in Cyprus is offset by a 20 percent decrease in Italy and a four percent decrease in Greece. The overall result is a three percent reduction in the production of fresh oranges in the EU, when compared to last season. Spain is the largest orange producer within the EU, representing about 50% of total orange production within the Union. The season started with a delay of between one and two weeks in Spain, depending on the regions, and with good perspectives for early varieties. Orange production for MY 2010/11 in Spain is expected to reach 2,980,700 MT in what is considered an average season, half way between the last two, with good quality, although with a lower volume of commercial sizes. Industry sources note the good organoleptic quality of the fruit. The zone of Castellón and Valencia experienced some damage to fruit caused by winter frost but these were mostly localized events. Higher than average rainfall has resulted in the upward revision of production figures from the previous estimates. The dynamics of the current season have seen the market slow to absorb the quantities supplied and prices lower than expected. MY 2010/11 Italian orange production is estimated at 1.9 MMT, 20 percent less from previous marketing year which was a record (around 2.5 MMT) due to heavy rains during flowering, to rotational bearing, and to the Citrus Tristeza Virus that hit the Tarocco varieties. Late, red varieties usually traded in March-April recorded a 30 percent production decrease, while earlier varieties traded in December and January production fell by 10 percent. The largest part of the crop is usually harvested between November and February, however despite the production decrease prices did not recover as expected, especially for Navel varieties and for some red varieties. Only late red varieties (such as Tarocco) were sold at higher, increasing prices. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Greek orange production is expected to decrease by 5 percent compared to the previous year. Despite that, Greek industry contacts consider the expected production (922,000 MT) a good crop, both in terms of quality and quantity, even considering the current Greek economic crisis. The autumn rainfall helped improve the size. Peloponnese and Aitoloakarnaia (western Greece) are the main orange-producing areas. Washington Navel, Commons, Valencia, Navelina, and Newhall are the major orange varieties grown in Greece. Portuguese production of oranges in MY 2010/11 is expected to reach 220,000 MT following good weather conditions with sufficient rain. A new 10 year census recently released by the National Institute of Statistics revealed a 22% reduction in the orange tree area from 1999 to 2009 (-4,000 ha). Orange trees account for 83% of the country?s 17,000 ha of citrus groves. Restructuring of farms has been occurring to try to gain competitiveness through economies of scale. This is seen by a 46% reduction in the number of citrus farms and an increase in the average area from 0.5 to 0.7 ha in the last 10 years. However total citrus area also decreased by 28% in the same time period reflecting remaining competitiveness problems in the sector. Oranges have been grown in the island of Cyprus since the 1950s. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Cypriot orange production is expected to slightly increase by 5 percent, thanks to the increased availability of irrigation supplies, despite the lack of rain since the last summer. Famagusta, Limassol, Larnaca, and Paphos districts are the major orange-producing areas. Navels, Ovals (Shamoutis), and Valencia are the main orange varieties grown in Cyprus. Table 1. Major EU Fresh Orange Producers by Volume in MT Country MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 Spain 3,410,300 2,669,400 2,980,700 Italy 2,166,886 2,421,284 1,937,027 Greece 727,100 969,660 922,000 Portugal 201,592 211,300 220,000 Cyprus 24,100 70,900 74,500 Total 6,529,978 6,342,544 6,134,227 Source: FAS offices Consumption: Consumption of oranges in the EU is expected to remain above 5,800,000 MT for MY 2010/11. Oranges are Spain?s favorite fresh fruit, with over 22 kilos per capita consumed in 2009, representing up to 20 percent of fresh fruit consumption. MY 2010/11 Greek orange fresh domestic consumption is expected to remain stable. Most oranges are consumed fresh (channeled to the fresh open markets and grocery stores). Commons variety is predominantly used in processing. MY 2010/11 Cypriot orange consumption is expected to grow by 7 percent, driven by the increased production. Most oranges are consumed fresh (channeled to the fresh open markets and grocery stores). Trade: The EU is a net importer of oranges, with imports largely exceeding exports. Imports into the EU were valued at about US $744 million in MY 2009/10, some 17 percent above the previous marketing year. The value of exports in MY 2009/10 reached US $215 million. Exports are expected to increase significantly in MY2010/2011 following higher demand from non-EU European countries like Serbia, Albania, Macedonia, Croatia, Russia, and Ukraine. The major supplier of oranges to the European market is South Africa, which supplies the European Market from June until October, when the Northern hemisphere harvest starts, followed by Egypt, Argentina, and Morocco. The major EU importers are Germany, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Table 2. EU-27 Imports of Oranges by Origin in MT Country of Origin MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 South Africa 460,140 335,155 415,784 Egypt 109,744 131,498 133,744 Morocco 138,968 90,354 93,150 Argentina 95,335 81,588 90,473 Uruguay 57,937 60,357 71,611 Turkey 20,811 32,826 17,387 Others 156,965 114,709 141,394 Total Imports 1,039,900 846,487 963,543 Source: GTA and FAS estimates. Table 3. EU-27 Exports of Oranges by Destination in MT Country of Destination MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Switzerland 53,820 55,535 58,342 Serbia 31,219 33,666 36,010 Norway 30,452 29,959 29,290 Croatia 22,717 22,848 22,423 Russia 17,439 14,350 21,396 Albania 21,289 21,781 21,326 Others 64,741 57,795 83,119 Total Exports 241,677 235,934 271,906 Source: GTA and FAS estimates. Even though Italy exports less than 10 percent of domestic production, MY 2009/10 orange exports peaked at 173,000 MT more than doubled compared to the previous year and MY 2010/11 exports are also expected to perform well. Northern European countries are the main trade partners (Germany above all), but some Eastern EU-27 Member States (MS) are starting to increase their imports from Italy. Moreover, red varieties have been successfully promoted in the Spanish market, Italy?s main competitor, finding consumers? appreciation. MY 2010/11 Greek orange exports are expected to increase by 5 percent, as a consequence of the increased demand from Romania and Serbia that continue to be the main destination for Greek oranges. Navels and Tardives are mostly marketed from November through March. Greece imports its oranges mainly from South Africa, accounting for 41 percent of the total. MY 2010/11 Cypriot orange exports are expected to remain steady from the previous year. United Kingdom and Russia are the main destination for Cypriot oranges, accounting for 63 percent of the total. Tardives variety is marketed during March and April. Cyprus imports small amounts of oranges from Greece and Netherlands. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Table 4. Oranges, Fresh Production, Supply and Demand Oranges, Fresh EU-27 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Market Year Begin: Nov 2008 Market Year Begin: Nov 2009 Market Year Begin: Nov 2010 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 320,934 313,226 324,873 315,165 323,174 313,466 Area Harvested 296,501 289,437 299,697 290,664 296,459 289,552 Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total No. Of Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 6,530 6,530 6,418 6,343 6,110 6,134 Imports 846 846 950 964 1,100 900 Total Supply 7,376 7,376 7,368 7,307 7,210 7,034 Exports 236 236 272 272 200 325 Fresh Dom. Consumption 5,780 5,869 5,809 5,933 5,652 5,764 For Processing 1,360 1,271 1,287 1,102 1,358 945 Total Distribution 7,376 7,376 7,368 7,307 7,210 7,034 HECTARES, 1000 TREES, 1000 MT Source: FAS offices Commodities: Tangerines/Mandarins, Fresh Production: Total European tangerine production is expected to increase and reach over 3,216,000 MT in MY2010/11. Spain?s tangerine production is expected to increase by approximately 10 percent to 2,196,000 MT in MY 2010/11. The weather has been favorable despite the occurrence of frosts in December and January. Calibers are expected to be lower than last season. Tangerines are the second most important citrus product in Portugal, after oranges. The Algarve is the most representative region with 80% of the total producing area. The production of tangerines expected to remain constant at 64,000 MT in MY 2010/11. In Italy MY 2010/11 clementines (seedless) harvest was slightly lower than the one in the previous year due to cold temperatures recorded between December and January which negatively affected the final production and the fruit quality in Apulia region. In Calabria, where most of the Italian crop is harvested, production was about the same as the previous year. However prices were too low to cover input costs (even lower than previous MY), therefore many farmers left the fruits on trees. Growing competition especially from Spain, Morocco and Egypt together with decreasing domestic consumption are keeping prices at low levels, severely hampering the clementines sector in Italy. Lack of early and late varieties and oversupply in the December-January period are seen as the main reasons behind such a market crisis. Mandarins (with seeds) are responsible for about 20 percent of total Italian easy peelers harvest and basically represent a niche market. MY 2010/11 production and consumption are expected to remain stable compared to previous year. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Greek tangerine production is expected to increase by 10 percent. Favorable exchange rates encouraged producers to reach a higher level of production, also expanding the planted area. The main producing areas include the prefectures of Igoumenitsa, Arta, Mosologgi, and Thesprotia, located in northern Greece. Clementine is the major tangerine variety grown in Greece. All types of tangerines and hybrids represent 39 percent of total citrus production in Cyprus. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Cypriot tangerine production is expected to grow by 5 percent, due to the increased availability of irrigation supplies, despite the lack of rain since the last summer. Famagusta, Limassol, Larnaca, and Paphos districts are the major orange-producing areas. Mandoras, Tangelo, Minneolas, Nova, and Clementines are the main tangerine varieties grown in Cyprus. Table 5. Major EU Fresh Tangerine Producers by Volume in MT Country MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 Spain 2,227,900 2,000,100 2,196,400 Italy 765,139 826,825 750,000 Greece 71,000 110,000 121,000 Cyprus 41,100 82,000 85,050 Portugal 66,904 63,599 63,599 Total 3,172,043 3,082,524 3,216,049 Source: FAS Offices Consumption: Total EU-27 consumption in MY2010/11 is forecasted to be above 2,850,000 MT. Consumption is increasing within the EU, particularly within those MS who produce mandarins and tangerines. Per capita consumption in the EU for 2009/10 is calculated at 5.9 kilos and in Spain is thought to have reached 7.2 kilos. Trade: The major suppliers of tangerines to the European market are Morocco, Turkey, and South Africa. The major EU importers are the United Kingdom, France Germany and the Netherlands. Russia remains the largest export market. Both imports and exports have increased in volume in MY 2009/10. In 2009/10 EU imports were worth over US $429 million and EU exports amounted to nearly US $310 million. Table 6. EU-27 Imports of Tangerines by Origin in MT Country of Origin MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Morocco 78,483 80,384 115,230 South Africa 70,347 65,300 65,003 Turkey 59,522 81,106 64,894 Argentina 36,217 46,638 39,907 Uruguay 31,209 33,828 37,646 Israel 22,668 24,787 36,148 Others 56,816 44,560 57,816 Total Imports 355,262 376,603 416,644 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Table 7. EU-27 Exports of Tangerines by Destination in MT Country of Destination MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Russia 69,085 52,192 58,738 United States 44,683 56,932 46,091 Switzerland 35,737 39,445 38,965 Ukraine 31,887 26,280 27,298 Norway 24,382 23,576 24,565 Belarus 20,105 21,859 19,069 Others 43,599 37,950 52,156 Total Exports 269,478 258,234 266,882 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Table 8. Tangerines/Mandarins, Fresh Production, Supply and Demand Tangerines/Mandarins, Fresh EU-27 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Market Year Begin: Nov 2008 Market Year Begin: Nov 2009 Market Year Begin: Nov 2010 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 171,721 169,403 167,540 166,922 165,981 165,363 Area Harvested 156,109 154,120 152,251 151,962 151,207 150,918 Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total No. Of Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 3,160 3,172 3,094 3,083 3,290 3,216 Imports 377 377 416 417 360 360 Total Supply 3,537 3,549 3,510 3,500 3,650 3,576 Exports 258 258 267 267 340 360 Fresh Dom. Consumption 2,991 2,930 2,958 2,810 2,970 2,769 For Processing 288 361 285 423 340 447 Total Distribution 3,537 3,549 3,510 3,500 3,650 3,576 HECTARES, 1000 TREES, 1000 MT Source: FAS offices Commodities: Lemons, Fresh Production: At the EU-level, the production of lemon is expected to reach 1,200,000 in MY 2010/11, a 3.5 percent increase from the previous year, as Italy?s decrease is compensated by all other producing countries. In Spain lemon crop production for MY 2010/11 is 640,100 MT, a 15 percent increase over the previous year. Lemon production in Spain is concentrated in three regions located in the southern Mediterranean area: Murcia, Valencia and the Provinces of Malaga and Almeria in Andalusia. The dominant varieties in Spain are Verna (or Berna) -- a tender and juicy variety with few seeds, representing 30 percent of total production; and Mesero -- also known as Fino or Primofiori, which represents 70 percent of total production and favored by the processing sector. Verna is a summer variety, harvested from May to September, while Fino is a winter variety, harvested from October to April. Harvests forecasts from the main lemon and grapefruit inter-professional association (AILIMPO) are higher for MY2010/11 at 900,000 MT in Spain. The same body had forecasted these numbers to be 810,000 MT at the beginning of the season but has since revised production upwards due to the higher caliber and weight of fruits. As can be seen there continues to be an important disparity between official numbers (published by the Ministry of Agriculture) and the numbers from the industry body. A detailed analysis of this problem was submitted in March by the industry to the EU Citrus Experts Group. While lemons represent 5% of Portugal?s citrus crop, production levels have remained stable over the last three seasons. In Italy MY 2010/2011 lemon production is expected at 490,000 MT, 10 percent less than previous MY as expected but at a good quality level. Farm gate prices were quite stable (? cent/kg 0.30/0.40) at the beginning of the MY despite strong competition from Spain but then decreased in spring to ? cent/kg 0.25/0.32 due to a consumption decline. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Greek lemon production is expected to increase by 39 percent, due to favorable weather. The main producing areas include the prefectures of Korinthos, Achaia, Piraeus, and Ilias, located in northern Greece. The major lemon variety grown in Greece is Maglini, whose fruit is strongly aromatic, with a quite sour juice. It has a thin, shiny peel and when fully ripe has a yellow color. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Cypriot lemon production is expected to increase by 7 percent, thanks to the increased availability of irrigation supplies, despite the lack of rain since the last summer. Lapithos village is the main lemon-producing area. Lapithiotiki (a local variety), Eureka, and Lisbon are the major lemon varieties grown in Cyprus. Table 9. Major EU Fresh Lemons/Limes Producers by Volume in MT Country MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 Spain 687,900 558,200 640,100 Italy 518,528 544,532 490,000 Greece 29,600 33,000 46,000 Portugal 12,050 12,050 12,050 Cyprus 15,000 10,800 11,500 Total 1,263,078 1,158,582 1,199,650 Source: FAS Offices Consumption: EU-27 consumption is forecasted to be above 1,300,000 MT in 2010/11. The estimated average consumption of fresh lemons has stabilized at around 2.6 kg per capita. As lime production within the EU is minor, consumer demand is met through imports. In Spain, lemon consumption is fairly stable throughout the year. Despite a substantial price increase in recent years, consumption of lemons has not declined. Average consumption in MY 2009/10 was 3 kilos per capita with total lemon consumption at 135,000 MT, 67 percent of which sold to households. MY 2010/11 Greek lemon consumption is expected to increase by 19 percent, due to growing production and resulting attractive prices. Greek lemon production is totally destined for the fresh market. Greece has become increasingly reliant on imported lemon juice to meet the consumer demand, because of the increase in tourism and in consumption of soft drinks. The yield for lemon juice is 15-17 Kg of fresh lemons to produce 1 Kg of lemon juice, depending on the quality of the fruit. MY 2010/11 Cypriot lemon consumption is expected to slightly decrease as a consequence of the increased demand from Austria and Greece. Lapithiotiki lemon variety boasts the highest per capita domestic consumption, due to its distinctive aroma and taste. It has a thin skin, oval shape, rich flesh, firm yellow rind, and the majority of the fruits are seedless. Trade: The EU is a net importer of lemons, with imports largely exceeding exports. Imports into the EU were valued at about US $540 million in MY 2009/10, while the value of exports in MY 2009/10 reached US $80 million. Intra-EU trade is critical to the sector, taking into account the volume of lemons produced in the Mediterranean MS and the demand in non producer MS. The main intra-EU importers are Germany, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom. The major supplier to the European market is Argentina, followed by Turkey. The major EU importers of non-EU lemons are the Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy. The main extra-EU destination for European lemons is Russia. Table 10. EU-27 Imports of Lemons/Limes by Origin in MT Country of Origin MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Argentina 269,099 163,756 182,615 Turkey 74,350 103,880 128,376 Brazil 52,682 53,356 55,528 South Africa 65,002 39,340 45,667 Mexico 14,808 24,421 24,925 Uruguay 10,002 10,098 10,832 Others 29,307 10,314 21,376 Total Imports 515,250 405,165 469,319 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Table 11. EU-27 Exports of Lemons/Limes by Destination in MT Country of Destination MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Russia 22,081 32,035 24,429 Switzerland 11,222 13,867 13,450 Ukraine 4,705 6,838 6,213 Croatia 4,379 7,850 5,444 Norway 3,380 4,127 3,340 Bosnia & Herzegovina 2,957 4,113 2,589 Others 10,420 18,226 11,084 Total Exports 59,144 87,056 66,549 Source: GTA and FAS estimates According to the Spanish industry the beginning of the season was hard due to: Lower caliber of the fruit in September/October (last season fruit) Turkey started exporting at very low prices aided by export credits and low costs A remaining stock of lemons from Argentina in the market. However rain has allowed calibers to reach bigger sizes and Spanish exports are achieving good volumes if very concentrated in intra EU trade. The lemon juice market has been very favorable bearing in mind that Argentina has had two years with low production. Demand for products that use lemon juice as an ingredient has also risen at world level. This allowed prices to keep at a good level since September (at around 0.12 euro/kg) covering harvesting costs and part of the production costs. A record volume of lemon delivered for processing is expected by the Spanish Industry Association. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Table 12. Lemons, Fresh Production, Supply and Demand Lemons/Limes, Fresh EU-27 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Market Year Begin: Nov 2008 Market Year Begin: Nov 2009 Market Year Begin: Nov 2010 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 84,182 83,909 83,189 82,916 80,717 80,444 Area Harvested 79,177 78,933 77,295 77,051 77,491 77,247 Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total No. Of Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 1,263 1,263 1,164 1,159 1,195 1,200 Imports 405 405 467 469 450 420 Total Supply 1,668 1,668 1,631 1,628 1,645 1,620 Exports 87 87 65 67 70 80 Fresh Dom. Consumption 1,364 1,364 1,353 1,393 1,390 1,319 For Processing 217 217 213 168 185 221 Total Distribution 1,668 1,668 1,631 1,628 1,645 1,620 HECTARES, 1000 TREES, 1000 MT Source: FAS Offices Commodities: Grapefruit, Fresh Production: Grapefruit from Cyprus, the largest EU-27 grapefruit producer, is regarded as amongst the best worldwide. MY 2010/11 (November/October) Cypriot grapefruit production is expected to grow by 5 percent, thanks to the increased availability of irrigation supplies, despite the lack of rain since the last summer. White Marsh Seedless, mostly grown in the Limassol area, is the major grapefruit variety grown in Cyprus. New plantations have been established in the district of Paphos where the Red varieties (Star Ruby, Red Blush, and Rio Red) were introduced to meet the increased market demand. Grapefruit production also increased in Spain. According to the industry this is bringing good prospects for Spanish exports, even considering that demand seems to have waned somewhat. Spain is the European Member State with the second highest grapefruit production, although not significant when compared to other Spanish citrus crops. Half of Spain?s grapefruit production is found in the region of Murcia. The main variety planted is Ruby Red. Overall EU grapefruit production has been increasing in the last two marketing years and is expected to reach nearly 112,000 MT in MY 2010/11. Table 13. Major EU Fresh Grapefruit Producers by Volume in MT Country MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 Cyprus 27,100 48,000 50,500 Spain 43,600 42,000 48,000 Italy 7,200 7,250 7,000 Greece 6,500 5,800 5,800 Portugal 282 282 294 Total 84,682 103,332 111,594 Source: FAS Offices Consumption: EU-27 consumption is forecasted to be around 444,000 MT in 2010/11. The Spanish industry believes there is the potential for growth in the consumption of grapefruit. This is because official data shows that 84% of people do not yet consume grapefruit and 54% associate it with slimming diets. For grapefruit, only 5,000 MT are expected to be delivered to industry. MY 2010/11 Cypriot grapefruit consumption is expected to remain stable. Cypriot grapefruits are both consumed fresh and channeled to food and beverage manufacturers. MY 2010/11 Greek grapefruit consumption is expected to remain stable. Most grapefruits are consumed fresh. Trade: The EU imports grapefruit from third countries as domestic supply is currently just above 20 percent of demand. The largest importers within the EU are France, the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. The major sources for imported grapefruit in MY 2009/10 were China, Turkey, South Africa and Israel. Regarding exports, the main destinations for EU-27 grapefruit are Russia and Switzerland. MY 2009/10 realized a decline in exports to Switzerland and Belarus and higher exports to Russia and Ukraine. Table 14. EU-27 Imports of Grapefruit by Origin in MT Country of Origin MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 South Africa 87,072 88,501 79,007 Turkey 73,709 65,567 75,621 China 67,087 69,884 72,934 Israel 62,175 66,425 61,228 United States 79,318 63,760 54,646 Argentina 23,757 15,328 9,129 Others 36,802 29,842 32,580 Total Imports 429,920 399,307 385,145 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Table 15. EU-27 Exports of Grapefruit by Destination in MT Country of Destination MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Russia 9,382 7,246 8,273 Switzerland 2,211 3,009 2,393 Belarus 1,951 2,490 2,090 Ukraine 1,712 1,410 1,606 Serbia 1,232 1,737 1,431 Croatia 1,371 1,241 1,273 Others 3,179 3,900 4,400 Total Exports 21,038 21,033 21,466 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Table 16. Grapefruit, Fresh Production, Supply and Demand Grapefruit, Fresh EU-27 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Market Year Begin: Nov 2008 Market Year Begin: Nov 2009 Market Year Begin: Nov 2010 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 2,575 2,575 2,439 2,439 2,436 2,436 Area Harvested 2,040 2,041 1,943 1,944 1,936 1,937 Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Bearing Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total No. Of Trees 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 85 85 102 103 108 112 Imports 399 399 387 385 380 380 Total Supply 484 484 489 488 488 492 Exports 21 21 21 21 21 22 Fresh Dom. Consumption 435 435 448 445 438 444 For Processing 28 28 20 22 29 26 Total Distribution 484 484 489 488 488 492 HECTARES, 1000 TREES, 1000 MT Source: FAS Offices Commodities: Orange Juice Production: The European citrus sector is strongly orientated towards the fresh produce market. Margins are better for fresh fruit intended for fresh consumption for both domestic and export demand. Processing is a buffer for production surpluses and fruit that does not meet commercial standards. More fruit is processed in those years when fruit size is small or when production is above normal levels. Total EU orange juice production is expected to decrease in MY 2010/11 following lower deliveries of oranges to be processed. In Italy, oranges delivered to the processing industry dropped in MY 2008/09, due not only to implementation of the new Common Market Organization (CMO) policy, which removed coupled aid for citrus, but also as a result of the sharp decline in production and low quality fruit caused by unfavorable weather conditions. Italy?s processed citrus sector recovered partially in MY 2009/10 to about 450,000 tons, although the rate of such recovery relates directly to the international market, particularly the Brazilian juice sector. According to industry experts, orange deliveries to the processing industry are expected to decline by 30 percent in MY 2010/11 due to the reduced domestic production and to a gradual decrease in orange juice consumption. Spain specializes in pasteurized ?not from concentrate? orange juice, which does not compete directly with concentrated orange juice originating from Brazil or the United States. Spain?s implementation of the CAP citrus reform included a two-year transitional period in order to achieve a smoother shift to the new legal framework. Smaller oranges are destined for orange juice processing with larger sizes devoted to fresh consumption. Consumption: While orange juice is the most popular juice within the EU-27, it competes with other non-alcoholic drinks and juices made from other fruits. The preferred packaging type by European consumers is the carton. The convenience of orange juice is reflected in its better adaptation to modern consumption habits than whole fresh oranges. Another factor affecting consumption is the current economic situation that has led to higher demand for private label juice at the expense of brand labels. Trade: In MY2009/10, total imports were lower than in the previous market year, with a high share of Brazilian imports. Brazil continues to be the main supplier of orange juice to the EU with more than 80 percent of total imports of high Brix degree orange juice to the EU market. Trade data confirms increasing supplies from the United States and a continuous decrease in the ranking of Switzerland within the juice sector trade in MY 2009/2010. EU-27 exports have also increased in MY2009/10 with main export destinations to be Switzerland, Norway and Algeria. Table 17. EU-27 Imports of Orange Juice by Origin in MT Country of Origin MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Brazil 640,829 805,183 684,988 United States 10,343 16,290 28,205 Cuba 12,587 9,197 12,779 Israel 13,996 8,261 10,438 Switzerland 103,642 55,410 7,136 Argentina 3,747 6,183 5,847 Others 34,564 62,799 29,378 Total Imports 819,707 963,323 778,772 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Table 18. EU-27 Exports of Orange Juice by Destination in MT Country of Destination MY 2007/08 MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 Switzerland 6,435 5,411 5,704 Saudi Arabia 2,561 2,959 5,273 Algeria 3,785 3,289 4,296 Norway 4,777 3,877 2,814 Japan 2,657 2,381 1,950 Russia 3,022 1,715 1,383 Others 22,002 20,523 23,955 Total Exports 45,238 40,154 45,375 Source: GTA and FAS estimates Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Table 19. Orange Juice Production, Supply and Demand Orange Juice EU-27 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Market Year Begin: Nov 2008 Market Year Begin: Nov 2009 Market Year Begin: Nov 2010 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Deliv. To Processors 1,359,832 1,271,503 1,286,900 1,101,500 1,357,600 945,500 Beginning Stocks 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 Production 105,417 98,569 99,763 85,390 105,244 73,297 Imports 909,200 963,323 769,326 778,772 800,000 800,000 Total Supply 1,029,617 1,076,892 884,089 879,162 920,244 888,297 Exports 12,514 40,154 14,095 45,375 13,000 45,000 Domestic Consumption 1,002,103 1,021,738 854,994 818,787 892,244 828,297 Ending Stocks 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 Total Distribution 1,029,617 1,076,892 884,089 879,162 920,244 888,297 MT Source: FAS Offices Policy: A new Common Market Organization (CMO) for fruit and vegetables, together with a fresh set of implementing rules, has been in place with effect from January 1, 2008. The European Commission asserts that the aim of the reformed CMO is to improve the competitiveness and market orientation of the fruit and vegetable sector, reduce income fluctuations resulting from crises, promote consumption ? so contributing to improved public health ? and enhance environmental safeguards. New measures set out to encourage growers to join Producer Organizations (POs). POs are offered a wider range of tools for crisis management; the fruit and vegetable sector is integrated into the Single Payment Scheme (SPS); a minimum level of environmental spending is required; EU funding for promotion and organic production is increased; and export subsidies for fruit and vegetables are abolished. Council Regulation (EC) No 1182/2007 outlines the reform of the fruit and vegetable sector. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1580/2007 (as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 905/2010) provides for the implementing rules. Details of the reform Producer Organizations (POs): POs will gain greater flexibility and their rules will be simplified. There will be additional support (60 percent Community co-financing rather than 50 percent) in areas where production covered by POs is less than 20 percent, and, in particular, in the new Member States, to encourage the creation of POs. Member States and POs will develop Operational Programs based on a national strategy. Crisis Management: This will be organized through Producer Organizations (50 percent financed by the Community budget). Tools will include green harvesting/non-harvesting, promotion and communication tools in times of crisis, training, harvest insurance, help in securing bank loans and financing of the administrative costs of setting up mutual funds. Withdrawals can be carried out by POs with 50 percent co-financing. Withdrawals for free distribution to schools etc will be 100 percent paid by the Community. Community aid to POs will remain limited to 4.1 percent of the total value of marketed produce, but this may rise to 4.6 percent provided that the excess is used only for crisis prevention and management. For three years, state aid may be granted to extend crisis management measures to non members who enter into a contract with a PO. Compensation for non members will be no more than 75 percent of the Community support received by PO members. Inclusion of fruit and vegetables in the Single Payment Scheme (SPS): Land covered by fruit and vegetables will become eligible for payment entitlements under the decoupled aid scheme which applies in other farm sectors. All existing support for processed fruit and vegetables will be decoupled and the national budgetary ceilings for the SPS will be increased. The total amount that will be transferred to the SPS is around ?800 million. For tomatoes, Member States will be allowed to apply transitional payments for a four-year transitional period (2008-2011), provided that the coupled proportion of the payment does not exceed 50 percent of the national ceiling. For non-annual crops, they will be allowed to apply transitional payments for five years, provided that after December 31, 2010, the coupled proportion does not exceed 75 percent of the national ceiling. Member States may if they so choose postpone the distribution of fruit and vegetable entitlements for up to three years. Environmental measures: The inclusion of fruit and vegetables in the SPS means that Cross Compliance (i.e. mandatory environmental standards) will be compulsory for those farmers receiving direct payments. In addition, POs must devote at least 10 percent of expenditure in each Operational Program to environmental measures. There will be a 60 percent Community co-financing rate for organic production in each Operational Program. Encouraging greater consumption: Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was one of the goals identified in the Commission's White Paper on Nutrition, published in May 2007. POs will be able to include promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption in their operational programs. There will be an additional ?6 million under the general promotion regulation for the promotion of fruit and vegetables targeted at children in educational establishments. There will be an ?8 million budget for free distribution of fruit and vegetables to schools, hospitals and charitable bodies, which will be 100 percent financed by the Community up to a limit of 5 percent of the quantity marketed by a PO. The Council asked the Commission to carry out a feasibility study into the creation of a school fruit and vegetable scheme. Transitional soft fruit payment: To allow producers of strawberries and raspberries for processing to adapt to market circumstances, they will receive a transitional direct payment worth ?230 per hectare for maximum period of 5 years for a set number of hectares. Member States may pay a national top-up so that the total shall not exceed ?400/hectare. Separate fruit and vegetable payment for Single Area Payment Scheme (SAPS) countries: Countries applying the Single Area Payment Scheme will be able to introduce a decoupled fruit and vegetable payment to historical producers of fruit and vegetables. Member States had to decide by November 1, 2007 the amount to be deducted from the SAPS envelope to cover this and the criteria used for the allocation of the fruit and vegetable payment. Maximum Residue Level for Fruit Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for pesticides, including import tolerances, have been harmonized throughout the EU since September 2008. Regulation 1107/2009 concerning the placing on the market of plant protection products (PPPs) will become fully applicable from June 14, 2011 and is setting out the rules for the authorization of plant protection products (PPPs). How this will affect MRLs can only be determined after the new legislation is fully implemented. For more information, see at: http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/pesticides/index_en.htm or http://www.fas.usda.gov/posthome/useu/pesticides.html Certification of Plant Products Unlike animal products, certification of plants and plant products is not harmonized within the EU. Phytosanitary certificates issued by an APHIS inspector are required to accompany U.S. shipments. APHIS issues phytosanitary certificates in accordance with international regulations set down by the International Plant Protection Convention of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This standard-setting body coordinates cooperation between nations to control plant and plant product pests and to prevent their spread. An overview of EU mandatory and voluntary certificates can be found at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/posthome/useu/certificates-overview.html. Council Directive 2000/29/EC contains provisions concerning compulsory plant health checks. This includes documentary, identity and physical plant health checks to verify compliance with EU import requirements. More information can be accessed on DG Health & Consumer Protection's website http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/organisms/imports/inspection_en.htm . Commission Regulation 1756/2004 provides for plant health checks to be carried out at reduced frequency when this can be justified (list of products recommended for plant health checks at reduced levels updated June 26, 2009). Tariffs Imports of fresh fruit and vegetables are subject to the Entry Price System (EPS) which has been in place in its current form since the Uruguay Round. It is a complex tariff system that provides a high level of protection to EU producers. Within this system, fruits and vegetables imported at or above an established entry price are charged an ad valorem duty only. Produce valued below the entry price are charged a tariff equivalent in addition to the ad valorem duty. The tariff equivalent is graduated for products valued between 92 and 100 percent of the entry price. The ad valorem duty and the full tariff equivalent are levied on imports valued at less than 92 percent of the entry price. In April 2008, a study financed by the Commission of the European Union and carried out by a consultancy, assessed the impact of changing the EPS. The report concluded that the EPS could be considered as a means of signaling market disturbances rather than as a relevant trade restriction. The entire report can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/eval/reports/fruitveg/index_en.htm . Whether or not the EU will maintain the EPS will be discussed within the context of the Doha Round trade talks. The EPS is not necessarily discriminatory for U.S. exporters, who tend to sell high quality products which are usually relatively high priced and do not face any additional duty. Replacing the EPS with fixed tariffs could result in higher ad valorem duties. Tariff levels for 2011 are published in EU Regulation 861/2010. For details please refer to: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:284:0001:0887:EN:PDF Oranges see page 86 Tangerines see page 87 Lemons see page 87 Grapefruit see page 87 Other Citrus see page 87 Orange Juice see page 155 Marketing: EU Marketing Standards for Fruits and Vegetables On July 1, 2009, Commission Regulation 1221/2008 entered into force, providing a general marketing standard for all fresh fruits and vegetables and repealing specific marketing standards for 26 products. For 10 types of fruit and vegetables, including citrus, specific marketing standards will remain in place. Fresh fruit and vegetable imports into the EU are checked for compliance with EU-harmonized marketing standards. These standards apply at all marketing stages and include criteria such as quality, size, labeling, packaging and presentation. For detailed up-to-date information, please visit: http://useu.usmission.gov/agri/Fruit-Veg.html EU Agricultural Product Quality Policy Certain citrus products come under the EU Protected Geographical Indication Scheme (PGI). The aim of this program is to promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. PGIs related to agricultural products and foodstuffs which are closely linked to a specific geographical area. At least one of the stages of production, processing or preparation takes place in the identified area. Table 20. Citrus PGIs in the EU-27 Country Name Products Scheme Spain Citricos valencianos Oranges, Tangerines and Lemons PGI Clementinas de las Tierras del Ebro; Clementines PGI Italy Limone Femminello del Gargano Lemon PGI Limone di Sorrento Lemon PGI Limone Costa d'Amalfi Lemon PGI Clementine di Calabria Clementines PGI Clementine del Golfo di Taranto Clementines PGI Arancia del Gargano Orange PGI Arancia Rossa di Sicilia Orange PGI Greece Tangerines Chiou Tangerines PGI Portugal Citrinos do Algarve Oranges, Tangerines PGI Trade Shows Trade shows in Europe offer excellent opportunities for U.S. exporters to meet potential clients or business partners from EU countries and other continents. The most important trade shows related to the fruit and vegetable sectors are: Fruit Logistica Berlin, Germany Frequency: Every year Web: http://www.fruitlogistica.de Fruit Logistica is one of the most important trade shows for fresh and dried fruits in Europe. The next show will take place on February 8-10, 2012. More than 2,400 companies from across the entire fresh produce value chain will participate, including major global players as well as small and medium-sized suppliers from around the world. Bio Fach Nuremberg, Germany Frequency: Every year Web: http://www.biofach.de Bio Fach is one of the most important trade shows for organic products in Europe. The next show will take place on February 15-18, 2012. Other Related Reports from FAS EU Offices Report number Title Date released SP1020 EU-27 ? Citrus Annual 12/15/2010 GR1009 Greece ? Cyprus Citrus 2010 12/14/2010 IT1102 Italian Citrus Fruit 2010 - 2011 01/20/2011 E48001 EU-27 ? Market Development Reports - Fruits and Vegetables 01/07/2008 These reports can be accessed through the FAS website http://www.fas.usda.gov/scriptsw/attacherep/default.asp.
Posted: 28 July 2011, last updated 29 July 2011

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