General view on vocational education in India.
Vocational Education in India
Vocational education enables gaining skills and experiences directly linked to a career in future.
Distributed over several tiers, vocational education gets offered at school or for drop-outs, and at
post-schooling, and sometimes on-the-job. Both public and private provisioning prevails in the
country. After finishing the course, students are often offered placements in jobs. Vocational
trainings in a way give students some work related experiences that many employers look for.
Two major gaps could be noticed: quality and mismatch. Because of poor quality or mismatch
with market demands certain skill sets trained at vocational centers suffer from poor placement.
According to a National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) report (No. 517, 61 round, 2003)
two types of vocational trainings are available in India: a) Formal and; b) Non-formal. Formal
vocational training follows a structured training programme and leads to certificates, diplomas or
degrees, recognized by State/Central Governments, Public Sector and other reputed concerns.
Non-formal vocational training helps in acquiring some marketable expertise, which enables a
person to carry out her/his (often ancestral) trade or occupation. In a way through such non-
formal vocational training a person receives vocational training through ?hereditary? sources.
Often ?Non-formal? vocational trainings are also received through ?other sources?. In such cases
trainings are received by a person to pursue a vocation which is not ancestral and is different from
the trade or occupation of his/her ancestors. Data and graphs used here are all indicative and not
Vocational Training in India is imparted mainly by two types of bodies: Public Industrial
Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately owned Industrial Training Centers (ITCs)
The main training schemes are the Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) and Apprenticeship
Training Scheme (ATS). In addition some other training schemes are also provided by DGE&T.
There are about 5,114 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) imparting training in 57 engineering
and 50 non-engineering trades (Planning Commission). Of these, 1,896 are State Government-run
ITIs while 3,218 are private. The total seating capacity in these ITIs is 7.42 lakh (4 lakh in
government ITIs and 3.42 lakh in private). Figures 1-02.01 to 03 represent the detailed
information on the number and capacity of ITIs/ITCs. A number of vocational training institutes
are being run by private training providers. The formal training system of India starts at Grade 8
and above. According to ILO, the DGE&T?s skills development competes with other formal and
non-formal programmes, such as higher vocational schools (10 plus 2 stream), colleges,
polytechnics, etc. The share of ITI-based training seems to capture around 10-12 per cent of the
total number of school graduates at Grade10.
Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1473900
Other Premier Organizations Providing Vocational Training (Govt. and Non-Govt.)
? Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) which provides EDP and Khadi
Village Industries training
? Tool Room & Training Centres (DC, MSME)
? Provisions through the National Manufacturing Competitive Council (NMCC)
? CAPART (Council for Advancement of People?s Action and Rural Technology)
? SRI, Ranchi (Society for Rural Industrialization)
? Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission centres and many more.
Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1473900
Fig 1-02.03: ITIs/ITCs under Government and Private Bodies, in main states of India
Source: Ministry of labour DGE&T
From these figures it may be concluded that Tamil Nadu holds the majority stake in private
owned vocational institutes and Maharashtra for Government owned vocational institutes.
Communities Trained by KVIC and its Major Activities
Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) is the flagship programme of KVIC. The
main objective of this programme is to generate employment in rural area by setting up of any
new village industries (except negative list) availing loan from the banks and margin money
(middle end subsidy) from KVIC. Prime Minister?s Employment Generation Programme
(PMEGP) is a central sector scheme to be administered by the Ministry of Micro, Small and
Medium Enterprises (MoMSME). The implemented body will be Khadi and Village Industries
Commission (KVIC), a statutory organization under the administrative control of the Ministry of
MSME as the single nodal agency at the National level. At the State level, the Scheme will be
implemented through State KVIC Directorates, State Khadi and Village Industries Boards
(KVIBs) and District Industries Centres (DICs) and banks. The Government subsidy under the
Scheme is channelized through KVIC with the help of identified Banks for eventual distribution
to the beneficiaries / entrepreneurs in their Bank accounts. The implementing agencies are KVIC,
KVIBs and DICs will associate reputed Non Government Organization (NGOs)/reputed
autonomous institutions/Self Help Groups (SHGs)/ National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC)
/ Udyami Mitras empanelled under Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana (RGUMY), Panchayati
Raj institutions and other relevant bodies in the implementation of the scheme. Here training
formally or informally plays a crucial role for success of the schemes.
School ? a Part of Vocational Education ? a Brief Statistics
Other than ITI/ITC several Government and private bodies are equally important for the
vocational training system in India. They are the following: Schools also provide vocational
training formally at 10 and 12 level. The following figure shows the percentage of the stake of
all major states, provide vocational training in India.
It is observed that the above states like Maharashtra, Punjab, Orissa Tamil Nadu etc. are holding
most of the stake in number of schools which imparts vocational training. Schools have an
important role on vocational studies because one can start it from his/her schools days. More
coverage in school with proper infrastructure can create a large technical group in future which is
now lagging behind.
Paramedical Practitioner Status in Rural India
Fig 1-02.06: Trained paramedical practitioners available in rural India
Source: MHRD, Annual Report 2002-03, India Year Book 2008, Manpower profile
From Fig 1-02.06 it is clear that out of 3,15,746 paramedical workers in rural India, 47% are
female health workers. But extension workers are hardly 1%. We also need to focus on the
availability of Radiographers, Pharmacists and Laboratory Technicians for rural India. To
disseminate knowledge of basic health facilities we need to train more paramedical workers for
Major Initiatives Taken in 11th Five Year Plan
The Eleventh Plan has taken initiative to launch a National Skill Development Mission that may
bring some changes in ?Skill Development? programmes and initiatives. The Mission will be
operative under Prime Minister?s National Council on Skill Development (under the
Chairmanship of Prime Minister) for apex level policy directions, a National Skill Development
Coordination Board, and a National Skill Development Corporation/Trust involving many
separate and service sectors. The State governments will emphasize their Departments/Agencies
into a State Skill Development Mission. The chosen private sector (mainly the twenty high
growth sectors) will be an important part as the private arm of the Mission with an outlay of Rs
The National Skill Development Corporation will be constituted as Government Equity with a
view to obtaining about Rs 15000 crore, the public and private sector, and bilateral and
multilateral sources for the promotion of skill development and act as a non-profit company under
the Companies Act with appropriate governance structure (board of directors being drawn from
the outstanding professionals/ experts).
The National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS): It has been set
up as an advisory body for the informal sector to bring about improvement in the productivity of
these enterprises for generation of large scale employment opportunities on a sustainable basis,
particularly in the rural areas. (details available at: http://nceus.gov.in).
Public Private Partnership (PPP): Major emphasis was given on the PPP mode in the Eleventh
Five Year Plan. It focuses on the following:
? Private Investment in Skill Training.
? National framework for domain specific standards and common principles.
? National database for location wise availability (and shortage) of skilled
personnel will be established.
? The system should provide the options of multiple entry and exit points and total
mobility between vocational, general and technical streams.
? Special emphasis on economically weaker section.
? To overcome regional disparities due to diverse socio-economic factors, VGF
approach would be adopted to address regional imbalances through PPP.
? The structure of the job market is changing. Training courses lack focus at on-the job
market. As a result, and as various reports suggest, the number of students is declining for
long term vocational courses,
? The job creation should be done regionally, not centrally, otherwise it creates regional
imbalance of trained manpower.
? Funding for the public ITIs in India is very low, whereas other countries like China, USA
have a special fund for this purpose and part of fund can take care of restructuring
vocational training systems in order to achieve international quality. In the 11 five year
plan National Skill Development Mission has been introduced, which is a welcome
? ITI?s must focus on low-literate youth and unorganised sector.
? Accountability and training supply management are also major problems for ITI?s, which
need to be tackled head on.
? Policy focus on the paramedical vocational studies might be important, particularly for
? A central vocational training standardization system, accredited nationally and globally,
for maintaining the quality of the vocational education would be beneficial.
? Bridge organizations linking R&D institutes with the vocational education system might
help the vocational trainers and trainees to remain contemporary and act as grass root
? Vocational courses need to be made part of the school curriculum.