Hand Tools

An Expert's View about General Purpose Machinery in India

Posted on: 17 Mar 2010

Status of use of Modern Implements, Farm Machinery and Hand Tools in Indian agriculture

Status of use of Modern Implements, Farm Machinery and Hand Tools in Indian agriculture Indranil Biswas and Bikramjit Sinha National Institute of Science Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pusa Gate, KS Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 Information source for rural people An authentic source of information regarding new tools and techniques can enhance the applicability of the modern tools in rural areas. In the light of the National Sample Survey Reports, we outlined the flow of information about the new technology. As per National Sample Survey Organization (Report th No. 499(59/33/2), 59 round 2003) data, only 40% of farmer households are concerned about access to information on modern farming technologies. The most popular source of information was ?other progressive farmers? with percentage of farmer households accessing information through this source being 16.7%, followed by input dealer (10.83%) and radio (10.74%). Percentage of farmer households accessing information through ?other progressive farmers? was highest in Andhra Pradesh (34%), followed by Gujarat (30%) and West Bengal (25%). In the case of accessing information through ?input dealers? it was higher in West Bengal (36%), Andhra Pradesh (30%) and Gujarat (24%). ?Radio? was highest in Jammu & Kashmir (36%), followed by Kerala (31%) and Assam (29%). It is also indicated that the two most popular sources, namely ?other progressive farmers? and ?input dealer? were contacted by the farmer households mainly on ?need basis? or ?seasonally?. The overall picture of India regarding sources of information is represented in the following Fig 6-05.01. Participation Credit Any source in training agency Others 33.39% 0.74% 1.49% 1.40% Krishi Vigyan Kendra 0.58% Primary Output Cooperative Extension worker byers/food Society 4.71% processor 2.98% Television 1.90% 7.69% other progressive farmers Para technician/ 13.80% Radio Private agency/ NGO 10.74% 0.50% Input dealer 10.83% Village fair Government farmers' study tour Newspaper 1.65% demonstration 0.17% 5.79% 1.65% Fig 6-05.01: Different sources of information about agricultural tools in percentage Source: NSSO report no. 499 (53/33/2) Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1472366 Finance for farmers According to the report from NABARD, GoI set a target of Rs. 1,75,000 crore for credit flow to agriculture for 2006-07 against which disbursements by all agencies stood at Rs. 2,03,296 crore, exceeding the target by 16 per cent. Commercial banks, co-operative banks and Regional Rural Banks disbursed Rs. 1,40,382; 42,480 and 20,434 crore achieving 118, 104 and 136 per cent of their targets, respectively. During the same year, 83.50 lakh new farmers were brought under the institutional fold, 74.70 lakh fresh KCCs were issued, 631 agri-clinics financed, debt relief worth Rs. 4,873.37 and. 673.90 crore was provided to farmers in distress and in arrears, respectively. An amount of Rs. 460.06 crore was provided by banks to small/marginal farmers under one time settlement scheme. Banks also extended loans to the extent of Rs. 73.41 crore to 27,810 farmers, to redeem their past debts availed from informal sources. In some cases, subsidy is also available for the purchase of agricultural equipments. Agricultural equipments namely, tractors, power tillers, power threshers, sprinklers, drip irrigation, self propelled reapers, rotavators etc. are available on subsidy under Central Sector Plan Schemes. The subsidy is available to the farmers @ 25% of the cost of equipment, subject to certain ceiling limits. Most recently, Government of India released a debt waiver scheme in 2008 to the farmers for the welfare of poor farmers. This may be a short-term relief for the small and marginal farmers. But for the long-term gain we need to focus on capacity building of these farmers to sustain on adverse condition with more credit solution. Major farm machinery training and testing institutes in India The Farm Machinery Training & Testing Institutes (FMTTI) at Budni (M.P.), Hissar (Haryana), Garladinne (A.P.) and Bishwanath Chariali (Assam) established by the Government of India have been playing a vital role in promoting agricultural mechanization. The numbers of central farm machinery testing and training centre are less compared to the agricultural area of India. It is obvious that to enhance the facility there is a need to create more centers in India. To aware rural marginal farmers we need to decentralize the training and certification system. In fact, another gateway of job creation in rural India by imparting training to some nodal rural persons about standards and give them rights to certified the rural unorganizedly made small agri-machinery and tools on reasonable payment basis. In this way we may think of inclusion of large unorganized hand tool and agri-machinery industry into our organized system with proper safety measures and global acceptance. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1472366 Usage of modern farm implements 140 Wooden plough Iron plough 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Land holding size in hectare Fig 6-05.02: Number of different kind of plough owner in rural India Source: NSSO Report No. 408, 1991-92 It is clear from the Fig 6-05.02 that the tendency of utilization of wooden plough is higher than the iron plough. The other Fig 6-05.03 clearly reveals that use of indigenous water lifting device is much more than the use of mechanized pumps except in case of the large farmers. 80 70 Pumps  indigenous water lifting equipment 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Landholding size in hectare Fig 6-05.03: Number of different kind of pump user in rural India Source: NSSO Report No. 408, 1991-92 The above figures show the pattern of the usage of modern farm implements in rural India. The pattern shows that farmers with larger land holdings are the ones who mainly use the improved farm implements. Number of plough owned/ 100 households Number of household users/ 100  households nil nil  less than .002 0.002 -0.20 less than .002  0.21 -0.50 0.002 ?0.20  0.51 -1.00 0.21 ?0.50  1.01 -2.00 0.51 ?1.00  2.01 -4.00 1.01 ?2.00  4.01 - 10.00 2.01 ?4.00  10.01 &above 4.01 ? 10.00  10.01 &above  350 10.01 &above  300 4.01 ? 10.00  250 2.01 ?4.00  200 1.01 ?2.00  150 0.51 ?1.00  100 0.21 ?0.50  50 0.002 ?0.20  0 less than .002  nil  Type of agricultural implements Fig 6-05.04: Users of mechanized agricultural implements in rural India Source: NSSO Report No. 408, 1991-92 Agricultural equipment based market basically for tractors in India is dominated by private players like Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) and TAFE which constitutes for around 40% (out of which 75% is occupied by M&M) of the total market, Escorts and PTL together occupy 25%, while others hold 35% of total market share (Tractor manufactures association 2004-05). These players not only do well in national market but also in international market. According to United Nation ESCAP report, the present requirement is about 2.75 million additional tractors. The average annual demand will be about 3.43 lakh tractors over the next 8 years. For intensive cropping, farm power availability needs to be increased from 1.35 kW/ha to 2 kW/ha by 2010, mainly due to increased use of tractors and power tillers and by 2010, the tractor population needs to be increased from 2.76 to 4.13 million tractors. Approximately annual use (in hours) of tractors is currently between 600-700 h/year. Export Import scenario 35000 The following graphs show 30000 Import(in 1000$) the trend of export-import data for soil machinery, 25000 Export(in 1000$) dairy and milking 20000 machines and for the 15000 tractors over last 12 years. 10000 It is based on the values (in 5000 1000$) of the particular item imported or exported 0 as reported in FAOSTAT. These trends show the revenue generation Fig 6-05.05: Import export value of soil machinery through the export of Source: http://faostat.fao.org/site/576 agriculture machineries. Number of household users/ 100households Harrow Seed drills Sprayers Dusters Value in 1000$ Chaff cutter Power tiller tractor Year 1995 Harvester Year 1996 Thresher Year 1997 power run crane ? Year 1998 others crane?  sprinklers Year 1999 Year 2000 Year 2001 Year 2002 Year 2003 Year 2004 Year 2005 Year 2006 Status of Hand tools There are an estimated 2500 small scale and tiny units in India, of which around 350 units are concentrated in Jalandhar and more than 100 in Ludhiana, besides 7 large units. The small-scale industry for hand tools 16000 employs an 14000 Import(in 1000$) estimated 25000 12000 workers. India's Export(in 1000$) 10000 share is more than Rs. 5 8000 billion in global 6000 hand tool 4000 market. 2000 Manufactured hand tools 0 include hand tools like spades, shovels, mattocks, hand Fig 6-05.06: Import export value of dairy and milking machinery saws, files, Source: http://faostat.fao.org/site/576 rasps, pliers, pipe cutters, spanners and wrenches, goldsmith tools, vices and clamps, anvils, tools for turning, milling, grinding, sharp edge tools, etc. Hand Tool industry is an energy intensive industry with high scope for improving energy efficiency and saving. Different state governments have several schemes for the industry related to agricultural implements and hand tools. 300000 Import(in 1000$) 250000 Export(in 1000$) 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Fig 6-05.07: Import export value of Agricultural tractors (all values in USD) Source: http://faostat.fao.org/site/576 Value in 1000$ Value in 1000$ Year 1995 Year 1996 Year 1995 Year 1997 Year 1996 Year 1998 Year 1997 Year 1999 Year 1998 Year 2000 Year 1999 Year 2001 Year 2000 Year 2002 Year 2001 Year 2003 Year 2002 Year 2004 Year 2003 Year 2005 Year 2004 Year 2006 Year 2005 Year 2006 Key points to focus on ? Dissemination of knowledge of modern farm implements among rural farmers still depends mostly on ?progressive farmers?. More intervention is needed by KVK and Government agricultural departments. ? Intervention micro credit system is one of the essential components for the small land holding farmers in rural India for using improved farm implements. ? There is a need to increase the number of public farm machinery training institutes for low paying farmers. ? We need more focus to do more R&D in sophisticated agri-machinery like milking machines, so that we can export more. Hand tool industry is still neglected in India. This industry is basically unorganized in nature. We must lay emphasis on the standardization, up-gradation and also on the marketing part of the small scale based hand tool industry. This article is a shorter version of the full article available at http://www.nistads.res.in/IndiasNt2008300409_Report/t6rural/t6rur4.htm The whole executive summary of India Science & Technology 2008 is freely downloadable from http://www.nistads.res.in/IndiasNt2008300409_Report/India-S&T-2008-Full.pdf The complete India Science & Technology 2008 report is available at http://www.nistads.res.in/IndiasNt2008300409_Report/
Posted: 17 March 2010
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