Indian Wine Industry Proposes New Standards

An Expert's View about Food , Beverages and Tobacco in India

Posted on: 30 Apr 2013

The Indian Grape Processing Board has published draft standards for wine. For the most part, the standards reflect the guidelines of the International Organization of Vine and Wine.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary Public - Date: 4/17/2013 GAIN Report Number: IN3041 India Post: New Delhi Indian Wine Industry Proposes New Standards Report Categories: Agriculture in the Economy Wine Beverages Agriculture in the News Promotion Opportunities Approved By: David Williams Prepared By: D. Williams Report Highlights: The Indian Grape Processing Board has published draft standards for wine. For the most part, the standards reflect the guidelines of the International Organization of Vine and Wine. However, some standards have been modified to reflect existing Government of India standards. Disclaimer: This summary is based on a cursory review of the subject announcement and therefore should not be viewed under any circumstance, as a definitive reading of the regulation in question, or of its implications for U.S. agricultural export trade interests. Wine Industry Proposes New Standards India, through a request from the Ministry of Food Processing, joined the International Organization of Vine and Wine (known as OIV via its French acronym) on July 12, 2011. The Indian Grape Processing Board, which is a board comprised of representatives from the public and private sectors and established under the auspices of the Ministry of Food Processing, is now working to harmonize Indian wine standards with OIV guidelines and has published a solicitation of comments concerning the proposed standards. India does not currently have a set of wine production standards. Industry sources indicate that, for the most part, the proposed standards have been lifted directly from OIV guidelines. However, there are several standards that have been adjusted to comply with existing Indian regulations established by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. A copy of the three- part proposed standards is available on the Indian Grape Processing Board’s website via the following link under “PROPOSED NATIONAL WINE STANDARDS.” http://www.igpb.in/media-room/news/185-proposed-national-wine-standards-.html. Copies of the proposed standards follow: CODE OF PRACTICES FOR WINE GRAPES AND WINE Background: Indian wine industry has been growing at a fast pace but there are no wine laws to define various standards to check frauds, safety of consumers while international wine business is controlled through legislative controls. In India no data is available on the standards to be followed in case of wines. BIS have set some standards but those are not elaborated based on the scientific findings. Further the definition of the different kinds of wines is absent in India to define the category of the wines or other products. However OIV has clearly defined the definitions of the grapes, wines and other processed products derived from grapes like musts. These definitions are widely accepted globally and therefore these definitions have been considered for making standards. 1. Definitions1 1.1 Wine grapes: A fresh grape destined for vinification, basically because of its characteristics. It can be overripe or slightly raisined or suffering from noble rot, provided that it may be crushed or pressed using normal winery procedures and that it is capable of undergoing a spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. 1.2 Grape must: Liquid product obtained from fresh grapes, whether spontaneously or by physical processes such as: crushing, removing stems from grape berries or crushed grapes, draining, pressing. 1 Definitions adopted from International Code of Oenological Practices 2012 Issue, INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF VINE AND WINE sulphiting or addition of carbon dioxide (carbonation of the must) or by sorbic acid (not accepted). A small quantity of endogenous ethanol is tolerated, with a limit of 1% vol. 1.3 Preserved grape must: Fresh grape must whose alcoholic fermentation has been prevented by one of the following oenological procedures: 1.4 Concentrated grape must: Product neither fermented nor caramelised, obtained by the partial dehydration of grape must or of preserved grape must according to procedures accepted by the OIV, such that its density at 20°C is not less than 1.24 g/ml. 1.5 Caramelized grape must: Non-fermented product, obtained by the partial dehydration by direct heat of grape must or of grape must preserved according to procedures accepted by OIV, such that its density at 20°C is not less than 1.3 g/ml. 1.6 Wine: 1.6.1 Basic defmition: Wine is the beverage resulting exclusively from the partial or complete alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, whether crushed or not, or of grape must. Its actual alcohol content shall not be less than 8.5% vol. Nevertheless, taking into account climate, soil, vine variety, special qualitative factors or traditions specific to certain vineyards, the minimum total alcohol content may be able to be reduced to 7% vol. by legislation particular to the region considered. 1.6.2 Complementary definitions relating to sugar content: The wine is said to be: Dry, when the wine contains a maximum of either 4 g/L sugar or 9 g/L when the level of total acidity (expressed in grams of tartaric acid per litre) is no more than 2 g/L less than the sugar content. Medium dry, when the sugar content of the wine is higher than the sugar content indicated under the first bullet point and does not exceeds • 12g/L or • 18 g/L, when the difference between the sugar content and the level of total acidity expressed in g/L of tartaric acid does not exceed 10 g/L when the sugar content of the wine is more than that specified in the first bullet point, up to a maximum of either 12 g/L or 18 g/L when the content in total acidity is fixed according to the first bullet point above. Semi-sweet, when the sugar content of the wine is more than that specified in the second bullet point, up to a maximum of 45 g/L. Sweet, when the wine has a minimum sugar content of 45 g/L Dry Medium Semi-sweet Sweet 4g/L sugar or 9 g/L sugar 12 g/L or 18 g/L, when difference 45 g/L sugar >45 g/L when total acidity is < between sugar content and total acidity sugar 2g/L is < 10 g/L 1.6.3 Complementary defmitions relating to carbon dioxide content: The wine is said to be: Still, when the carbon dioxide concentration is less than 4 g/L at 20°C, Semi-sparkling, when this concentration is equal to or above 3 g/L and less than or equal to 5 g/L at 20°C. If the carbon dioxide content of the product enables the indication of these two references, the wine maker or the importer shall only use one reference of his/her choosing. Wine type Still Semi-sparkling Carbon dioxide content at 20°C <4g/L 3g/L and <5 g/L 1.7 Special Wines: 1.7.1 Flor or Film Wines Wines whose principal characteristic is to be subjected to a period of biological ageing in contact with air by the development of a film of typical yeasts on the free surface of the wine, after complete alcoholic fermentation of the must. Wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or alcohol of the viticultural origin may be added to the wine, in which case the actual alcohol content of the finished product must be equal to or greater than 15% vol. Prescriptions: The wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or alcohol of viticultural origin which may be added must comply with the conditions fixed for the production of these products in the International Code of oenological practices and with the prescriptions of the International Oenological Codex. Recommendation of the OIV: It is recommended that the rectified food alcohol used is exclusively of viticultural origin. 1.7.2 Liqueur Wine Fortified wines produced from fresh grapes, musts or wines with a natural total alcohol content of at least 12 % vol. to which only wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or rectified alcohol of viticultural origin are added. A part of the actual alcohol content of the finished product, that shall not be less than 4 % vol., must come from the total or partial fermentation of the initial sugar. Prescriptions The wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or alcohol of viticultural origin which are added must comply with the conditions fixed for the production of these products in the International Code of oenological practices and with the prescriptions of the International Oenological Codex. Recommendation of the OIV: It is recommended that the rectified food alcohol used is exclusively of viticultural origin. 1.7.3 Syrupy Wines Fortified wines produced from fresh grapes, musts or wines with a natural total alcohol content of at least 12 % vol. to which are added both wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or rectified alcohol of viticultural origin, and concentrated or caramelised grape musts, or over ripened fresh grapes, or mistelles, or several of these products. A part of the actual alcohol content of the finished product, that shall not be less than 4 % vol., must come from the total or partial fermentation of the initial sugar of the grapes, musts or wines used. Prescriptions: The wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or alcohol of viticultural origin which are added must comply with the conditions fixed for the production of these products in the International Code of oenologi cal practices and with the prescriptions of the International Oenological Codex. Recommendation of the OIV: It is recommended that the rectified food alcohol used is exclusively of viticultural origin. 1.7.4 Sparkling Wines Special wines produced from grapes, musts or wines processed according to techniques accepted by OIV, characterised on uncorking by the production of a more or less persistent effervescence resulting from the release of carbon dioxide of exclusively endogenous origin. The excess pressure of this gas in the bottle is at least 3.5 bars at 20°C. Nevertheless, for bottles of a capacity less than 0.25 1, the minimum excess pressure is 3 bars at 20°C. According to the production technique, sparkling wines are said to be: — Of secondary fermentation in bottle, — Of secondary fermentation in closed tank. The wine is said to be: — Brut when it contains at the most 12 g/L of sugar with a tolerance of + 3 g/L; — Extra-dry, when it contains at least 12 g/L and at most 17 g/L with a tolerance of + 3 g/L; — Dry, when it contains at least 17 g/L and at most 32 g/L with a tolerance of +3 g/L; — Demi-sec, when it contains 32 to 50 g/L; — Sweet, when it contains more than 50 g/L. 1.7.5 Carbonated Wines Special wines produced from wines treated according to techniques accepted by OIV, showing physical characteristics analogous to those of sparkling wines, but whose carbon dioxide is partially or totally of exogenous origin. 1.7.6 Sweet Wines with Residual Sugar Derived from Grapes Sweet wine with residual sugar derived from grapes is a wine with a content of fermentation residual sugars, glucose plus fructose, above or equal to 45 g/L, and resulting exclusively from partial alcoholic fermentation of grapes or grape must for which the sugar content was obtained naturally, during the grape maturation, or may be obtained in accordance with provisions in 1.10 “Mastering sugar content from the harvest”, notably raisining, selective sorting of grapes and cryoselection. The actual alcoholic strength by volume of the wine must not be less than 4.5 % alc. vol. The potential alcoholic strength of the grapes before fermentation must not be less than 15 % alc. vol. 1.7.7 Icewine - Eiswein Definition: Wine made exclusively from the fermentation of fresh grapes having undergone cryoselection in the vineyard without recourse to physical procedures (see point d sheet Managing sugar contents in the wine harvest). The grapes used for the production of ice wine must be frozen during the harvest and be pressed in this state. Prescriptions: a) Harvesting and pressing should be performed at a recommended temperature lower or equal to -7°C. b) The potential alcohol strength by volume for musts cannot be increased and should be as a minimum 15% volume (corresponding 1100 Oechsle or 25.3 Brix). c) The minimal alcoholic strength acquired should be 5.5 % by volume. d) The maximum limit of volatile acidity should be 35 milli-equivalents (2.1 g/L expressed in acetic acid). e) All grapes used in ice wine should come from the same region. 1.8 Mistelles Mistelles are products produced from unfermented fresh grapes or grape musts (1 % vol. actual alcohol is tolerated) and rendered non-fermentable by addition of wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or alcohol of viticultural origin. Mistelles are categorised as: — Mistelles destined for further processing, — Mistelles destined to be consumed as such and that are similar to fortified wines. In the case of mistelles destined for further processing, the grape must used shall have a total natural alcohol content of at least 8.5 % vol. The actual alcohol content of the finished product shall be 12 to 15 % vol. For the mistelles destined for direct consumption, the grape must used shall have a total natural alcohol content of at least 12 % vol. The actual alcohol content of the finished product shall be not less than 15 % vol. and not greater than 22 % vol. Mistelles destined for further Mistelles destined for direct processing consumption total natural alcohol content 8.5 % 12 % actual alcohol content of the 12 to 15 % 15 to 22 % finished product Prescriptions The wine spirit, rectified food alcohol or alcohol of viticultural origin which are added must comply with the conditions fixed for the production of these products in the International Code of oenologi cal practices and with the prescriptions of the International Oenological Codex. Recommendation of the OIV: It is recommended that the rectified food alcohol used is exclusively of viticultural origin. 1.9 SPIRITS, ALCOHOLS AND SPIRIT BEVERAGES OF VITIVINICULTURAL ORIGIN 1.9.1 Distifiatte of Vitivinicultural Origin Alcoholic liquid is obtained: - by direct distillation of wine, fortified wine, wine lees, or - after alcoholic fermentation of grape marcs, raisins or fresh grapes by the distillation of these fermented musts, or - by re-distillation of the distillate of vitivinicultural origin or wine spirits, The distillate of vitivinicultural origin, contrary to neutral alcohol of vitivinicultural origin, must have the aroma and taste of the above-mentioned raw materials. 1.9.2 Wine Distifiate Alcoholic liquid produced - by direct distillation of wine and possibly wine distillate added or, - by re-distillation of a wine distillate. The wine distillate, contrary to neutral alcohol of vitivinicultural origin, must have the aroma and taste from the abovementioned raw materials. 1.9.3 Neutral Alcohol of Agricultural Origin Ethyl alcohol obtained by distillation and rectification, with a minimum alcoholic strength of 96% volume, either after alcoholic fermentation, agricultural products such as beets, molasses, potatoes, grains, grape musts, grapes or other fruits, or agricultural origin spirits including wine and which do not have a detectable taste. 1.9.4 Neutral Alcohol of Vitivinicultural Origin Ethyl alcohol obtained by distillation and rectification, with a minimum alcoholic strength of 96% volume, either after alcoholic fermentation, products of viticultural origin such as grape must, grapes or raisins, grape marcs of wine, wine with the addition of wine distillate, wine lees which present no detectable taste. 1.9.5 Wine Spirits A spirit beverage obtained exclusively by the distillation of wine, fortified wine, wine possibly with the addition of wine distillate or by re-distillation of a wine distillate with the result that the product retains the taste and aroma of the above-mentioned raw materials. Alcoholic strength of the end product must not be less than 37.5% volume. 1.9.6 BnndylWeinbrand A spirit beverage obtained exclusively by the distillation of wine, fortified wine, wine possibly with the addition of wine distillate or by re-distillation of a wine distillate with the result that the product retains the taste and aroma of the above-mentioned raw materials. A certain period of aging in oak wood containers is obligatory before marketing. Alcoholic strength of the end product must not be less than 36% volume. 1.10 Raisins: Definition in FSSAI: Raisins means the product obtained by drying sound, clean grapes of proper maturity belonging to Vitis vinifera L. The product may be washed, with or without seeds and stems and may be bleached with Sulphur Dioxide. Definition in OIV: Ripe fruit of the vine brought, once separated from the plant and using treatments and authorised processes, to a state of dehydration or desiccation such that it can neither be crushed by normal winery procedures, nor undergo spontaneous fermentation; destined, by its characteristics, to food use to the exclusion of use for the production of wine and grape juice, and produced from special vine varieties or vine varieties cultivated for this purpose. 2. Check list to be followed in case of quality of wine grapes, wine grape growers, drawing grape samples, wine grape varieties grown and standards to be followed for harvesting, etc. 2.1 Quality • Quality refers to the ‘degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements’, where the requirements may differ from one person to the next. • To a consumer, quality may refer to the intrinsic value in terms of both sensory and image perception. • To a winemaker, quality may refer to the diversity and persistence of flavour and the wines ability to age. • Broad measures of quality (visual and chemical) can be tested in the vineyard • Visual Tests - uniformity of berry ripening, exposure to sun, disease, berry characteristics (size, seeds, colour and taste). • Chemical Tests — acidity, anthocyanins (colour), T.S.S. (sugars) • Wine quality is about a series of objective measures rather than a single measure of quality. • At a basic level, this refers to a wine that lacks faults or is sound. • Sound wines are then measured by both objective and subjective attributes which define their relative greatness. 2.2 General requirements for wine grape growers Growers will: • Manage their vineyard with due care to the environment and in accordance with quality assurance programs where required. • Comply with mandatory reporting requirements, such as reporting of agrochemical use in the form of a spray diary and submitting crop estimates when required. • Comply with winery grape sampling requirements. • For machine harvesting, grapes will be harvested in the cooler part of the night to minimize spoilage, especially with white grapes. • The delay between the commencement of harvest and delivery to the winery should be minimized unless other instructions have been given by the winery. • Inform winery representatives of any information or change that could affect the expected grape quality or yield. • Take reasonable steps to produce timely and accurate crop estimates. • Manage cropping levels to meet winery grape purchasing agreement tolerances. 2.3 Assessment in the vineyard Many grape quality parameters are assessed at the receival point, and some assessments can only be undertaken at that point, but vineyard assessment is a form of quality assurance that has become a critical step in the winemaking process. It enables the winemaking potential of the grapes to be identified prior to receival at the winery and more importantly, it prevents the delivery of unsound grapes to the winery. Although the focus is mostly on berry development, vineyard and vine characteristics may also be assessed. These assessments enable wineries to batch similar parcels of grapes, and optimize wine quality and winery efficiency. Inspections during the growing season and especially during ripening, allow the winemaker, or winemaker’s representative to follow progress and determine the time of harvesting that will result in the best combination and expression of flavours and other attributes. Flavour and character requirements are determined by wineries according to their product requirements and their winemakiiw styles. This process of assessment may continue well after the receival point, as is the case where ‘end-use’ bonuses are applied by some wineries, e.g. when grapes with particularly sought after characteristics are used to create premium wines. 2.4 Taking wine grape samples Vineyard assessment involves standardized representative sampling and measurements wherever possible and such results can be used which can help explain any differences in grape quality between blocks or sites. Characteristics such as flavour, leaf condition, bunch exposure, berry size, berry shrivel, sugar/acid balance, skin chewiness/thickness and tannin intensity cannot be easily or quickly measured using a tool or laboratory test and require subjective assessment by trained staff following specific guidelines. These types of assessments help wineries with batching grapes and determining a potential wine style or ‘end use’ product. Wineries should carry out final vineyard assessments within 1-2 weeks before harvest so as to give growers sufficient notice of the harvest date, and any notification of concerns about possible problems meeting specifications 2.5 List of wine grape varieties grown in India and used for wine making Wine Grape Varieties Red White Main Other Important V ties Other Important Varieties arieties V Main Variearieties Me Chardonnay, Riesling, rlot, Malbec, Viognier, Muscat, Gewrz C Zinfandel, Pinot Noir, abernet T Sauvignon traminer, Vermentino, Muscat Petit grains, empranillo, Sauvignon, C Blanc, Chenin Gros, manseng, Semillon, Symphony, abernet, franc, Shiraz C Blanc Greneche Blanc, Chasseleas Blanc, inscault, Greneche Garganega, Muscat of Alexandria, Ugni Blanc, noir, Cot Clairette 2.6 Standards of grape varieties Growing Quality Grapes to Winery Specifications explains and defmes six key quality parameters (sugar, pH, berry size, Titratable acidity, colour and contaminants such as fungal disease) as well as detaffing the latest sampling procedures, the influence of the local environment and management options that growers can use to mauipulate these wine grape quality parameters. 2.7 Wine grape harvesting based on TSS and pH For example, a wine with 22°Bx and .75 TA will have almost a 30:1 Brix:TA ratio. According to the Davis researchers, the most balanced table wines tend to have a Brix to TA ratio between 30:1 - 35:1. Another method is to multiply the pH reading by itself and then multiply that number by the Brix reading. Using this method, when white wine grapes gets close to 200 and red wine grapes close to 260, it can be a good rule of thumb of when to harvest. For example white wine grapes have a pH of 3.3 and Brix of 20, after going through that formula they will have a finally number of217.80 which is well within an acceptable harvest range for some winemakers. 2. Vinification: 3.1 The winemaking should be carried out in the buildings maintained in an orderly, hygienic, and neat and tidy condition. 3.2 A record of the quantities and variety of wine grape, must or grape juice received in the winery should be maintained. 3.3 Pressing records should be kept so that all batches of product can be identified and amounts of raw materials used identified. 3.4 Whenever blending of different grape varieties or grapes from different growing locations is carried out, necessary record of the blending process should be maintained by the winery. 3.5 All additives and processing aids for use in the production of wine, sparkling wine, and fortified wine or wine products should be used according to OIV guidelines (International Code of Oenological Practices and International Oenological Codex) 3.6 Only food grade additives and ingredients should be purchased and used in winemaking. 3.7 A record of quantities added of additives during production of wine should be maintained. 3.8 Where preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sorbic acid and sorbates are added prior to bottling, the concentration should be determined and verified to ensure legal conformance. 3.9 Sampling and analysis of wines or grape must should be carried out during the process of vinification whenever necessary. The results of the analysis should be recorded. All the records should be made available to the inspection agency e.g. IGPB whenever required. 3.10 Wherever the specific varietal mention is there on the lable, there should be 75% of the variety as minimum percent. Other than wine grape varieties are not allowed to make wine. 3.11 The addition of water and sugar from external source during winemaking process is not allowed. However sugar from viticultural origin can be added for making of fortified wines. 3. Note: For the Oenological practices and treatments recommended during winemaking, kindly refer “International Code of Oenological Practices, 2012 ISSUE”. 4. For the details of products used in oenology, kindly refer “International Oenological Codex, 2012 ISSUE”. This document gathers descriptions of the main chemical, organic and gas products used in the making and the keeping of wines. Conditions for usage and the directions and the limits of use are set out. The identifying characteristics and the degree of purity of the products used in the winemaking are described. In addition to the minimum efficiency required to be qualified as “conforming to the International Oenological Codex”. The definition or the formula, with possible synonymy, of every product is provided. Molecular weight, general characteristics, and in particular the solubilities are mentioned. Proposed standards for Indian Wines Sr. N Product Limit o. 1 Acidity NA 2 Arsenic 0.2 mg/i 3 Ascorbic acid NA 4 Boron NA 5 Bromide NA 6 Cadmium 0.01 mg/i 7 Citric acid NA 8 Copper 1 mg/i 2 mg/i for liqueur wines produced from unfermented or slightly fermented grape must 9 Diethylene glycol NA 10 Ethanediol/Ethylene glycol NA 11 Fluoride NA 12 Lysozyme NA 13 Malvidin diglucoside NA 14 Lead 0.15mg/i 15 Metatartaric acid NA 16 Methanol 400 mg/i for wines rouges 250 mg/i for white wines and roses 17 Polyvylpy- pyrrolidone NA 18 Propane-1,2-diol Propylene glycol NA 19 Sodium in excess 100 mg/i 20 Sorbic acid NA 21 Sulphates (Expressed as potassium sulphate) NA 150 mg/i for red wines containing at the 22 Sulphur dioxide (total) most 4 g/i of reducing substances 200 mg/i for white wines and rosés containing at the most 4 g/i reducing substances 300 mg/i: red wines, rosés and whites containing more than 4 g/i of reducing substances 400 mg/i: exceptionaiiy in certain sweet white wines 23 Volatile acidity 1 g/i (expressed as acetic acid). 24 Yeast mannoprotein NA 25 Zinc 5 mg/i 26 Reducing residual sugar NA 27 pH NA 28 Total acid (as tartaric acid gil NA Ester as ethyl acetate (expressed in terms of g/l of absolute 29 NA alcohol) Higher alcohol as amyl alcohol expressed in terms of g/l of 30 NA abosolute alcohol Aldehydes as 31 NA acetaldehyde expressed in terms of g/l of absolute alcohol 32 Free sulphur dioxide mg/I NA 33 Iron mg/I NA 34 Extracts gil NA 35 Tannins gil NA 36 Ochratoxin A 0.002 mg/L 37 Carbon dioxide NA 38 Dimethyl dicarbonate NA Benzoic acid or sodium benzoate NA 40 Hydrogen peroxide NA 41 Potassium ferrocyanide NA 42 Vinyl chloride NA 43 Mercury NA 44 Potassium sorbate NA 45 Selenium NA 46 Tin NA 47 Calcium NA 48 Chloride (Expressed as sodium chloride) NA 49 Ethyl carbamate NA Proposed standards and Justifications for Indian wines 1. Arsenic The OIV and other countries have set limit for this metal at 0.2 mg/L. In FSSAI the limit for arsenic is also set at 0.2 mg/L for grape juice. 2. Cadmium The OIV and other countries have set limit for this metal at 0.01 mg/L. In FSSAI the limit for cadmium is set at 1.5 ppm under the category other foods and not under the brewed food. 3. Copper All the major wine producing countries have set limit for copper at 0.5 to 1 mg/L while BIS has set limit at 5 mg/L. OIV has set limit at 1-2 mg/L. However in FSSAI the limit is 5 mg/L in case of grape juice and toddy. 4. Lead Sr. No. Product Limits 1 Arsenic 0.2 mg/L 2 Cadmium 0.01 mg/L 3 Copper 1 mg/L 2 mg/L for liqueur wines produced from unfermented or slightly fermented grape must 4 Lead 0.15 mg/L 5 Zinc Smg/L 6 Sodium in excess 100 mg/L 7 Methanol 400 mg/L for wines rouges 250 mg/L for white wines and rosés Sparkling wines: 300 mg/L . 150 mg/L for red wines containing at the most 4 g/L of reducing 8 Sulphur dioxide substances (total) 200 mg/L for white wines and rosés containing at the most 4 g/L . reducing substances . . 300 mg/L: red wines, roses and whites containing more than 4 g/L of reducing substances 400 mg/L: exceptionally in certain sweet white wines 9 Volatile acidity 1 g/L (expressed as acetic acid). 10 Ochratoxin A 0.002 mg/L All the major wine producing countries have set limit for lead at 0.15 to 0.3 mg/L. In FSSAI the limit for lead is 1 mg/L for fruit and vegetable juices. The OIV has set limit at 1.5 mg/Lfor lead. 5. Zinc The limit for zinc is set at 5 mg/L in OIV, Argentina and South Africa. In FSSAI the limit is also set at 5 mg/L for grape juice. 6. Sodium in excess The OIV and South Africa has set limit at 80 and 100 mg/L respectively. Since the soils in India are saline in nature it is important to monitor the levels of sodium and therefore, this has also been set. 7. Methanol All the major wine producing countries and OIV and BIS have set limit for methanol content in wines and therefore, this level has to be specified under Indian wine standards. 8. Sulphur dioxide (Total) All the major wine producing countries, OIV and BIS have set limit for sulphur dioxide content in wines. In FSSAI the limit for sulphur dioxide is 350 mg/L for fruit juices and 450 mg/L in case of wine. 9. Volatile acidity All the major wine producing countries and OIV and BIS have set limit for volatile acidity in wines and therefore this level has been set.. 10. Ochratoxin A (OTA) EU has set limit at 2 jig/L. The OIV had set limit of OTA in 2011 however this has been removed in 2012. The FSSAI has set limit of OTA at 20 jig/L for wheat, barley and ray.
Posted: 30 April 2013

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