Sugar Annual Report

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Mozambique

Last updated: 31 May 2011

The sugar industry is one of Mozambique’s agricultural success stories.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary Public - Date: 5/26/2011 GAIN Report Number: Mozambique, Republic of Post: Pretoria Sugar Annual Report Report Categories: Sugar Approved By: Ross Kreamer Prepared By: Dirk Esterhuizen and Almeida Zacarias Report Highlights: The sugar industry is one of Mozambique?s agricultural success stories. For the MY 2010/11 season, Mozambique?s sugar production is estimated at 281,726 MT Tell Quell (291,586 MTRV), the largest crop since 1975, and 12 percent higher than the previous season. Post expects sugar production will increase by almost 20 percent in the 2011/12 MY to 340,000 MT Tell Quell (351,900 MTRV). In CY 2010, Mozambique exported 107,989 MT of sugar mainly to the European Union and the United States. In CY 2011, sugar exports are expected to increase to 140,000 metric tons (MT) on the back of increased production. Executive Summary: In the 2010/11 Marketing Year (MY) Post estimates the sugar cane area harvested in Mozambique increased by nine percent to 38,584 hectares. In the 2009/10 MY, Mozambique harvested 35,376 hectares of sugar cane. The sugar cane area harvested is expected to increase further in the 2011/12 MY to 41,000 hectares on an increase in the demand for sugar cane as Mozambique?s four commercial mills are now fully operational. It is estimated that Mozambique produced 2.73 MMT of sugar cane in the 2010/11 MY, an increase of almost 19 percent from the 2009/10 MY on the back of an increase in area harvested and better yields due to new varieties. Post expects sugar cane production will increase to 2.95 MMT in the 2011/12 MY as the area planted to sugar cane will increase even further. For the 2010/11 season, Mozambique?s sugar production is estimated at 281,726 MT Tell Quell (291,586 MTRV), the largest crop since 1975. The 2009/10 season sugar production was 252,459 MT Tell Quell (261,295 MTRV). Post expects sugar production will increase by almost 20 percent in the 2011/12 MY to 340,000 MT Tell Quell (351,900 MTRV), due to higher cane production. Domestic sugar consumption in Mozambique for 2010 was estimated at 193,400 MT compared to 185,632 MT in 2009. Sugar consumption is expected to grow by almost four percent in 2011 to 201,000 MT on the back of increased economic growth. In 2010, Mozambique exported 107,989 MT of sugar mainly to the European Union and the United States. In 2011, sugar exports are expected to increase to 140,000 MT on the back of increased production. General Information: Figure 1. Map of Mozambique Source: Ezilon Maps The Structure of Mozambique?s Sugar Industry The sugar industry is one of Mozambique?s agricultural success stories. Sugar is Mozambique?s second largest agricultural export product after tobacco, and represents approximately 25 percent of total agricultural exports or three percent of Mozambique?s total exports. The Mozambique sugar industry consists of four major commercial sugar companies, each with their own sugar estates and mills. These four companies are Maragra, Xinavane (both in the Maputo province), Marromeu and Mafambisse (both in the Sofala Province). The Mozambique government still owns shares in three of the four sugar companies (see Table 1 and Figure 1), but is in the process of decreasing their shareholding as privatization is one of the government?s objectives. Two South African sugar companies, Illovo and Tongaat-Hulett, invested in Mozambique?s sugar industry. Illovo Sugar holds the majority share in Maragra and Tongaat-Hullett the majority shares in Xinavane and Mafambisse. Table 1. Mozambique: The Structure of the Sugar Industry Company Ownership Shares (%) Maragra Sugar Manufacturer Maragra Sugar, Pvt Maragra SARL 26 Illovo Sugar Ltd. 74 Maragra Comercial, Pvt. Maragra SARL 75 Others 25 Xinavane Sugar Manufacturer, Pvt. Moçambique Government 12 Tongaat-Hulett Ltd. 88 Moçambique Sugar Manufact, Pvt. Tongaat-Hulett Ltd. 75 (Mafambisse) Moçambique Govenment 25 Sena Company, Pvt. Sena Holding Co. 65 (Marromeu ) Térios Group 22 Moçambique Government 13 Source: CEPAGRI. Production: Following the end of the civil war in 1992, the Mozambique government made the decision to rehabilitate and modernize the sugar industry. Given its natural resources, Mozambique has a comparative advantage in producing sugar over neighboring countries. As a result of the rehabilitation program, the area planted to sugar increased 10-fold from about 4,000 ha in 1992 to more than 40,000 hectares in 2010. Sugar cane milled increased from 151,000 MT in 1992 to almost 2.73 MMT in 2010 (see also figure 1). Figure 2: The area harvested and production of sugar cane in Mozambique since 1992 In the 2010/11 MY, Post estimates the sugar cane area harvested increased by nine percent from the previous year to 38,584 hectares. In the 2009/10 MY, 35,376 hectares of sugar cane were harvested, 14 percent more than the 30,982 hectares harvested in the 2008/09 MY. The sugar cane area harvested is expected to increase further in the 2011/12 MY to 41,000 hectares, on a sustainable increase in the demand for sugar cane as Mozambique?s four commercial mills are now fully operational. It is estimated that Mozambique produced 2.73 MMT of sugar cane in the 2010/11 MY, an increase of almost 19 percent from the 2009/10 MY on the back of an increased in area harvested and better yields due to new varieties. Post expects sugar cane production will increase to 2.95 million tons in the 2011/12 MY as sugar cane area will increase even further. Table 2 illustrates the area harvested, the yield and sugar cane production in Mozambique for the 2008/09 (actual), 2009/10 (actual), 2010/11 (estimate) and 2011/12 (forecast) marketing years. Table 2: The production of sugar cane in Mozambique Season Area harvested (HA) Yield Cane crushed (MT) (MT/HA) 2008/09 30,982 67.9 2,104,807 2009/10 35,376 64.9 2,296,577 2010/11 38,584 70.7 2,728,541 2011/12 41,000 71.8 2,945,000 PS&D Table Sugar Cane for Centrifugal Mozambique 2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 Market Year Begin: Jan 2009 Market Year Begin: Jan 2010 Market Year Begin: Jan 2011 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 35 39 41 Area Harvested 35 39 41 Production 2,297 2,729 2,945 Total Supply 2,297 2,729 2,945 Utilization for Sugar 2,297 2,729 2,945 Utilizatn for Alcohol 0 0 Total Utilization 2,297 2,729 2,945 1000 HA, 1000 MT Sugar Production Prior to the civil war, which began in 1975 and lasted until 1992, Mozambique produced more than 300,000 MT of sugar annually. Mozambique is again, after 20 years of rehabilitation, almost on that same level as it produced 281,726 MT of sugar in the 2010/11 MY. Industry estimates are that it will surpass the 300,000 MT mark in the 2011/12 MY. In Figure 2 the production of sugar in Mozambique since 1990 is illustrated. The figure clearly illustrates the impact of the war on sugar production in Mozambique and the positive effect of the rehabilitation program. Figure 3: The production of sugar in Mozambique since 1970 For the 2010/11 season, Mozambique?s sugar production is estimated at 281,726 MT Tell Quell (291,586 MTRV), the largest crop since 1975. The cane to sugar ratio was 9.69. The 2009/10 season sugar production was 252,459 MT Tell Quell (261,295 MTRV), one percent more than in the 2008/09 season. Post expects sugar production will increase by almost 20 percent in the 2011/12 MY to 340,000 MT Tell Quell (351,900 MTRV) on higher cane production. Table 3 illustrates the production of sugar in Mozambique for 2008/09 (actual), 2009/10 (actual), 2010/11 (estimate) and 2011/12 (forecast) marketing years. Table 3: The production of sugar in Mozambique Season Cane crushed (MT) Sugar production Cane/sugar (MT*) ratio 2008/09 2,104,807 250,191 8.41 2009/10 2,296,577 252,459 9.10 2010/11 2,728,541 281,726 9.69 2011/12 2,945,000 340,000 8.66 *Tel Quell x 1.035 = Raw value, Refined x 1.07 = Raw value Consumption: Domestic sugar consumption in Mozambique for 2010 was estimated at 193,400 MT compared to 185,632 MT in 2009. Although sugar consumption has increase by an average eight percent per annum the past eight years, the per capita consumption is still low at only about 9kg per annum. The growth in Mozambique?s sugar consumption occurred in line with the strong economic recovery experienced after the war. The per capita GDP in 2008 was estimated at US$956, a significant increase over the mid- 1980s level of US$120. Between 1994 and 2006, Mozambique?s average annual GDP growth was approximately eight percent. After the economic crisis of 2008, economic growth was cooled down with an average growth rate of about six percent per annum. Figure 3 illustrates the growth in sugar consumption in Mozambique since 1999. Sugar consumption is expected to grow by almost four percent in 2011 to 201,000 MT. About 80 percent of all sugar consumed in Mozambique is brown unrefined sugar as there are no ?white end? refining mills in Mozambique. The 20 percent white sugar consume is imported, mainly from South Africa. Figure 4: The growth in sugar consumption in Mozambique since 1999 Trade: Mozambique?s sugar exports increased from 25,500 MT in 1994 to a record of 170,311 in 2006 (see also Figure 4). Last year, Mozambique exported 107,989 MT of sugar at a value of $50.7 million. The National Sugar Distributor (DNA) is responsible for most of Mozambique?s sugar imports and exports. Mozambique exports sugar to basically only two markets, namely, the European Union (EU), under the new Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) introduced in 2009, and the United States under the Tariff Rate Quota, both agreements allow access on preferential terms. Figure 5: Mozambique?s sugar exports from 1994 Of the 107,989 MT of sugar exported in 2010, 82,989 MT were exported to the EU market and 24,989 to the United States. In 2009, Mozambique exported 122,000 MT of sugar. The decrease in sugar exports is due to the increase in local consumption of sugar. In 2011, sugar exports are expected to increase to 140,000 on the back of a 20 percent increase in production. Table 4 illustrates the exports of Mozambique sugar to the different markets for the 2008/09 (actual), 2009/10 (actual), 2010/11 (estimate) and 2011/12 (forecast) marketing years. Table 4: The exports of Mozambique sugar to different markets Year EU USA SACU Total Value Market Market market Exports 2008 134,796 134,796 US$65 million 2009 122,000 122,000 US$58 million 2010 83,000 24,989 107,989 US$51 (estimate) million 2011 (forecast) 118,000 15,000 7,000 140,000 US$70 million Source: DNA Import Mozambique?s sugar imports are relatively small at 29,308 MT and amount to less than 10 percent of total production. In fact, most of Mozambique?s sugar imports fall under the arrangement that is called ?toll refining?. ?Toll refining? is where Mozambique exports raw sugar to South Africa in exchange for white refined sugar at a payment of $80 per ton. Sugar, Centrifugal Mozambique 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 Market Year Begin: Jan 2009 Market Year Begin: Jan 2010 Market Year Begin: Jan 2011 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Beginning Stocks 68 68 70 41 52 Beet Sugar Production 0 0 0 0 Cane Sugar Production 330 261 425 292 352 Total Sugar Production 330 261 425 292 352 Raw Imports 0 0 0 0 Refined Imp.(Raw Val) 237 26 160 31 35 Total Imports 237 26 160 31 35 Total Supply 635 355 655 364 439 Raw Exports 375 122 388 112 145 Refined Exp.(Raw Val) 0 0 0 0 0 Total Exports 375 122 388 112 145 Human Dom. Consumption 190 192 195 200 208 Other Disappearance 0 0 0 0 0 Total Use 190 192 195 200 208 Ending Stocks 70 41 72 52 86 Total Distribution 635 355 655 364 439 1000 MT (Left to Right) FAS Attaché L.W. Terry, FEWSNET Director for Mozambique Olanda Batta, FAS Agricultural Specialist Almeida Zacarias, Illovo Sugar Representative Roy Ducroy. Above: The group observes sugar production areas in Maputo Province, Mozambique.
Posted: 31 May 2011, last updated 31 May 2011

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