Peru continues to be one of the best performing economy in Latin America, achieving sustained high growth and low inflation.
THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY
USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT
Required Report - public distribution
GAIN Report Number:
Peru continues to be one of the best performing economy in Latin America, achieving sustained
high growth and low inflation. Peru’s economy has been transformed by market-oriented reforms
and privatizations and has met many of the conditions for long-term growth. Peru’s highly
dynamic economy was driven mostly by private investment, foreign trade, and domestic demands;
and its GDP has grown by 6.9 percent in 2011. This report summarizes key trade and market
conditions to help U.S. exporters make the most of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion
Section I. Market Overview
Peru continues to be one of the best performing economies in Latin America, achieving sustained
high growth and low inflation. Peru’s economy has been transformed by market-oriented reforms
and privatizations and has met many of the conditions for long-term growth. Peru’s highly dynamic
economy was driven mostly by private investment, foreign trade, and domestic demands; and its
GDP has grown by 6.9 percent in 2011.
Domestic demands have been the main engine for the growing domestic consumption. Demands
were pushed by an emergence of the middle class which, according to recent studies, has doubled
in the last 10 years. Peru’s middle class currently accounts for 56 percent of the total urban
population. A high employment rate has contributed to the easier access to credits and many
Similarly, credit rating agencies such as Standard and Poor, Fitch and Moody’s, acknowledge the
sound fiscal and economic performance of Peru, placing it among the economies that are certain to
comply with their obligations.
2009 2010 2011
Nominal GDP (U.S. $ billions) 127.2 157.1 176.7
Real GDP Growth (%) 0.9 8.8 6.9
GDP per capita (nominal U.S. $) 4,365 5,401 6.070
Ave. annual exchange rate (new soles/$) 3.01 2.83 2.75
Inflation (Dec. to Dec. %) 0.25 2.08 4.74
Source: Central Reserve Bank of Peru, www.bcrp.gob.pe
National Institute of Statistics, www.inei.gob.pe
Country Commercial Guide: Peru, http://buyusainfo.net/docs/x_8403089.pdf
Peru's population reached 29.4 million in 2011. The country has added 8 million people since 1990.
Total population is expected to exceed 32 million by 2020. The median age was 25.6 years in
2010, up 5.1 years since 1990. Peru’s GDP per capita has increased more than 20 percent in 2010
and it is forecasted to grow another 15 percent in 2011.
According to Peru’s customs data, total agricultural imports to Peru from the United States grew to
$875 million in 2011, up 11 percent from the 2010 level. Moreover, consumer oriented products
reached $129 million in 2011, up 21 percent compared with the 2010 level. The United States
became the second largest supplier of consumer oriented products, accounting for 15 percent of
the market share. Chile and Colombia were the first and the third largest suppliers of this category,
The United States– Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA), entered into force on February 1,
2009. PTPA immediately provided duty free access for two-thirds of U.S. food and agricultural
products, including high-quality beef, cotton, wheat, soybeans, soybean meal and crude soybean
oil, key fruits and vegetables such as apples, pears, peaches, cherries and almonds, food
ingredients, and many processed food products, including frozen French fries, cookies and snack
foods. Tariffs on most remaining U.S. farm products will be phased out within 15 years, with all
tariffs eliminated in 17 years.
Peru offers promising conditions for U.S. products due to the expansion of supermarket and fast
food chains, a growing trend for processed food consumption, increasing investments in the hotel
and restaurant industry (HRI) and economic stability. Opportunities also exist for commodities
such as hard red wheat, cotton, yellow corn, pet food, soybean meal, dairy (whey and cheese),
and beef and offal. However, major constraints include customer preferences for fresh food,
limited purchasing power in the lower-middle class population, and tariff and non-tariff barriers.
Although Lima is still the major market for consumer-oriented foods, cities like Trujillo, Arequipa,
Chiclayo, and Huancayo have become favorable alternatives for U.S. exporters.
Advantages and Challenges Facing U.S. Products in Peru
PTPA grants duty free access to two- 1.
thirds of U.S. food and agricultural Lack of brand awareness among
Growing food processing and HRI New local food brands appearing in the
sectors demand more food market at very low prices.
ingredients. Relatively small market due to
Open market for previously banned limited purchasing power; 70 percent of
products (beef, offal, poultry and the Peruvian population are low-income
Proactive supermarket industry will Traditional markets dominate
result in increased demand for high- retail sales strongly in secondary cities
value products Smuggling.
Supermarkets and fast food chains Consumer habits: Peruvians prefer
expanding to major cities. meals based on fresh products and spicy
Appreciation for U.S. food quality and seasonings.
culture. Peru is negotiating trade
Increased tourism creates new agreements with other countries, which
opportunities for food service could lessen U.S. competitive
development (especially consumer- advantage.
Section II. Exporter Business Tips
Two-thirds of U.S. food and agricultural products are exported to Peru duty free. The
complete list of products that benefit from PTPA can be found at:
Imported food products have been benefit since Peru TPA entered into force on
February 1, 2009.
For further information on food standards and regulations, labeling and import
procedures, please refer to our latest Food and Agricultural Import Regulation and
1. Food standards and regulations
Sanitary inspection, food registration, packaging and control regulations for food and beverages
are included in Supreme Decree No. 007-98-SA of September 25, 1998. The General
Environmental Health Bureau (DIGESA), within the Ministry of Health, is the Peruvian counterpart
to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding sanitary supervision and registration of food
and beverages. The National Agricultural Sanitary and Phytosanitary Service (SENASA), part of
the Ministry of Agriculture, is the local counterpart to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
concerning the development of sanitary and phytosanitary regulations and the inspection of animal
and plant origin products. The National Institute for the Defense of Competition and for the
Protection of Intellectual Property (INDECOPI) is the agency in charge of labeling standards,
labeling control, and trademarks.
2. General import and inspection procedures
In order to clear Customs (SUNAT), imports must have a Unique Customs Declaration (DUA), a
commercial invoice, an airway bill or bill of lading, a packing list, an insurance letter, and a food
sanitary registry from DIGESA for food processed products or a health certificate for animals,
plants or their by-products that complies with SENASA’s import requirements.
When the customs agent transmits the DUA electronically, SUNAT will determine the type of
control for the merchandise within the following channels: green, orange, and red. Channel green
permits delivery of the product once duties are paid; channel orange requires review of the
documentation; and channel red requires review of the documentation and physical inspection.
3. Food and beverage sanitary registration
The registration process has to be started by a company registered in SUNAT and that holds an ID
tax number (RUC). The information requested by DIGESA must be uploaded to VUCE website
(Ventanilla Unica de Comercio Exterior). This is a simplified trade system created to do the
formalities required by official agencies responsible for the transit, entering or leaving of goods to
The requirements are:
1. Simplified Trade System Form (SUCE - Solicitud Unica de Comercio Exterior) must to be
filling out on the website of VUCE.
2. The physical-chemical and microbiological quality analysis from the Plant quality control
laboratory. Only the physical-chemical analysis could be performed by an authorized
laboratory in Peru.
3. Present the certificate of free sale and use issued by the competent authority of the country
of origin within the past year.
4. Labeling information
5. Compositional analysis performed by a laboratory accredited by INDECOPI for foods and
special schemes beverages, which must indicate nutritional properties.
6. Payment of administrative procedures.
This procedure will take no more than seven working days. The Sanitary Registration will be valid
for five years from the date of issue and may be renewed between seven and 60 working days
before the expiration date.
4. Certificates for animals, plants, and their by-products
Before the product is shipped, the importer must request an import permit from SENASA. The
exporter must provide to the importer the corresponding official country of origin health certificate,
including the specific certification requirements of SENASA.
USDA agencies that issue health certificates for Peru are the Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service (APHIS) for animals and plants and their derived products, the Food
Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) for meats and their by-products, and the Agricultural
Marketing Service (AMS) for U.S. dairy products.
5. Labeling requirements
Imported packaged foods must carry a separate adhesive label before reaching the point of sale.
A Spanish translation of the label must include the importer/distributor’s contact information.
R.U.C. Law 28405, November 30, 2004, requires labeling for value-added products other than
foods (which could be included in the future). Imported value-added products that do not comply
with the provisions of this law must be properly labeled in private storage for customs clearance.
6. Road Map for Market Entry
Supermarket chains are constituted to be the main market for imported food products
whose target customers are high and middle-income consumers. U.S. exporters should
contact large importers, wholesalers/distributors or supermarkets directly.
U.S. exporters can approach Gas Marts, grocery and mom-and-pop stores through major
local suppliers (wholesalers/distributors).
Be diligent when selecting a partner (an agent or a representative) in Peru. Personal
visits/meetings are highly recommended. Conduct a background check of the prospective
partner before signing permanent contractual arrangement.
The local partner should be able to provide updated information on consumer trends to
identify niche markets, current market development (merchandising, point of sale and
promotion activities), and business practices.
Negotiating power of major supermarkets towards food suppliers is strong.
Suppliers to major supermarkets have wide range of distribution channels ranging from
those for fancy foods to those for foods for mass consumption.
Major food importers/distributors supply all major supermarket chains and provincial
retailers. It should be noted that major supermarket chains usually request product
exclusivity to new suppliers.
Food is primarily imported in mixed containers.
Major supermarket chains prefer to import expensive high-end products directly in order to
earn higher margins.
Distributors and wholesalers make constant in-store promotional activities. They count with
support personnel in every store and all distribution channels.
Section III. Market Sector Structure and Trends
In order to enter the Peruvian food market, U.S. exporters should contact local food
processing companies and importers/wholesalers/distributors directly or indirectly through
brokers, agents, or representatives.
Regardless of which strategy is chosen, personal visits are highly recommended. The local
partner should be well known by the U.S. company before any permanent contractual
arrangement is made.
The local partner should be able to provide updated information on market consumer
trends, current market development (merchandising, point of sales, and promotion
activities) and trade business practices.
1. Food Service Sector
In 2011, food service sales in Peru reached $6.8 billion. The sales generated by full service
restaurants and fast food outlets accounted for nearly 40 and 35 percent of the total sales value,
respectively. The sales prospect for fast food is even brighter as it targets every economic level of
consumer and has a wider consumer base.
Food service sales in 2011 grew 15 percent compared to 2010. Total food service imports in 2011
were estimated at $1 billion, or 20 percent of Peru’s total food service sales.
Estimated Consumer Food Service by Type (Current Value): 2007-2011
Sub Secto Food Service (US$ Million) r 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011*
Full-service restaurants 1,516 1,805 1,971 2,343 2,673
Cafes/Bars 157 173 191 234 271
Fast Food 1,294 1,447 1,626 1,991 2,374
Home Delivery 43 51 57 70 81
Street stalls/kiosks 773 960 1,099 1,309 1,443
TOTAL 3,784 4,436 4,944 5,948 6,842
growth % 16% 17% 11% 20% 15%
Source: Post estimations / *Preliminary
There has been a dramatic increase in the recognition of Peruvian food in the country. This trend
has positively affected the growth of restaurants that serve Peruvian cuisine, and many
international food franchises also decided to include Peruvian food in their menus to satisfy the
increased demand for Peruvian cuisine.
The Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism reported that the number of foreign tourists has
increased by 13 percent in 2010 compared with a year ago level, reaching 2.6 million visitors. The
evolution of incoming tourists was particularly important, mainly attracted by Peru’s primary
tourist attraction, Machu Picchu. Other tourist destinations that showed largest increase in number
of visitors were: Lake Titicaca (up 176 percent), Pachacamac (up 42 percent), and Kuelap (up 35
Consumer foodservice was positively affected by the continued growth of the economy in 2011.
Consumers are enjoying higher disposable incomes and are eager to spend more money on luxury
goods. Peruvian consumers enjoy eating and dining out whenever their income increases.
2. Food Processing Sector
Being driven by higher local demands, expanding food retail sector, and growing exports, Peru’s
food industry grew 12 percent in 2011 compared with the year ago level.
The trade liberalization has significantly favored the good performance of the food industry in
Peru. Free Trade Agreements that Peru has signed over the past 10 years have resulted in a
significant increase in the international market destinations for Peruvian products, from 52 to 148
countries. Main destinations include Latin America (mainly Colombia and Chile), the United States
and the European Union (EU). Within the EU, Spain, France, and the Netherlands are the most
important purchasers of Peruvian products.
Source: INEI, *Forecasted by IEDEP
In spite of good performance of the sector, the per capita consumption of food in Peru is still low in
comparison with other countries in the region. More for instance: Chile’s consumption is 2.6 times
higher than that of Peru where income disparities and lack of infrastructures in cities outside of
Lima are the main problems. However, this could be considered as an opportunity for companies
that want to increase sales in the local markets which aligned with food retail sector growth could
capitalize interesting domain positions in the future.
3. Food Retail Sector
Peru’s retail market exhibits a long list of opportunities for consumer goods. Peru has experienced
spectacular growth in modern retail channel in the past 10 years. The Global Retail Development
Index (GRDI) report made by A.T. Kearney’s ranks Peru’s food retail sector as the eighth fastest
growing country among developing countries worldwide. The study also emphasizes a growing
middle class and Peruvian Government’s deregulation policy.
Supermarket chains in Peru achieved sales of $3.1 billion in 2011; this represents a 15 percent
growth from the 2010 level (Table 1). This positive trend is consistent with increases in private
consumption and major availability to consumer credits and higher incomes, especially within
Source: Skotiabank Economic Department, CCR, Apoyo & Asociados
In 2011, Peru’s total food retail market reached almost $20 billion, 80 percent of which is
concentrated in Lima. Food sales by these supermarket chains accounted for 35 percent of the
retail market share in Lima in 2011, which is considered to be low in comparison with the
neighboring Latin American countries.
Retail Sales in Country by Sub-Sector (million dollars)
Sub-Sector 2009 2010 2011
Supermarkets and hypermarkets 2,216 2,483 3,097
Traditional Channel (grocery stores,
W 14,428 15,520 16,761 et-markets, convenient stores, etc.)
Total 16,644 18,002 19,858
Source: Post Estimated values
There were 173 stores (all formats included) by the end of 2011, with 128 in Lima and 45 in the
provinces. Supermarkets have fond their successes in identifying and developing new market
segments, which will eventually help them gain more ground in the future.
Section IV. Best High-Value Product Prospects
Peru grants tariff preferences to the Andean Community of Nations (CAN - Bolivia, Colombia
and Ecuador), and to Mexico, Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Cuba.
Peru’s trade policy is oriented towards open markets. Peru has signed different commercial
and trade agreements, while others have not entered into force yet and a few still in
Country Type Status
Andean Community (Bolivia, Ecuador
and Co Free Trade Agreement In force lombia)
MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay, Economic Complementation n force
Paraguay) Agreement I
Cub Economic Complementation a Agreement In force
Chile Free Trade Agreement In force
Mexico Trade Integration Agreement In force
United States Free Trade Agreement In force
Canada Free Trade Agreement In force
Singapore Free Trade Agreement In force
China Free Trade Agreement In force
South Korea Free Trade Agreement In force
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Free Trade Agreement In force
Th come into ailand Th Toird Protocol
Japan Economic Partnership Agreement In force
Eu To come into ropean Union Free Trade Agreement
Co come into sta Rica Free Trade Agreement To
Panama Free Trad come into e Agreement To
Guatemala Free Trade Agreemnent Negotiating
El Salvador Free Trade Agreemnent Negotiating
Honduras Free Trade Agreemnent Negotiating
The PTPA reinforces U.S. competitiveness within the Peruvian market. The quality of U.S.
products is already appreciated among the high-end consumers.
For a complete list of products that have benefited from PTPA, please check
Produ Market Average
Produ Size Imports Annua
Import Key Constraints Market
ct Tariff Over Market Attractiveness for
Ca 2011 2011 Import tegory est. G Rate Development the U.S. rowth
- U.S. cheeses are
mainly used in the
040610 sector, but have ,
20 - U.S. competitors potential in the HRI and
are: Argentina and Retail Food
3,335 0 (18 percent) and Sectors.
Netherlands (9 - In 2011, the
Cheese 21,531 23 percent 040630 percent). United States was
(HS 0406) MT the first supplier
mi 0 preference for EU with a market share llion)
percent cheese at high- of 44 percent (62
end HRI and percent growth).
Retail Sectors. - TPA*: 17 years
linear, 2,500 MT
quota with 12
percent increase per
- Major suppliers
are - United States
Colombia($31 represents 2.5
15,647 percent of total
Confectionary 0 million) and
tons imports, however,
– Ecuador ($3 non /A 16.6
n). U.S. imports grew
chocol Nate p millioercent
($46.2 - Local industry is 57 percent in 2011.
(HS 1704) million) strong. Major .
- The U.S. is the
- Chile is the second major
4,073 0 major supplier supplier with 19
Confectionary tons 22.2 pe (23 percent of rcent percent. The U.S.
– chocolate N/A percent MS). strength is in
(HS 1806) ($18.1 - Local industry is chocolate for the
mi llion) competitive. retail sector.
Imports grew 46
percent in 2011.
- Local Production
is strong. Alicorp
- United States is
14 is the major ,339 the second largest
Food tons 16 supplier and holds percent 0 foreign companies
Preparations N/A 18 percent of
percent are established in
(HS 210690) ($131 market share.
mi the country. llion) - In 2011 imports
- Chile is the
ma grew 18 percent. jor importer
- Due to an
increment of income
Tota levels, local l - Competes with
qua consumers are lity meats
Prime and beef and 1,283 0 offa demanding high ls tons percent from Colombia,
choice beef ma 16 percent rket: ($7.3 A quality products, rgentina,
(HS 020230) 283,596 million) Urugu such as beef. ay, Brazil
MT - U.S. imports have and Bolivia. grown 155 percent
respect 2011 in this
became the first
largest beef supplier
in 2011 and holds
50 percent of import
Edib nited States le Beef 3,924 - The U
Offa holds 97 percent of ls (liver) 10,000 tons 26.3 0 Local production
(HS, MT ($6.9 percent p covers most of ercent
020622) the market size. Imports have grown million) 30 percent in 2011.
- Brazil is the
Fruit and 14,299 major supplier
Vegetable hl 30 0 and holds 38 Imports have grown percent
juices N/A percent percent of market 46 percent in
(HS 2009) ($3.7 share in 2011. It respect to 2010.
million) is strong in
- Growing local
- There is an
12,125 informal industry
tons arising. - The United States
Pet foods 45,000 18 percent 0 holds 20 percent of
(HS 230910 ) MT p - Colombia 37 ercent
($14.9 percent), and the import market.
million) Argentina (36
- Peruvians are
major consumers of
- Major exporters turkey during
are Brazil (48 Christmas and New
3,175 percent) and Chile Year’s.
Tur - The food retail key 13,000 (41 percent)
y the sector is becoming
(HS 020727) MT 22 percent
($6.5 United States with more popular not
million) 11 percent. only in Lima, but
- Local poultry also in the province.
industry is strong. - USAPEEC has
initiated a market
- Peruvians are
9,208 major consumers of TRQ: - Strong local poultry.
Poultry meat tons 98 industry. ,000 54 15,117 percent - TRQ: 6 percent
cuts MT tons - Frozen increase per year.
(HS 020714) ($8.6 0 presentation is
mi Only 15 percent of llion) percent not common TRQ is used.
- Colombia is the
ma United States holds jor import
B 3,841 13 percent of import read, pastry, supplier and holds market share. HS
cookies N/A tons 21.percent 0 32 percent of
($10.1 percent code 190590
(HS 1905) mi market share. llion) represents 80
Local companies percent of imported.
are very strong.
Soups & 1,353 oca - United States grew l companies
Broths N/ tons A 21 0
- L 12 percent in
percent are very
percent 2011and is the
(HS 2104) competitive
($3.2 major import
million) supplier in this
percent of import
- United States grew
6,597 48 percent in 2011
and is the major
S - Local companies auces import supplier in
(HS 2103 N/A ) p are very ercent this category,
mi holding 36 percent llion) of import market
- Chile is very
Nuts and 479 tons almonds and recognize that U.S.
a walnuts lmonds N/ quality of nuts and A 46 0 percent production. Last
(HS 0802) ($2.8 percent almonds is better year was major
million) than competitors. supplier holding
52 percent of
- There is a niche
market for quality
- Argentina (44
pe wines for which the rcent), Chile United States can be
(28 percent), and
Spa appreciated and in (12
pe price competitive. rcent) are
0 major expor - Peru’s wine ters.
W 41 million 17 percent consumption is ine mi percent - Only regular llion liters
(HS 2204) wine growing. Right now consumers
liters ($32 is above 1.3 liters.
mi recognize U.S. llion) wine - Import volume has quality.
grown 120 percent
- Small niche
ma in respect 2010. rket for U.S.
wines However, value only
grew 28. Low cost
wines are gaining
Note: TRQ = Tariff Rate Quota, on a first-come first-serve basis.
Sources: World Trade Atlas, USTR, Ministry of Agriculture (Minag), Gestion and El Comercio Newspapers
Section V. Key Contacts and Further Information
If you have any questions or comments regarding this report or need assistance exporting to Peru,
please contact the Foreign Agricultural Service in Lima at the following address:
U.S. Embassy Lima, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)
Mailing Address: Office of Agricultural Affairs, Unit 3785, APO AA 34031
Address: Av. La Encalada cdra. 17, Monterrico, Lima 33
Phone: (511) 434-3042
Fax: (511) 434-3043
For further information, check the FAS web site www.fas.usda.gov or our web site
www.usdaperu.org.pe. Please, also refer to our other current food market related reports: Food
Processing Ingredients Sector, Retail Food Sector and HRI Food Service Sector and Food and
Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards (FAIRS) and FAIRS Export Certificate reports.
American Chamber of Commerce of Peru (AMCHAM)
Executive Director: Aldo Defilippi
Address: Av. Ricardo Palma 836, Miraflores - Lima 18
Phone: (511) 705-8000
Fax: (511) 241-0709
Web site: www.amcham.org.pe
National Society of Industries (SNI)
President: Luis Salazar Steiger
Address: Los Laureles 365, San Isidro - Lima 27
Phone: (511) 616-4444
Fax: (511) 616-4433
Web site: www.sni.org.pe
Hotel and Restaurant Association (AHORA)
President: Freddy Gamarra Elias
Address: Av. Benavides 881, Lima 18
Phone: (511) 444-7825
Fax: (511) 444-4303
Ministries and Government Agencies
Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG)
Minister: Milton Von Hesse
Address: Av. La Universidad N° 200 – La Molina
Phone: (511) 613-5800
Fax: (511) 711-3700
Web site: www.minag.gob.pe
The National Agricultural Sanitary and Phytosanitary Service (SENASA)
Director: Dr. Oscar Dominguez
Address: Av. La Molina 1915 – Lima 12
Phone: (511) 313-3300
Fax: (511) 340-1486
Web site: www.senasa.gob.pe
General Environmental Health Bureau (DIGESA)
General Director: Monica Patricia Saavedra Chumbe
Address: Las Amapolas 350, Urbanizacion San Eugenio - Lima 14
Phone: (511) 442-8353 /421-0146
Fax: (511) 422-6404
Web site: www.digesa.minsa.gob.pe
Superintendent: Tania Quispe
Address: Av. Garcilazo de la Vega 1472 – Lima 1
Phone: (511) 315-3300
Web site: www.aduanet.gob.pe
National Institute for the Defense of Competition and for the Protection of the Intellectual Property
President: Mr. Hebert Eduardo Tassano Velaochaga
Address: Calle de la Prosa 138 - San Borja
Phone: (511) 224-7800
Fax: (511) 224-0348
Web site: www.indecopi.gob.pe
APPENDIX 1. STATISTICS
TABLE A. Key Trade & Demographic Information (2011)
Agricultural Imports From All Countries ($million)/ U.S. Market Share 1/ (%) 4,424 / 20
Consumer Food Imports From All Countries ($ million)/ U.S. Market Share 860 / 15
Edible Fishery Imports From All Countries ($ million)/ U.S. Marke /t Share (%)1 134 / 4
Total Population (Millions) / Annual Growth Rate (%)2/ 29.4 / 1.1
Urban Population (Millions) / Annual Growth Rate (%)2/ 22.3 / 2.1
Numbe / 3/r of Major Metropolitan Areas 2 10
Size of the High-Middle Class (Millions) / Growth Rate (%)4/ 2 / 3%
Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (U.S. Dollars) –2011 2/ 5/ 6,070
Unemployment Rate – 2011 (% 2/ 5/) 8%
Per Capita Food Expenditures (U.S. Dollars) 2/ 3,211
Percent of Females of Wo 2/ rking Age 50.3
Exchange Rate (US$1 = X.X local currency) 2/ $1 = S/.
1/ Source: Peru’s Customs 2010.
3/ Lima is the main city with 8.4 million inhabitants and 2.0% of annual growth. The other cities are: Piura, La Libertad,
Cajamarca, Puno, Junin, Cuzco, Arequipa, Lambayeque y Ancash.
Source: “Peruvian Association of Market Research Companies” Socioeconomic Levels 2011.
Economic and Finance Ministry (EFM)
TABLE B. CONSUMER FOOD & EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCT IMPORTS
Source: World Trade Atlas (2011)
TABLE C. TOP 15 SUPPLIERS OF CONSUMER FOODS & EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS
Source: World Trade Atlas (2011)