Coffee Annual

An Expert's View about Food , Beverages and Tobacco in Peru

Last updated: 23 May 2011

Peru's coffee production for Marketing Year 2012 (April/March) is forecast at 4.4 million 60-kilogram bags, an increase of 5 percent compared to the previous year.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 5/10/2011 GAIN Report Number: Peru Coffee Annual Annual Approved By: Emiko Purdy Prepared By: Gaspar E. Nolte Report Highlights: Peru's coffee production for Marketing Year 2012 (April/March) is forecast at 4.4 million 60-kilogram bags, an increase of 5 percent compared to the previous year. Coffee exports in CY 2010 were 229,524 MT valued at a record of $887 million. Coffee exports in MY 2012 are forecast at 4.2 million 60- kilogram bags. Executive Summary: Coffee production for Marketing Year 2012 (April/March) is forecast at 4.4 million 60-kilogram bags, an increase of 5 percent compared to the previous year. Average yields in MY 2011 were 821 kilograms per hectare but can reach 2,300 kilograms per hectare among the most efficient producers. Low yields are due to poor cultivation practices, especially the lack of fertilization. Due to the high cost of plant replacement, around $3,000 per hectare, coffee growers may only replant every twenty or thirty years. Peru?s coffee exports in CY 2010 were 229,524 MT. Coffee exports in CY 2010 were valued at $887 million, increasing 55 percent from the previous year. This increase is mostly explained by higher international prices since coffee exports in volume increased only 13 percent in the same period of time. Commodities: Select Production: Coffee, Green Peru 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 Market Year Begin: Apr 2009 Market Year Begin: Apr 2010 Market Year Begin: Apr 2011 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 288 306 0 328 350 Area Harvested 265 285 0 307 320 Bearing Trees 465 470 0 507 530 Non-Bearing Trees 20 20 0 22 25 Total Tree Population 485 490 0 529 555 Beginning Stocks 84 187 84 180 60 Arabica Production 3,300 3,820 4,000 4,200 4,400 Robusta Production 0 0 0 0 0 Other Production 0 0 0 0 0 Total Production 3,300 3,820 4,000 4,200 4,400 Bean Imports 0 0 0 0 0 Roast & Ground Imports 0 0 0 0 0 Soluble Imports 0 0 0 0 0 Total Imports 0 0 0 0 0 Total Supply 3,384 4,007 4,084 4,380 4,460 Bean Exports 3,150 3,667 3,900 4,150 4,220 Rst-Grnd Exp. 0 0 0 0 0 Soluble Exports 0 0 0 0 0 Total Exports 3,150 3,667 3,900 4,150 4,220 Rst,Ground Dom. Consum 10 10 10 10 11 Soluble Dom. Cons. 140 150 140 160 170 Domestic Use 150 160 150 170 181 Ending Stocks 84 180 34 60 59 Total Distribution 3,384 4,007 4,084 4,380 4,460 1000 HA, MILLION TREES, 1000 60 KG BAGS Coffee production for Marketing Year 2012 (April/March) is forecast at 4.4 million 60-kilogram bags, an increase of 5 percent compared to the previous year. Peru?s coffee production has been increasing in the past three years as the result of high international prices that have encourage producers to plant more land and improve their yields. Coffee is grown throughout the eastern slopes of the Andes but is concentrated in three principal growing areas. The most important area for both volume and quality is the central eastern slopes of the Andes in Chanchamayo, with 30 percent of total production. The other two areas are the northern Andes and Cusco region, with 21 and 18 percent of total production, respectively. Peru grows Arabica coffee almost exclusively, of which 70 percent is typica variety, about 20 percent caturra, and 10 percent other varieties. Roughly 75 percent of the coffee grown in Peru is produced between 1,000 and 1,800 meters above sea level. Coffee grows under shade with an average plant density of 2,000 plants per hectare. It is handpicked and sundried, giving it great potential for targeting high quality markets. Most Peruvian coffee producers are small farmers; the average farm has three hectares under production. These type of producers, as opposed to the larger ones, are grouped in associations or cooperatives that allow them to negotiate better prices, improve post-harvest handling of production, and develop marketing strategies. The larger associations have up to 2,000 members and over 7,000 hectares. The most sophisticated associations can even have a financial branch that provides loans to producers to purchase inputs, partially pay for costs of production to increase yields and improving crop quality. Some of these associations also provide technical assistance to farmers These service cooperatives market their product directly or have a long term relationship with a coffee trader that does it for them. Average yields in MY 2011 were 821 kilograms per hectare but can reach 2,300 kilograms per hectare among the most efficient producers. Low yields are due to poor cultivation practices, especially the lack of fertilization. Due to the high cost of plant replacement, around $3,000 per hectare, coffee growers may only replant every twenty or thirty years. Plant maintenance costs around $800 per hectare annually. The average cost of production is about $1.41 per kilogram, of which about 80 percent is labor. Harvesting season begins in April and reaches its peak in June-September. About 85 percent of the crop is harvested between April and July. Coffee producers face two main constraints. The first is the lack of credit, as private banks still do not accept the farmers? often-untitled land as loan collateral. Most farmers obtain their loans from coffee buyers or informal lenders, with high interest rates and a sale contract on the coffee price. Secondly, during the land reform of the 1970?s, land was divided into small plots, making it extremely difficult to efficiently manage coffee production, harvesting and processing. Consumption: Peru?s per capita consumption has double in the last five years, reaching 600 grams. However Peruvian coffee consumption remains one of the lowest in the region (Brazil?s per capita consumption is 4 kilograms per year). Coffee consumption is rapidly increasing, especially in the young urban population where it can reach up to 1 kilogram per year. Peruvians consume mostly instant coffee, comprising about 75 percent of total consumption. With more cafes and restaurants opening, coffee consumption habits in Peru are slowly beginning to change. However, domestic consumption only accounts for less than 10 percent of demand. Small corner stores and supermarkets are still the main domestic vendors of coffee, accounting for 60 and 30 percent of total demand, respectively. Trade: Peru?s coffee exports in CY 2010 were 229,524 MT. Coffee exports in CY 2010 were valued at $887 million, increasing 55 percent from the previous year. This increase is mostly explained by higher international prices since coffee exports in volume increased only 13 percent in the same period of time. Coffee is Peru?s number one agricultural export and will probably remain as such in the foreseeable future. The main markets for Peruvian coffee in CY 2010 were Germany with 35 percent and the United States with 21 percent of the total exports in terms of volume. An interesting development during CY 2009 that continued in CY 2010 is that Colombia was among the main importers of Peruvian coffee with almost 14,000 MT. Some Colombian companies have even established permanent offices in Peru. Average export price for Peruvian coffee in CY 2010 was $3,863 per MT and is expected to be 10 percent higher in CY 2011. Coffee exports in MY 2011 are expected to reach 4.2 million 60-kilogram bags, a slight increase from the previous year. Peru is the world?s leading exporter of organic coffee. Much of Peru?s coffee exports are organic because cultivators cannot afford chemical fertilizers and pesticides. There has been rapid growth in production of other specialty coffees as well. Various certifications yield premiums, which even small farmers are beginning to access. Fair Trade: certified by Fair Trade Labeling Organizations International (FLO). Organic: certified by several agencies such as the USDA?s National Organic Program (NOP), Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS), Natureland and the Organic Crop Improvement Assocation (OCIA). Sustainable Coffee: certified by the Rainforest Alliance. Café Practice: certified by Starbucks. Other certifications include bat friendly and bird friendly. Export Trade Matrix Country Peru Commodity Coffee, Green Time Period CY 2010 Exports for: U.S. 49,069 Others Germany 81,350 Belgium 23,330 Colombia 13,738 Sweden 9,072 Others 52,965 Grand Total 229,524 Units: Metric Tons Policy: Due to the successful results in the 2010 Specialty Coffee Association of America, where Peru?s ?Tunki? coffee won the first place in the specialty coffee category, the government has begun promoting Peruvian coffee through its commercial offices and Promperu, Peru?s export promotion agency. The coffee industry in Peru generates 855,000 jobs in very poor and remote areas where transportation can be extremely difficult. The Government of Peru, through DEVIDA, the umbrella agency for counter-narcotic affairs, has encouraged coffee production as an alternative crop to coca leaf production. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through its Poverty Reduction and Alleviation (PRA) program, has been assisting a portion of Peru?s coffee farmers in a program aimed at increasing farmers? licit incomes in coca areas. USAID mainly works in the Cusco and Puno areas assisting small farmers in obtaining their organic certification. Currently AID is in the second tranche of the PRA project which is scheduled to end in FY 2014.
Posted: 23 May 2011, last updated 23 May 2011

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