Poland Becomes a Leading Exporter of Apples

An Expert's View about Pome Fruits (such as apples or pears) and Stone Fruits (such as peaches, cherries, etc.) in Poland

Posted on: 27 Dec 2012

Poland’s MY 2012/13 product is estimated at 2.9 million metric tons, accounting for 26 percent of total EU production.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary Public - Date: 12/12/2012 GAIN Report Number: PL 1227 Poland Post: Warsaw Poland Becomes a Leading Exporter of Apples Report Categories: Fresh Deciduous Fruit Fresh Fruit Approved By: Michael Henney - Agricultural Attaché Prepared By: Mira Kobuszynska - Agricultural Specialist Report Highlights: Poland’s MY 2012/13 product is estimated at 2.9 million metric tons, accounting for 26 percent of total EU production. While increasing production was favorably supported by weather this year, growing investment in orchard development and better organization of producer groups in recent years are the catalysts for the apple sector’s rising productivity. With domestic consumption of fresh apples on the decline, Poland relies on external demand, primarily in Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and the process industry to dispose of its crop annually. MY2012/13 projections for fresh apple exports to reach 900,000 metric tons and for apple juice concentrate production to exceed 250,000 metric tons. Poland, one of the leading beneficiaries of the EU’s School Fruit Scheme, receives EUR 12.3 million per in financial aid from the EU to operate this scheme. General Information: Area planted and production Poland’s MY 2012/13 total production of apples is estimated at 2,850 thousand metric tons (MT). This represents a 14 percent growth in comparison to MY 2011/2012. The crop yield is higher despite the 2012 winter kill that reduced the number of apple trees on plantations by 2.6 percent in relation to MY 2011/12. Favorable weather conditions during blossoming and fruit maturation were the main reason for this year’s good crop. The arctic freeze which settled with no snow cover on the landscape affected mostly only very young trees. As such stock had yet to contribute to the nation’s apple production their loss will not influence this year’s projected production. There are about twenty main varieties of apples produced commercially in Poland with production amounting to 2,608 thousand MT. The dominant varieties produced are: Idared, Jonagold, and Champion. The great majority of commercial production consists of dessert apple types. Local varieties like Antonowka are designated both for the fresh market as well as for industrial processing, because of its higher level of acidity. Non-commercial production is used both for fresh consumption and occasionally for processing when market prices rise sufficiently to attract farmer’s attention. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics (Marketing Year: July/June) Apples Fresh, Poland MY 2010/11 MY 2011/12 MY 2012/13* Area planted 180,000 190,000 185,000 HA Commercial production 1,690,000 2,269,000 2,608,000 MT Non-commercial production 188,000 224,000 242,000 MT Production total 1,878,000 2,493,000 2,850,000 MT Intra EU-27 imports 68,687 44,945 25,000 MT Extra EU-27 exports 4,526 256 0 MT Total imports 73,213 45,201 25,000 MT TOTAL SUPPLY 1,951,213 2,538,201 2,875,000 MT Fresh domestic consumption 470,000 600,000 500,000 MT Intra EU-27 exports 51,280 74,497 83,800 MT Extra EU-27 exports 393,410 724,704 816,200 MT Total exports 444,690 799,201 900,000 MT For processing 1,036,523 1,139,000 1,475,000 MT TOTAL DISTRIBUTION 1,951,213 2,538,201 2,875,000 MT Balance 0 0 0 Sources: Global Trade Atlas, the Main Statistical Office Poland, FAS/Warsaw *FAS/Warsaw forecast 2011 Area Harvested and Apple Crops by Variety in Poland Area HA Total=100 Crops MT Total=100 TOTAL 183,526 100 2,493.1 100 Idared 28,128 15.3 352.8 14.2 Jonagold 20,766 11.3 296.4 11.9 Champion 18,261 10.0 280.8 11.3 Cortland 15,665 8.5 202.5 8.1 Lobo 14,078 7.7 194.1 7.8 Gloster 11,157 6.1 202.6 8.1 Golden Delicious 7,796 4.2 139.1 5.6 Ligol 7,675 4.2 114.6 4.6 Elstar 5,861 3.2 91.1 3.7 Red Delicious 5,372 2.9 65.0 2.6 Gala 4,750 2.6 55.3 2.2 Melrose 4,678 2.5 63.0 2.5 Spartan 4,359 2.4 56.4 2.3 McIntosh 4,216 2.3 48.6 1.9 Antonowka 3,595 2.0 40.4 1.6 Others 27,169 14.8 290.3 11.6 Source: The Main Statistical Office Poland Trade Poland’s Major Export Destinations - Apples Fresh, MT (year ending June) – HS 080810 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2011/12 MY 2011/12 Exports as % Share In World Trade World 786,678 444,690 799,200 100 Intra EU-27 142,101 51,280 74,497 9 Extra EU-27 644,577 393,410 724,703 91 Russia 318,226 248,066 442,677 55 Belarus 37,746 41,195 134,414 17 Ukraine 252,268 80,290 111,219 14 Kazakhstan 28,811 19,178 31,322 4 Romania 21,252 4,776 13,157 2 Germany 16,798 5,547 10,932 1 Source: Global Trade Atlas Poland is the largest exporter of apples in the European Union. In MY 2012/13 exports are expected to reach 900 thousand MT – 12.6 percent more than in MY 2011/12. The main external EU destinations are: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, which buy 90 percent of all exported Polish fresh apples. Russia is the main importer among these countries buying 55 percent of Polish exports. Export destinations internally within the EU are more dispersed with the main clients being Germany and Czech Republic. With consumption flat in Poland, prospects for export growth rest with rising consumption in neighboring eastern European countries. New investments in controlled atmosphere cold storage facilities are planned with capacity expected to increase to one million MT by 2015. In MY 2012/13 imports are projected to diminish by 45 percent Due to the large domestic crop. However, the primary source of imported dessert apples is Italy. Poland’s Major Import Sources - Apples Fresh, MT (year ending June) – HS 080810 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2011/12 MY 2011/12 Exports as % Share In World Trade World 15,959 73,213 45,201 100 Intra EU-27 15,897 68,687 44,945 99 Extra EU-27 62 4,526 256 1 Italy 2,782 14,084 10,988 24 Lithuania 0 3,148 9,602 21 Netherlands 8458 16,590 9,129 20 Germany 1,757 8,866 9,086 20 Belgium 1,127 5,779 1,697 4 Source: Global Trade Atlas CAJ production and trade Poland is the largest EU producer of apple juice concentrate (CAJ). In MY 2011/12 production was estimated at 250 thousand MT, up to 11 percent in comparison with the previous year. About 80 percent of CAJ production is exported. Internal consumption is diminishing thus leading the apple processing industry to be highly dependent on foreign markets. Poland’s Major Export Destinations - CAJ, MT (year ending June) – HS 200979 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2011/12 MY 2011/12 Exports as % Share In World Trade World 214,669 158,015 194,991 100 Intra EU-27 210,757 154,373 191,927 98 Extra EU-27 3,912 3,642 3,064 2 Germany 133,685 106,067 121,053 62 Austria 21,395 8,546 15,804 8 United Kingdom 22,984 12,175 15,388 8 Netherlands 8,097 7,918 14,310 7 Source: Global Trade Atlas Policy Poland is the largest recipient of EU funds for the School Fruit Scheme after Italy, Germany, and Romania. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/fruit-and-vegetables/school-fruit-scheme/index_en.htm Since the launch of the program in the school year 2009/10, financial aid for the scheme has grown to EUR 12.3 million per year, including 9.2 million from the EU budget and 3.1 million from national funds. In Poland the authority administrating the Scheme is the Agricultural Market Agency. Fresh fruits, mostly apples, vegetables and fruit juices, including apple juice are available to children free of charge. In accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 288/2009 EU member states participating in the program are required to regularly assess the effectiveness of the program. Poland conducted its first assessment in school year 2010/11 by the Food and Nutrition Institute in Warsaw. The results showed that the program has been effectively shaping children's eating habits and has increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. The program has been a positive influence changing the eating behavior of children.
Posted: 27 December 2012

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