Grain and Feed Annual

An Expert's View about Cereals, Leguminous Crops, Oil Seeds in South Korea

Last updated: 12 May 2011

Recently, the Korean Government revised its ambitious target date for reaching 200,000 tons of milling wheat production by setting 2015 as the new target date instead of 2017.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 5/6/2011 GAIN Report Number: KS1121 Korea - Republic of Grain and Feed Annual Grain and Feed Annual Approved By: M. Kathryn Ting Prepared By: Sunchul Choi//Gerald Smith Report Highlights: MY 2011/12 wheat imports are projected at 4.2 million tons, up 5 percent from the current marketing year, of which 2.2 million tons are for milling (including flour on a wheat equivalent basis) and 2.0 million tons for feed. However, MY 2011/12 corn consumption is forecast to decline to 7.8 million MT, down 0.3 million MT from the current marketing year estimate, due to an anticipated decrease in demand for feed corn due to the FMD outbreak that hit the swine industry. MY 2011/12 rice production is forecast to stay around 4.3 million tons. MY 2011/12 ending stocks (as of end of October 2012) are forecast to decrease to about 1.2 million tons, 25 percent of total consumption. Commodities: Wheat Production: MY 2011/12 wheat production is forecast to increase to 51,000 tons because of the growing demand for domestically grown milling wheat. The government?s loan program to finance purchases also has helped increase the demand for domestic milling wheat. Additionally, the government also has provided drying and storing facilities to local wheat producers. Wheat production for MY 2010/11 is estimated to increase from the previous year, up approximately 11,000 tons due to a sharp increase of planted areas. Recently, the Korean Government revised its ambitious target date for reaching 200,000 tons of milling wheat production by setting 2015 as the new target date instead of 2017. This production target will increase the country?s self sufficiency rate from its current level of 1.2 percent to 10 percent by 2015. Local milling wheat will be double-cropped with rice and the total planted area is targeted to reach 57,000 hectares (HA) by 2015. Wheat has replaced barley as the crop likely to be double-cropped with rice because the government will end its barley purchase program in the CY 2012. Korea: Wheat Production Harvested Area Yield Production Crop Year (Hectare) (MT/HA) (MT) 2006 1,738 3.34 5,810 2007 1,928 3.81 7,624 2008 2,549 4.06 10,359 2009 5,067 5.15 26,087 2010a/ 12,548 3.00 37,000 2011b/ 15,000 3.40 51,000 Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ FAS/Seoul estimate; yield is based on preliminary administrative survey data. b/ FAS/Seoul forecast; yield is based on government project and five year average. Consumption: MY 2011/12 consumption is forecast at 4.2 million tons, an increase of nearly 200,000 tons from the current marketing year due to the anticipated increase in the availability of competitively priced feed wheat. MY 2011/12 milling wheat consumption is forecast at 2.2 million tons, remaining unchanged from the current marketing year. The government continues its ?R 10? campaign to reduce the oversupply of rice by encouraging the local food processing industry to replace 10 percent of wheat flour with rice flour. This program is not expected to have any sizable impact on milling wheat consumption since local industry generally prefer using wheat flour. Please refer to Corn and Wheat PSDs Update Reflecting FMD Outbreak (KS2119) for the estimated wheat consumption for MY 2010/11. CY 2010 per capita flour consumption increased to 33.1 kilograms, returning to the average level of per capita consumption prior to 2008. Since then, the Korean wheat flour consumption has been hit by a strong bullish global grain market. Nearly 44.1 percent of flour consumption is used for local noodle manufacturing, followed by 12.9 percent for baking products and 8 percent for confectionary products. The remainder is used by the following - restaurants (8 percent), households (7.7 percent), pet food (6.3 percent), soy sauce (4.6 percent), brewing (1.1 percent), traditional chewy cakes (1.0 percent), industrial use (0.8 percent) and others (2.2 percent). Some flour is also exported, mostly to Japan. In MY 2011/12, major noodle manufacturers who prefer using Australian wheat flour are expected to use additional U.S. wheat flour as they change their noodle flour formulation by replacing 20 percent of Australian wheat flour with U.S. wheat flour. This comes on the heels of another shortage of Australian noodle wheat export to Korea in the latter half of 2010. Noodle manufacturers changed their formulation by replacing 50 percent of Australian wheat flour with U.S. wheat flour from CY 2007 through CY 2008. In CY 2009, noodles manufacturers returned to using 100 percent of Australian wheat. Korea: Post Estimates of Domestic Wheat Use (1,000 MT, July/June) Year 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 a/ Imported Milling Wheat 2,267 2,041 2,136 2,100 Flour Imports b/ 105 69 127 100 Flour Exports b/ 73 56 59 50 Local Wheat 8 10 26 27 FSI Consumption c/ 2,307 2,064 2,230 2,177 Feed Wheat 686 942 2,172 1,800 Total Consumption 2,993 3,006 4,402 3,977 Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA) and Korea Flour Millers Industry Association (KOFMIA) a/ FAS/Seoul forecast b/ Wheat basis c/ exclude wheat used for the volume of wheat flour exports, including imports of wheat flour. Korea: Wheat Flour Utilization (1,000 MT) Calendar Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Consumption 1/ 1,735 1,772 1,740 1,618 1,615 1,728 Per Capita (Kg/Year) 2/ 33.2 33.9 33.7 31.3 31.4 33.1 Source: Korea Flour Mills Industrial Association (KOFMIA) 1/ based on flour millers? sales including exports, imports and animal feed purposes. 2/ excludes animal feed and exports from total consumption, including imports of wheat flour. Trade: Trade: MY 2011/12 wheat imports are projected at 4.2 million tons, of which 2.2 million tons are for milling (including flour on a wheat equivalent basis) and 2.0 million tons for feed. The import estimate hinges to a large extent on the continued availability of feed wheat. International traders expect Korea to import between 2.0 million and 2.5 million tons of feed wheat depending on the 2011 crop situation in Ukraine, Russia and Eastern European countries - the traditional feed wheat exporters to Korea. In addition, wheat import would also depend on the supply from Australia, which experienced heavy floods during the harvest season. Post puts its initial forecast conservatively at 2.0 million tons of feed wheat imports. Imports of U.S. wheat in MY 2011/12 are forecast to stay around 1.3 million tons, which is lower than the current marketing year due to less than expecting exports of U.S. feed grade wheat. On the other hand, the United States is expected to export more milling wheat to make up possible short supply from Australia. MY 2010/11 wheat import estimate is expected to reach 4.0 million tons since imports for both milling wheat and feed wheat were higher than expected during the first eight months of the marketing year because of stable international prices and a strong local currency. Please refer to Corn and Wheat PSDs Update Reflecting FMD Outbreak (KS2119) for more details. Competitors Australia and Canada have become the United States? principal competitors in the Korean milling wheat market. In 2008, the Australian Wheat Board (AWB) was restructured to create a new entity - the Wheat Export Authority (WEA). 22 wheat exporters have been accredited under the WEA. Among these exporters, AWB and Cooperative Bulk Handling group (CBH) continue to dominate the Korean wheat market by providing specific marketing services such as pre-blending in order to secure customers. Australian wheat exporters have supplied Australian Noodle Wheat (ANW), a sub-class of Australian Standard White Wheat (ASW), as a specifically blended variety for Korean noodle producers. In CY 2010, for example Australian premium wheat (APW) was introduced to Korean market for the first time. Tariff In late December, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF) released its adjusted tariffs and tariff rate quotas (TRQ) for CY 2011. Please refer to KS1105 for more details. A TRQ covering milling wheat was set at 2.4 million metric tons at zero percent, down from 1.8 percent of the base rate for the first half of CY 2011. The out-of-quota duty remained fixed at 1.8 percent. Of note, the feed wheat TRQ and its corresponding duty were eliminated in 2007. Flour import tariff rate for all imports was initially decreased to 2.5 percent from 4.2 percent of the local base rate for the same period. Additionally, the government announced that it would cut the import duty to zero for the related period. Korea: Wheat Import Tariff Rates for CY 2011 (Percent) Commodity Applied Tariff Rate Bound Tariff Rate 2010 2011 2010 2011 Durum Wheat 1001.10.0000 3 3 9.0 9.0 Meslins 1001.90.1000 3 3 Seed Wheat 1001.90.9010 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Feed Wheat 1001.90.9020 0 0 0 0 Milling Wheat 1001.90.9030 1.8 0 1.8 1.8 Others 1001.90.9090 1.8 0 Source: Korea Customs Service (KCS) Flour Trade: MY 2011/12 flour imports are forecast to stay around 100,000 tons (wheat equivalent), as food processors continue searching for the most competitively priced flour in a bullish global wheat market. MY2010/11 flour imports are expected to reach 73,000 tons (100,000 tons wheat equivalent) due to a lower import tariff rate which was reduced to zero percent from 4.2 percent of local base rate. Lowering the tariff rate was to avoid inflation pressures amid a recent 9 percent surge in flour prices. Small-sized restaurants and noodle manufactures have been loyal users of cheaper priced flour. As domestic flour prices increase, MY 2010/11 flour export is estimated at around 50,000 tons (wheat equivalent), down nearly 15 percent from last year. Korea: Wheat Imports (1,000 MT, Customs Cleared Basis) Marketing Year (July/June) Feed Wheat Milling Wheat Flour Imports Total 1/ 04/05 1,089 2,385 29 3,503 05/06 1,536 2,220 41 3,797 06/07 976 2,298 69 3,343 07/08 565 2,317 105 2,987 08/09 1,151 2,058 69 3,278 09/10 2,164 2,071 127 4,362 10/11 a/ 1,800 2,100 100 4,000 Source: Korea Customs Service 1/ Wheat basis a/ FAS Seoul forecast based on the buying contracts to date. b/ based on the first eight months imports Korea: MY 2010/11 Feed Wheat Contracts by Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) (Unit: 1,000 MT, as of April, 2011) ETA Quantity Price (US$/MT 1/) Jul. 2010 165 211 Aug. 275 256 Sep. 165 206 Oct. 275 200 Nov 165 196 Dec 110 193 Jan. 2011 110 250 Feb. 110 258 Mar 165 308 Apr. 110 307 May 110 302 Jun. 55 306 Total 1,815 Source: Local Grain Traders 1/ CNF on Weighted Average Korea: MY 2011/12 Feed Wheat Contracts by Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) (Unit: 1,000 MT, as of March, 2011) ETA Quantity Price (US$/MT 1/) Jul. 2010 110 3070 Total 110 Source: Local Grain Traders 1/ CNF on Weighted Average Korea: Wheat Flour Imports (Metric Ton, July/June) Country MY2005 MY2006 MY2007 MY2008 MY2009 MY2010a/ U.S.A. 315 594 771 425 873 509 Canada 16,416 28,595 35,662 11,206 34,213 17,823 Australia 1,250 2,510 1,721 1,979 1,252 729 China 8,510 12,037 27,045 815 1,328 875 Turkey 2,488 4,671 1,981 6,685 24,568 13,055 Indonesia 360 942 4,709 4,462 7,647 10,103 Hungary 0 0 0 5,601 8,893 0 Others 424 1,211 5,103 18,951 14,112 11,142 Total 29,763 50,560 76,994 50,124 92,886 52,234 Wheat Basis 39,684 67,413 105,328 68,570 127,068 74,192 Source: Korea Customs Service (KCS) a/ estimated year-round imports of wheat flour based on the first eight months imports. Korea: Wheat Flour Exports (Metric Ton, July/June) Country MY2005 MY2006 MY2007 MY2008 MY2009 MY2010a/ Total 70,027 61,922 54,740 41,789 44,234 49,995 Wheat Basis 93,369 82,563 72,987 55,719 58,979 66,660 Source: Korea Customs Service (KCS) a/ estimated year-round exports of wheat flour based on the first eight months exports. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Wheat PS&D Wheat Korea, Republic 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 of Market Year Begin: Jul Market Year Begin: Jul Market Year Begin: 2009 2010 Jul 2011 USDA New USDA New USDA O New Post fficial Post Official Post Official Area Harvested 5 5 7 13 15 (1000 HA) Beginning Stocks 1,137 1,137 1,078 1,064 1,051 (1000 MT) Production 26 26 27 37 50 (1000 MT) MY Imports 4,470 4,362 4,200 4,000 4,200 (1000 MT) TY Imports 4,470 4,362 4,200 4,000 4,200 (1000 MT) TY Imp. from U.S. 1,231 1,116 0 1,400 1,300 (1000 MT) Total Supply 5,633 5,525 5,305 5,101 5,301 (1000 MT) MY Exports 105 59 100 50 50 (1000 MT) TY Exports 105 59 100 50 50 (1000 MT) Feed and Residual 2,200 2,172 1,800 1,800 2,000 (1000 MT) FSI Consumption 2,250 2,230 2,200 2,200 2,200 (1000 MT) Total Consumption 4,450 4,402 4,000 4,000 4,200 (1000 MT) Ending Stocks 1,078 1,064 1,205 1,051 1,051 (1000 MT) Total Distribution 5,633 5,525 5,305 5,101 5,301 (1000 MT) Yield 5. 5.2 4. 2.8462 3.3333 (MT/HA) TS=TD 0 0 0 WHEAT -- STATISTICAL TABLES Korea: Import Trade Matrix of Wheat Import Trade Matrix Country Korea, Republic of Commodity Wheat Time Period July/June Units: 1,000MT Imports for: 2008 2009 U.S. 1148 U.S. 1116 Others Others Australia 762 Australia 853 China 1133 Ukraine 1469 Canada 147 Canada 570 Russia 3 Russia 124 Total for Others 2045 3016 Others not Listed 16 103 Grand Total 3209 4235 Note: Matrix does not include wheat flour imports Korea: Monthly Wheat Imports (1,000 MT) Month Feed Wheat Milling Wheat MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 July 114 163 103 221 August 157 111 170 113 September 236 127 184 225 October 163 241 169 241 November 110 186 151 181 December 257 265 201 86 January 188 91 218 356 February 130 144 150 160 Sub Total 1,355 1328 1,346 1,583 March 264 Na 172 Na April 180 Na 138 Na May 215 Na 208 Na June 150 Na 207 Na Total 2,164 Na 2,071 Na Source: Korea Customs Service Korea: MY 2010/11 Monthly Wheat Imports by Origin (1,000 MT, based on Customs Clearance) Country U. S. Australia Canada Ukraine Other Total Milling Wheat 2010 July 147 57 16 0 1 221 August 25 70 17 0 0 112 September 107 113 4 0 1 225 October 137 86 17 0 1 241 November 100 79 2 0 0 181 December 34 40 12 0 0 86 2011 January 174 164 19 0 0 357 February 57 75 28 0 0 160 Total 781 684 115 0 3 1,583 Feed Wheat 2010 July 65 0 94 0 4 163 August 65 0 46 0 0 111 September 99 0 3 8 17 127 October 67 0 0 75 100 242 November 11 0 0 51 124 186 December 1 0 0 48 216 265 2011 January 0 0 53 13 25 91 February 0 22 97 12 13 144 Total 308 22 293 207 499 1,329 Total Wheat 2010 July 212 57 110 0 5 384 August 90 70 63 0 0 223 September 206 113 7 8 18 352 October 204 86 17 75 101 483 November 111 79 2 51 124 367 December 35 40 12 48 216 351 2011 January 174 164 72 13 25 448 February 57 97 125 12 13 304 Total 1,089 706 408 207 502 2,912 Source: Korea Customs Service Korea: Monthly Wheat Use (1,000 MT) Month Feed Wheat Milling Wheat a/ MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 July 162 199 180 183 August 153 141 164 186 September 169 120 190 183 October 171 146 153 195 November 174 165 160 190 December 196 180 183 198 January 174 173 184 222 February 170 134 156 160 Sub Total 1,369 1,258 1,370 1,517 March 191 Na 176 Na April 203 Na 177 Na May 204 Na 165 Na June 207 Na 178 Na Total 2,172 Na 2,066 Na Source: KFA and KOFMIA a/ Milling wheat use data includes wheat flour exports, but excludes the portion used in soy-sauce production Korea: Milling Wheat Imports by Variety (Arrival Basis, Calendar Year) CY 2009 CY 2010 Origin Variety (1,000 MT) % (1,000 MT) % United States No. 1 WW/SW 434.9 21.7 373.3 17.5 No. 1 WW/SW 9.5 max. 75.3 3.8 78.3 3.7 No. 1 WW/SW 8.5 max. 28.4 1.4 37.2 1.7 No. 1 White Club 0 0.0 0 0 No. 1 Hard White 0 0.0 0 0 No. 1 HRW 11.5 min. 231.9 11.6 250.3 11.7 No. 1 DNS 14.0 min. 286.5 14.3 319.6 15.0 No. 1 DNS 13.5 min. 0 0.0 12.7 0.6 No. 2 SRW 4.9 0.2 5.9 0.3 Sub Total 1,061.9 53.0 1,077.3 50.5 Australia ASW a/ 643.2 32.1 775.6 36.4 AH b/ 98.6 4.9 101.0 4.7 ANW c/ 48.6 2.4 21.0 1.0 APW d/ 0 0 8.2 0.4 Sub Total 790.4 39.4 905.8 42.5 Canada No. 2 CWRS 13 e/.5 min. 145.2 7.2 140.1 6.6 Russia RMW 5.9 0.3 7.2 0.3 Oth e/ers Organic Wheat 1.6e/ 0.1 1.0f/ 0 Grand Total 2,005.0 100.0 2,131.4 100.0 Source: Korea Flour Mills Industrial Association (KOFMIA) a/ Australian Standard White Wheat b/ Australian Hard Wheat c/ Australian Noodle Wheat d/ Australian Premium Wheat e/ Canada Western Red Spring f/ Australian Wheat Commodities: Corn Production: Corn production is negligible and accounts for about less than one percent of total consumption. Planted area for MY 2011/12 is expected to remain steady at around 16,000 hectares, while production is forecast at 78,000 MT based on the preceding five-year average yield. Korea: Corn Production Crop Year Area (HA) Yield (MT/HA) Production (MT) 2000 15,808 4.06 64,205 2001 14,208 4.03 57,218 2002 17,344 4.22 73,223 2003 16,966 4.14 70,242 2004 18,218 4.26 77,616 2005 15,176 4.84 73,470 2006 13,661 4.73 64,623 2007 16,981 4.82 83,513 2008 18,366 5.05 92,830 2009 15,326 5.02 76,975 2010a/ 15,528 4.70 b/ 73,000 Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ FAS/Seoul forecast b/ based on preliminary survey data Consumption: MY 2011/12 corn consumption is forecast to decline to 7.8 million MT, down 0.3 million MT from the current marketing year estimate, due to an anticipated decrease in demand for feed corn due to the FMD outbreak that hit the swine industry. Feed corn consumption is projected to decrease to 5.7 million MT, down 0.3 million MT from the estimated current marketing year level in large part due to anticipated declines in compound feed production in the swine sector and a greater feed wheat consumption caused by an abundant supply of feed grade wheat from Australia. However, food, seed and industrial (FSI) corn consumption is expected to stay around 2.1 million MT to meet a constant demand of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) from the soft drink industry. Since the second half of 2009, the price for HFCS has been much more competitive than sugar. MY 2010/11 corn consumption is expected to decline to 8.1 million MT, down 0.3 million MT from the previous year due mainly to a sharp decrease in the swine numbers caused by FMD. The increase in processing corn is expected to prevent corn consumption from sliding further. The FSI corn consumption will increase to 2.1 million MT, up 3 percent from the previous year due to a greater demand for high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) replacing sugar demand in the soft drink industry during the current marketing year. Please refer to Corn and Wheat PSDs Update Reflecting FMD Outbreak (KS2119) for more details. Compound feed production is expected to hold steady in MY 2010/11 and MY 2011/12, staying around 16 million metric tons, down 7 percent from MY 2009/10. Feed corn is the main ingredient used in compound feed, accounting for 35 to 40 percent of total ingredients. This ratio is projected to remain relatively constant for the foreseeable future based on the preferences of local livestock producers. Rising feed wheat use has impacted total corn demand in recent years. Corn processors have continued using non-biotech IP corn imported from the United States and traditional corn imported from other countries such as Hungary, Serbia and South Africa. The perceived public concern over biotech continues to exert pressures on imported processing corn, especially biotech corn that is used to manufacture cooking oil and HFCS. Many food processing companies have been reluctant to use ingredients sourced from biotech corn. Some companies using starch and corn syrup have sourced ingredients imported from China since these items are reportedly derived from non- biotech corn. Korea: Total Corn Utilization (Oct./Sept., 1,000 MT) Marketing Feed Processing Food Total Year a/ b/ 2007/08 7,046 1,494 98 8,638 2008/09 6,368 1,418 108 7,894 2009/10 6,362 1,928 92 8,382 2010/11 c/ 6,000 2,000 100 8,100 2011/12 c/ 5,700 2,000 100 7,800 Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA), Korea Corn Processing Industry Association (KOCPIA) a/ Used for wet and dry milling process based on imported corn. b/ For on-farm human consumption (on-the-cob) or snack food consumed on-the-cob, as puffed kernels or as corn tea. Imported white corn for popping has been included since MY 2004. c/ FAS Seoul forecast. Korea: Feed Ingredient Use for Compound Feed Production (October/September, 1,000 MT) Items MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10/ MY 2010/11a/ MY 2011/12a/ Sub. Total Grains and Grain Substitutes 10,274 10,954 10,000 10,000 - Wheat 1,416 2,149 1,600 2,000 - Corn 6,368 6,362 6,000 5,700 - Other Grains and Grain Substitute b/ 2,490 2,443 2,400 2,300 Others c/ 6,060 6,301 6,000 6,000 Grand Total 16,334 17,255 16,000 16,000 Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA) a/ FAS Seoul forecast. b/ includes Tapioca, bran and gluten feed. c/ includes vegetable protein meal, animal protein, minerals/additives, tallow, DDGS and molasses. Korea: Compound Feed Production by Species (October/September, 1,000 MT) Species MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11a/ MY 2011/12a/ Poultry 4,413 4,564 4,600 4,700 Swine 5,307 5,465 4,500 4,200 Cattle 5,550 5,915 6,000 6,100 Others b/ 1,009 1,233 900 1,000 Total 16,279 17,177 16,000 16,000 Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA) a/ FAS/ Seoul forecast b/ include ducks, pet food, rabbit, horse, sheep, deer, quail etc. Trade: MY 2011/12 corn imports are projected to decline to 7.7 million MT, down 300,000 tons from the current marketing year estimate due to a drop in feed corn imports to 5.7 million MT. The decline in feed corn imports is due to an expected 2 MT of feed wheat imports. In addition, the severe contraction of the swine inventory since the FMD outbreak in late November 2010 has slowed the growth of feed corn imports considerably. MY 2011/12 U.S. corn imports are forecast to stay around 5.5 million MT or 71 percent of total Korean corn imports, but could reach as much as 6.0 million MT depending on the corn supply situation of other major exporters as well as the availability of traditional corn from eastern Europe. Corn imports for MY 2010/11 are estimated to decrease to 8.0 million MT, down 0.5 million tons from the previous year due to a lower demand from feed millers. Please refer to Corn and Wheat PSDs Update Reflecting FMD Outbreak (KS2119) for more details. As of early April 2011, importers have contracted for 6.4 million MT of corn delivering from October 2010 to July 2011. Most of the contracted purchases to date are for U.S. corn and/or optional origin at seller?s option among the United States, South America, South Africa or Europe with a price range of $212-335 per metric ton CNF for feed corn. Meanwhile corn processors have contracted for U.S. No. 2 non-GM yellow corn and Eastern European conventional corn with a price range of $236-355 per metric ton CNF for the same period. MY 2010/11 U.S. corn imports are estimated at staying around 6 million tons and could reach 6.5 million tons based on the records of U.S. corn imports for the first five months. In MY 2009/10, the United States enjoyed a lion?s share of 89 percent of total corn imports in Korea, representing 94 percent of total feed corn imports and 70 percent of total food processing corn imports, respectively. Korean Consortium to Establish an International Grain Trader : The Korean government is intensely concerned about the prospect for speculation in international grains and oilseeds markets. Thus, the government is strengthening its food security policies by developing an overseas agricultural production system and exploring an advanced system for securing food grains and oilseeds. This food security strategy is being initiated by the Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF). The state-run Korea Agro- Fisheries Trade Corporation (aT) formed a consortium with four private companies (Samsung C&T Corporation, STX Corporation, CJ Corporation and Hanjin Shipping) to implement the strategy last December. The goal of the strategy is to directly secure at least 20 percent or 2.5 million MT of the nation?s total annual imports of grains and oilseeds, including 1.5 million MT of corn by 2015. On April 25, 2011, the consortium signed an agreement to set up an international grain trading company in Chicago. However, CJ Corporation dropped out of the consortium. Through this consortium, the government plans to import 50,000 MT of U.S. corn and soybeans, respectively and expand the volume of grain and soybean imports to 920,000 MT next year. The company also plans to invest in commodity trading facilities as well as river and port elevators through strategic partnerships with grain traders in the United States. Furthermore, on March 2011, Korea signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Brazil and business agreements with Russia and Ukraine to diversify the procuring of grains and oilseeds. The Korean government continues to explore importing grains from Southeast Asian countries such as Philippines, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, etc. Korea: Corn Imports (1,000MT, Customs Cleared Basis) Marketing Year From World From the U. S. U. S. Share Feed Processing Total Feed Processing Total % 05/06 6,507 1,975 8,482 4,813 561 5,374 63 06/07 6,860 1,871 8,731 4,036 150 4,186 48 07/08 7,680 1,629 9,309 7,259 1,077 8,336 90 08/09 5,781 1,431 7,212 4,883 921 5,804 80 09/10 6,457 2,003 8,460 6,097 1,407 7,504 89 10/11 a/ 6,000 2,000 8,000 5,000 1,000 6,000 75 Source: Korea Customs Service a/ FAS/Seoul forecast Korea: Corn Contracts by Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) (Unit: 1,000 MT, as of April, 2010) ETA U.S. Europe South Africa Others 1/ Total Oct. 2010 385 55 0 273 713 Nov. 220 0 0 275 495 Dec. 705 165 0 0 870 Jan. 2011 385 55 55 218 713 Feb. 55 53 0 536 644 Mar. 103 48 48 546 745 Apr. 389 0 0 486 875 May 309 48 0 55 412 Jun. 510 55 0 55 620 Jul. 180 48 0 55 283 Total 3,241 527 103 2,499 6,370 Source: Local Grain Traders 1/ optional origins at seller?s option In late December 2010, the MOSF released its adjusted tariffs and temporary tariff rate quotas (TRQ) for CY2011 (Jan- Dec). These adjusted TRQs cover a variety of agricultural products, including feed and processing corn. The TRQs for these commodities were expanded with feed corn set at 9 million MT, with a zero percent duty and processing corn was fixed at 2.234 million MT, with a duty of one percent. Please refer to KS1105 for more details. On February 28, 2011, the government cut import duties further to zero for processing corn as a move to stabilize rising domestic food prices. Please refer to KS1113 for more details. The out-of-quota duty for both feed and processing corn remained fixed at 328 percent. Of the annual TRQ for feed corn, 9 million MT has been allocated to feed millers who are members of the Korean Feed Association (KFA) and Nonhuyp Feed Inc. (NOFI). The Korea Corn Processing Industry Association (KOCPIA) manages the 2.2 million MT of processing corn TRQ. Korea: Import Tariff Rate for CY 2011 Commodity In-Quota Out-of-Quota Bound Tariff Rate Current Market Access Temporary Quota Rate In- Out-of- Quota Quota Quota Volume % Volume % % % % Feed Corn 1.8 9,050,000 MT 0 328 1.8 328 6,102,100 MT 1005 a/.90.1000 Processing 3 2,234,000 MT 0 328 3 328 Co b/rn 1005.90.9000 Pop Corn 1.8 10,000 MT c/ 1.8 630 1.8 630 1005.90.2000 Source: Korea Customs Service (KCS) a/ include 50,000 MT for mushrooms cultivation b/ include 10,000 MT of white corn for popping c/ governed by the CMA quota Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Corn PS&D Corn Korea, Republic 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 of Market Year Begin: Oct Market Year Begin: Oct Market Year Begin: 2009 2010 Oct 2011 USDA New USDA New USDA New O fficial Post Official Post Official Post Area Harvested 15 15 16 16 16 (1000 HA) Beginning Stocks 1,466 1,466 1,592 1,634 1,607 (1000 MT) Production 77 77 80 73 78 (1000 MT) MY Imports 8,461 8,460 8,000 8,000 7,700 (1000 MT) TY Imports 8,461 8,460 8,000 8,000 7,700 (1000 MT) TY Imp. from U.S. 6,795 7,504 0 6,000 5,500 (1000 MT) Total Supply 10,004 10,003 9,672 9,707 9,385 (1000 MT) MY Exports 0 0 0 0 0 (1000 MT) TY Exports 0 0 0 0 0 (1000 MT) Feed and Residual 6,362 6,362 6,000 6,000 5,700 (1000 MT) FSI Consumption 2,050 2,032 2,100 2,100 2,100 (1000 MT) Total Consumption 8,412 8,394 8,100 8,100 7,800 (1000 MT) Ending Stocks 1,592 1,634 1,572 1,607 1,585 (1000 MT) Total Distribution 10,004 10,028 9,672 9,707 9,385 (1000 MT) Yield 5. 5.1333 5. 4.5625 4.875 (MT/HA) TS=TD 25 0 0 CORN -- STATISTICAL TABLES Korea: Import Trade Matrix of Corn Import Trade Matrix Country Korea, Republic of Commodity Corn Time Period Oct/Sept Units: 1,000MT Imports for: 2008 2009 U.S. 5804 U.S. 7504 Others Others China 0 China 12 Brazil 715 Brazil 201 Hungary 342 Hungary 289 Argentina 167 Argentina 243 Australia 51 Australia 19 Serbia 103 Total for Others 1275 867 Others not Listed 133 89 Grand Total 7212 8460 Korea: Corn Imports (1,000MT, Customs Cleared Basis) Marketing Year From World From the U. S. U. S. Share Feed Food Total Feed Food Total % 94/95 6,463 1,760 8,223 6,192 1,420 7,612 93 95/96 7,166 1,797 8,963 6,855 1,699 8,554 95 96/97 6,455 1,881 8,336 3,869 1,629 5,498 66 97/98 5,755 1,773 7,528 1,610 1,699 3,309 44 98/99 5,593 1,921 7,514 4,543 1,891 6,434 86 99/00 6,618 2,060 8,678 1,610 1,620 3,230 37 00/01 6,568 2,155 8,723 2,169 1,120 3,289 38 01/02 6,474 2,128 8,602 1,487 111 1,598 19 02/03 6,657 2,137 8,794 306 24 330 4 03/04 6,659 2,117 8,776 2,921 336 3,257 37 04/05 6,739 1,895 8,634 2,303 190 2,493 29 05/06 6,507 1,975 8,482 4,813 561 5,374 63 06/07 6,860 1,871 8,731 4,036 150 4,186 48 07/08 7,680 1,629 9,309 7,259 1,077 8,336 90 08/09 5,781 1,431 7,212 4,883 921 5,804 80 09/10 6,457 2,003 8,460 6,097 1,407 7,504 89 10/11 a/ 6,000 2,000 8,000 5,000 1,000 6,000 75 Source: FAS Seoul a/ FAS/Seoul forecast. Korea: Monthly Corn Import (1,000 MT) Month Feed Corn Processing Corn MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 October 521 589 155 133 November 426 350 143 202 December 568 649 110 74 January 420 577 155 281 February 406 480 153 137 Subtotal 2,341 2,645 761 827 March 586 Na 135 Na April 557 Na 188 Na May 666 Na 200 Na June 547 Na 210 Na July 644 Na 160 Na August 547 Na 205 Na September 569 Na 189 Na Total 6,457 Na 2,003 Na Source: Korea Customs Service Korea: MY 2010/11 Monthly Corn Imports by Origin (1,000 MT, based on Customs Clearance) Country U. S. South Africa Brazil Argentina Others1/ Total Feed Corn 2010 Oct. 514 75 0 0 0 589 Nov. 302 48 0 0 0 350 Dec. 591 0 53 5 0 649 2011 Jan. 479 97 0 0 0 576 Feb. 459 21 0 0 0 480 Subtotal 2345 241 53 5 0 2,644 Processing 2010 Oct. 99 0 6 0 28 133 Nov. 60 29 34 0 78 202 Dec. 45 0 13 0 15 73 2011 Jan. 75 21 17 0 168 281 Feb. 96 0 0 0 41 137 Subtotal 375 50 70 0 330 1/ 825 Total 2010 Oct. 613 75 6 0 28 722 Nov. 362 77 34 0 78 551 Dec. 636 0 66 5 15 722 2011 Jan. 554 118 17 0 168 857 Feb. 555 21 0 0 41 617 Grand Total 2,720 291 123 5 330 3469 Source: Korea Customs Service 1/ mainly non-GM corn originated from Hungary (149,909 MT), Serbia (156,976 MT), Sweden (13,659MT), Australia (7,453 MT), Paraguay (1,726 MT) and New Zealand (263 MT) Korea: Total Corn Utilization (Oct./Sept., 1,000 MT) Marketing Feed Processing Food Total Year a/ b/ 1998/99 5,560 1,886 80 7,526 1999/00 6,541 2,004 79 8,624 2000/01 6,460 2,092 64 8,616 2001/02 6,584 2,094 57 8,735 2002/03 6,569 2,145 68 8,782 2003/04 6,614 2,057 51 8,722 2004/05 6,619 1,966 81 8,666 2005/06 6,510 1,996 73 8,579 2006/07 6,897 1,856 63 8,833 2007/08 7,046 1,495 92 8,633 2008/09 6,368 1,418 108 7,894 2009/10 6,362 1,940 92 8,394 2010/11 c/ 6,000 2,000 100 8,100 Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA), Korea Corn Processing Industry Association (KOCPIA) a/ Used for wet and dry milling process based on imported corn. b/ For on-farm human consumption (on-the-cob) or snack food consumed on-the-cob, as puffed kernels or as corn tea. Imported white corn for popping has been included since MY 2004. c/ FAS Seoul forecast. Korea: Processing Corn Consumption (Oct./Sept., 1,000 MT) Marketing Year Wet Milling Dry Milling Total 1998/99 1,670 216 1,886 1999/00 1,783 221 2,004 2000/01 1,880 204 2,092 2001/02 1,911 181 2,092 2002/03 1,929 180 2,109 2003/04 1,892 165 2,057 2004/05 1,837 129 1,966 2005/06 1,896 100 1,996 2006/07 1,752 105 1,857 2007/08 1,405 90 1,495 2008/09 1,343 74 1,417 2009/10 1,864 76 1,940 Source: Korea Corn Processing Industry Association (KOCPIA) Korea: Monthly Corn Use (1,000 MT) Month Feed Corn Processing Corn MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 MY 2009/10 MY 2010/11 October 504 573 137 182 November 507 583 137 173 December 565 612 140 173 January 510 550 159 177 February 483 420 151 151 Subtotal 2,569 2,738 724 856 March 551 Na 171 Na April 554 Na 169 Na May 538 Na 166 Na June 537 Na 179 Na July 525 Na 182 Na August 522 Na 176 Na September 566 Na 161 Na Total 6,362 Na 1,928 Na Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA), Korea Corn Processing Industry Association (KOCPIA) Korea: Animal Inventory (1,000 Head, 1,000 Birds) Animal Year March June September December Beef Cattle 2007 2,043 2,179 2,220 2,201 2008 2,241 2,448 2,470 2,430 2009 2,481 2,599 2,645 2,635 2010 2,706 2,889 2,949 2,915 2011 2,868 3,013 2,960d/ 2,942d/ Dairy Cattle 2007 461 456 455 453 2008 451 445 445 446 2009 448 439 438 445 2010 449 432 429 430 2011 392 390 391d/ 393d/ Sw a/ine 2007 9,345 9,462 9,659 9,606 2008 8,981 9,153 9,284 9,087 2009 9,177 9,044 9,381 9,585 2010 9,768 9,728 9,901 9,881 2011d/ 7,000 6,500 7,000 7,652 L /ay ber 2006 53,520 55,200 55,388 57,238 2007 56,525 56,542 55,117 56,093 2008 57,850 59,720 58,200 59,170 2009 60,240 61,140 61,998 62,967 2010 62,524 61,586 60,095 61,700 2011 59,840 57,380 60,000d/ 61,000d/ B c/roiler 2006 63,935 84,279 57,713 55,375 2007 63,350 87,359 59,946 56,227 2008 67,010 77,850 55,560 54,480 2009 68,690 99,983 68,123 67,194 2010 72,692 101,690 71,271 74,050 2011 73,490 100,000d/ 73,000d/ 76,000d/ Source: Korea Rural Economic Institute, MIFAFF a/ includes 864,000 heads of statistical difference between FAS/Seoul and Korean government. b/ Excluding breeders. c/ Excluding multi-use broilers. d/ FAS/Seoul forecast based on KREI data Korea: Feed Ingredients Use for MY2008-MY2 009 (1,000 MT) INGREDIENT MY2008/2009 MY2009/2010 TOTAL DOM 1/ % TOTAL DOM 1/ % GRAINS CORN 6,368 0 39.0 6,362 0 36.9 SORGHUM 0 0 0 0 0 0 WHEAT 1,416 3 8.7 2,150 0 12.5 BARLEY 27 5 0.2 24 4 0.1 RYE 0 0 0 0 0 0 OATS 2 0 0.0 2 0 0.0 GSP/BROKEN GRAIN 41 41 0.3 47 47 0.3 TAPIOCA 486 0 3.0 289 0 1.7 LUPIN SEED 90 24 0.6 208 38 1.2 OTHERS 142 114 0.9 123 119 0.7 SUB TOTAL 8,572 187 52.5 9,205 208 53.3 GRAIN BY-PRODUCTS WHEAT BRAN 686 393 4.2 653 390 3.8 RICE BRAN 160 160 1.0 175 175 1.0 BARLEY BRAN 0 0 0 1 1 0 CORN BRAN 0 0 0 0 0 0 GLUTEN FEED 648 373 4.0 639 411 3.7 OTHERS 253 189 1.5 282 217 1.6 SUB TOTAL 1,747 1,115 10.7 1,750 1,194 10.1 ANIMAL PROTEIN FISH MEAL 28 20 0.2 23 16 0.1 MEAT & BONE MEAL 18 18 0.1 18 18 0.1 OTHERS 84 83 0.5 87 87 0.5 SUB TOTAL 130 121 0.8 128 121 0.7 VEGETABLE PROTEIN SOYBEAN MEAL 2,271 539 13.9 2,176 576 12.6 RAPESEED MEAL 386 1 2.4 306 0 1.8 SESAMESEED MEAL 17 17 0.1 15 15 0.1 PERILLA SEED MEAL 6 6 0.0 5 5 0.0 CORN GLUTEN MEAL 79 67 0.5 86 79 0.5 DDGS 350 144 2.1 474 136 2.7 COTTONSEED MEAL 8 1 0.0 5 0 0.0 PARM KERNEL MEAL 502 8 3.1 596 0 3.5 COPRA MEAL 389 1 2.4 523 1 3.5 OTHERS 182 131 1.1 228 85 1.3 SUB TOTAL 4,190 915 25.7 4,414 897 25.6 ADDITIVES/MINERALS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE 84 68 0.5 82 65 0.5 LIMESTONE 399 399 2.4 435 435 2.5 SALT 58 58 0.4 64 62 0.4 OTHER 206 201 1.3 224 224 1.3 SUB TOTAL 747 726 4.6 805 786 4.7 OTHER INGREDIENTS TALLOW 364 321 2.2 365 331 2.1 MOLASSES 423 358 2.6 401 344 2.3 UREA 1 1 0.0 1 1 0.0 OTHER 160 151 1.0 187 176 1.1 SUB TOTAL 948 831 5.8 954 852 5.5 GRAND TOTAL 16,334 3,895 100.0 17,256 4,058 100.0 Source: Korea Feed Association (KFA) 1/ Domestic Products Commodities: Rice, Milled Production: MY 2011/12 rice production is forecast to stay around 4.3 million tons due to lower planting intentions caused by bearish rice market prices for the last two years and the ongoing government rice reduction program. According to a recent Korea Rural Economic Institute (KREI) survey of 1,615 rice farmers from December 27, 2010 ? January 5, 2011, area planted is expected to decline to 855,000 HA, down 4.1 percent from last year. As planted area decline, rice production will likely level off. Information about the 2010 rice crop is available in Rice Production Update (KS1031). Yield Rice farmers prefer planting high yield varieties because of government direct payment programs designed to support rice farmers? income. Consequently, increased yields are expected to offset the effects of declining paddy land. Korea: Rice Area, Yield and Production Crop Area Yield Production Year (1,00HA) (KG/10A) (Milled, 1,000 MT) 2002 a/ 1,053 471 4,927 2003 b/ 1,016 441 4,451 2004 1,001 504 5,000 2005 980 490 4,768 2006 955 489 4,680 2007 950 464 4,408 2008 936 518 4,843 2009 925 532 4,916 2010 892 482 4,295 2011 c/ 855 497 4,300 Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ Heavy rains during the summer and the effects of typhoon Rusa (Aug 31 ? Sep 1) b/ Cool and rainy days during the growing season and the effects of typhoon Maemi (Sep 9 - 12). c/ FAS/Seoul forecast based on rice farmers? planting intention surveyed by Korean government. Production Policy: The Korean government encourages and promotes self-sufficiency in rice production. Due to the current oversupply of rice the Korean government is seeking to divert rice area to other crops. Rice farmers receive two types of income support payments under the Rice Income Compensation Act (RICA), an area payment and a deficiency payment. In CY 2010, combined support payments totaled 1.37 trillion won ($1.19 billion). An explanation of how these payments are calculated follows. Area Payment: This payment is made on a per hectare basis and is calculated using the average area of rice production during the base period 1998-2000. The 2010 area payment was 703,163 won ($608) on average per hectare. Paddy area covered under this support program declined to 885,000 hectare, slightly down 1 percent from the previous. Deficiency Payment: The deficiency payment is 85 percent of the difference between the national-average market price during the 2010 harvest season (Oct-Jan) and the 2010 target price, less the area payment. In 2010 the deficiency payment amounted to 194.9 won/kg ($0.17/kg), while the average harvest price of 1,727.9 won ($1.49) per kilogram (milled) was lower than the target price of 2,126 won ($1.84) per kilogram (milled). The area payment of 703,163 won per hectare is converted to a kilogram equivalent (143.6 won/Kg) by dividing it by the 1999-2003 Olympic average yields*. Deficiency payments have surged from 600 billion won ($471 million) in 2009 to 750 billion won ($649 million) in 2010. The reason for this significant increase is due to bearish farm gate prices during the recent harvest seasons. The deficiency payment calculation is shown below. [(Target Price W/kg - Average Harvest Price W/kg) x .85] - Area Payment per HA /Avg. National Yield per HA [W 2,126 ? W 1,727.9] x .85] ? W 703,163/4,880 = W 194.9 per kilogram Note: *Olympic average yields: an average during a 5-year period, dropping the highest and lowest values. PSSE: Korea revised its Grain Management Act in March 2005 to replace the government purchasing program with a Public Storage System for Emergencies (PSSE). The PSSE was introduced as a means to ensure food security. The government supports farmers through direct purchase of domestic rice through the PSSE program. Under this program, the Korean government purchases domestic milled rice during the harvest season (Oct-Dec) paying the average market price and then sells it during the non-harvest periods at the prevailing domestic market price. The government purchased 340,000 MT (milled) of paddy rice, or 7.9 percent of the 2010 crop at an average price of 1,718 won ($1.49) per kilogram based on #1 grade. In addition to the government purchase of 340,000 MT, the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation (NACF) on behalf of the government purchased another 86,000 MT at government purchasing price to stabilize farm gate prices during the harvest period. In 2011, the government plans to maintain its purchase under the PSSE and is expected to buy 340,000 MT, which will be 50 percent of government held domestic rice under the PSSE program. Rice Reduction Plan: The government is encouraging rice farmers to cultivate other crops because of the surplus rice produced by consecutive bumper crops in 2008 and 2009. The Korean government has revised relevant regulations supporting the area direct payment of 700,000 won ($608) on average per hectare to eligible farmers for cultivating other crops in their paddy fields. In addition, the government tentatively plans to provide support of 3 million won ($2,600) per hectare for farmers who cultivate other crops in their rice paddy fields. However, the deficiency direct payment is not payable for farmers who participate in this program. The tentative plan is to have rice farmers cultivate other crops in 40,000 HA paddy land from 2011-2013. The government?s target is to reduce rice production by 200,000 MT annually. Korea: Direct Payment Program for Rice Income Compensation Year Area Payment (A) Deficiency Payment (B) Total Area Paymen (Billion Won) t Total Production Payment Total 1/ (1 (Won (A)+(B) ,000 HA) /HA) (Billion Won) (1,000 MT 2/) (Won/Kg) (Billion Won) 2005 1,007 600,000 604.2 4,586 196.4 900.6 1,504.8 2006 1,024 700,000 716.8 4,637 94.2 437.1 1,153.9 2007 1,018 700,000 712.6 4,553 61.3 279.3 991.9 2008 1,014 700,000 709.8 4,499 none 0 709.8 2009 894 703,696 629.1 3,977 150.4 598.2 1,227.3 2010 885 703,163 622.3 3,850 194.9 750.4 1,372.7 Source: FAS/Seoul estimate based on MIFAFF data 1/ Those eligible for payment include farmers, farming union corporations, agricultural corporations, or anyone producing rice on a minimum of 0.1 HA of farmland between Jan 1, 1998 and Dec 31, 2000. 2/ based on the Olympic average rice yield is 4,880 Kg per hectare for 1999-2003 and actual cultivated area registered under the program. Korea: Government Rice Purchases under PSSE Crop Year Production(1,000 MT) Purchase(1,000 MT) % 2005 4,768 719 15.1 2006 4,680 504 10.8 2007 4,408 417 9.5 2008 4,843 400 8.3 2009 4,916 370 7.5 2010 4,295 340 7.9 2011 na 340a/ na Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ Plan Korea: NACF Rice Purchases a/ Crop Year Production(1,000 MT) Purchase(1,000 MT) % 2005 4,768 1,071 22 2006 4,680 1,306 28 2007 4,408 1,227 28 2008 4,843 1,617 33 2009 4,916 1,950 40 2010 4,295 1,380 32 Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ exclude independent RPC purchases Consumption: Korean consumers prefer short grain table rice to all other rice varieties. MY 2011/12 consumption is forecast at 4.8 million tons, the same as the current marketing year. Imported rice represents only 7 percent of total consumption. Per capita table rice consumption continues to decline as eating habits change due to rising incomes and the growing popularity of Western foods. Annual per capita table rice consumption reached its peak at 136.4 Kg in 1970 and has gradually declined. FAS/Seoul forecast a fall in per capita table rice consumption to a record low of 70.5 Kg in MY 2011/12 based on the declining trend of table rice consumption. Korea is self sufficient in rice production and 83 percent of production is consumed as table rice. Korea also consumes a small volume of imported rice as part of its commitment under the WTO Minimum Market Access (MMA) rice agreement. MY 2011/12 consumption of imported rice is projected at 350,000 metric tons. In MY 2011/12, Korea?s food processing industry is forecast to use about 700,000 tons of rice (milled), of which a third will be imported. Nearly 63 percent of processing rice is used for food processing and about 37 percent is used for liquor processing according to the latest official statistics. Consumption of processing rice is expected to grow gradually in the coming years as the government continues its efforts to globalize Korean cuisine, which includes rice cakes and other rice based snacks. The country?s rice surplus has also pressed the government to support the rice processing industry through government research and development (R &D) programs to develop rice based recipes. Additional support is being provided to rice processors to help set up processing facilities. The government has set an annual budget for R&D at one billion Korean won and floated 60 billion Korean won for a facility funding program in CY 2011. The government has also continued the ?R-10 Korea? campaign, which encourages consumers to switch from wheat to rice-based products. Korea: Rice Utilization Pattern (1,000 MT, milled) Rice Year (Nov.- Oct.) MY 2008/09 a/ MY 2009 c//10 b/ MY 2010/11 MY 2011 //12 c Table Rice 3,683 3,638 3,600 3,550 Processing 366 554 650 700 (for food) (278) (347) (450) (500) (for liquor) ( 88) (207) (200) (200) Seed 40 39 39 39 Other, including loss 702 467 500 500 Total Demand 4,791 4,698 4,789 4,789 Per Capita Table Rice Consumption (Kg) 74.0 72.8 71.8 70.5 Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ Revised b/ Preliminary c/ FAS/Seoul Forecast Korea: Processing Rice Consumption Pattern (1,000 MT, milled) Purpose MY 2008/09 MY 2009/10a/ MY 2010/11b/ KRFA 132 180 220 KALIA 88 207 200 Oth c/ers 189 167 230 Total 366 554 650 Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (MIFAFF) a/ MIFAFF preliminary b/ FAS/Seoul forecast c/ traditional foods or beverage made of local rice. Note: Korea Rice Foodstuffs Association (KRFA), Korea Alcohol & Liquor Industry Association (KALIA) Korea: Rice Supply for Processing Purposes to KRFA Members (Metric Ton, Milled) Calendar Year Local Rice Imported Rice Total 1996 130,632 3,000 133,632 1997 30,171 57,957 88,128 1998 933 77,259 78,192 1999 0 74,214 74,214 2000 0 67,112 67,112 2001 0 66,850 66,850 2002 79 73,884 73,963 2003 306 84,851 85,157 2004 249 91,624 91,873 2005 215 96,020 96,235 2006 67 97,250 97,317 2007 210 101,064 101,274 2008 572 109,552 110,124 2009 806 131,344 132,150 2010 24,887 154,821 179,708 2011a/ na na 220,000 Source: Korea Rice Foodstuffs Association (KRFA) a/ KRFA?s forecast Korea: 2010 Rice Supply for Processing Purposes to KRFA Members (Metric Ton, Milled) Item Quantity Ratio (%) Cake/Noodle 78,586 44 Confectionary 7,911 4 Flour 31,117 17 Alcohol 44,906 25 Sticky Sweet 9,704 5 Traditional Food 1,554 1 Others 5,930 3 Total 179,708 100 Source: Korea Rice Foodstuffs Association (KRFA) Trade: Korea imports rice as part of its WTO Minimum Market Access (MMA) rice agreement. Import volumes will continue to grow according to the predefined MMA schedule until the end of 2014. Tariffication The government-sponsored rice sub-committee presented a comprehensive proposal for early tariffication to the government in early October 2010. The plan contains strong pro and con arguments on tariffication from farmer groups. The sub- committee recommended that the government should implement an early tariffication policy after establishing domestic support measures reflecting small-and-medium sized farmers? concerns. Accordingly, based on the sub-committee?s recommendation, the government has established a ?Five-Year Comprehensive Plan for Rice Industry Development? that was initially set to be released by the end of 2010 but was delayed because of the FMD outbreak. The government?s internal procedures for implementing early tariffication could start soon after the National Assembly ratifies the KORUS FTA. If implemented as planned, early tariffication would open up the Korean rice market beginning January 2012. Imports: MY 2011/12 rice imports are forecast at about 347,658 tons (milled), up 20,347 tons from the previous year. Under the 2011 MMA, Korea is committed to purchase 347,658 tons (milled) of rice, which will likely occur in the second half of 2011. Of the total committed purchase amount, approximately 100,000 MT (milled), or 29 percent of the 2011 MMA, will be U.S. medium grain rice, under Country Specific Quota (CSQ) and Most Favored Nation (MFN) quota allocations. 2010 MMA Purchases Completed: The 2010 MMA tendering process was completed in late December 2010. Korea purchased a total of 327,311 metric tons (MT) of rice from the United States, China, Thailand and Pakistan. The U.S. share was 28.6 percent, with contracts totaling 93,719 MT (milled), worth of $83 million. The bulk of the U.S. contracts, roughly 69,000 MT, were for brown rice and the remaining 31,537 tons were for milled table rice. More details on the tender results are available in KS1116 (2010 MMA Rice Tender Results). Of note, Korea also purchased 1,000 MT of glutinous milled rice for processing purpose from the United States for the first time. The contracted price for U.S. #1 table rice was $950/MT, CFR, on average, up approximately 10 percent from the previous year in part due to a bullish international grain market . U.S. #3 table rice was at $908/MT, CFR, up 10 percent from the previous contracted price. Chinese #1 table rice prices increased 13 percent up to $971/MT, CFR, from the previous year while Thai #1 table rice prices fell to $616/MT, CFR, down 5 percent from the previous year, respectively. Korea: Rice Contracts by Country, 2010 MMA (Unit: MT, Milled Basis) Country Global Quota CSQ Total (%) Processing Table Processing Table USA 39,325 4,318 23,857 26,219 93,719 China 42,411 0 50,603 65,556 158,570 Thailand 40,347 0 27,863 2,100 70,310 Pakistan 4,712 0 0 0 4,712 S.Total 126,795 4,318 102,323 93,875 327,311 G. Total 131,113 196,198 327,311 Source: Korea Agro-Fishery Corporation (aT) Korea: Value of U.S. Rice Sales to Korea, 2010 MMA Contracts Milled rice(MT) Brown rice(MT) Arrival unit price Amount ($/MT) ($) 1 5,556a/ 676.00 3,755,856 2 20,000a/ 736.00 14,720,000 3 17,028a/ 758.00 12,907,224 4 13,597 928.00 12,618,016 5 2,622 908.00 2,380,776 6 1,000a/b/ 1,120.00 1,120,000 7 21,508 812.00 17,464,496 8 5,000 809.89 4,049,450 9 10,000 975.00 9,750,000 10 4,318a/ 958.00 4,136,644 total 31,537 69,092 82,902,462 Source: Korea Agro-Fishery Corporation (aT), totaling 93,719MT on milled basis. a/ under the Global Quota b/ Sweet rice for processing purpose Auctions: The government?s state trading arm, the Korea Agro-Fishery Trade Corporation (aT), manages the purchase and sale of imported rice. The aT sells the table rice shipments through a public auction system. The Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MIFAFF) sells the processing rice to end-users throughout the year. The 2010 MMA shipments started arriving in late 2010 and will continue till the end of November 2011. Approximately 98,193 MT of table rice will be delivered over this period. The aT kicked off table rice auctions for Thai rice and Chinese rice in early April 2011. The auctions for U. S. rice started at the end April due to late arrivals. However, the progress of auctions has been very slow not much better than in past two years. The slow auctions are partly due to bearish domestic rice market prices caused by high supplies of local rice and strengthened country of origin labeling (COOL) requirements which apply to rice served in all restaurants. In response to sluggish sales of imported rice under the 2009 MMA, aT dropped its selling floor prices three times, from 1,350 won ($1.17) per Kg to 900 won ($0.78) for U.S. #1 medium grain rice, while Chinese #1 short grain price declined from 1,300 won ($1.12) per Kg to 850 won ($0.74). The price for Thai #1 long grain was also reduced to 550 won ($0.48) per Kg from 950 won ($0.82). In March, aT successfully sold the total amount of U.S. imported table rice but was unable sell all of the imported rice from China and Thailand. The unsold table rice from China and Thailand was diverted to producing alcohol according to the agreements between Korea and the two countries. Korea: Status of Rice Auction for Table Rice under 2009 CSQ (Unit: metric tons, milled basis, as of March 24, 2011) C USDA Rate of ommodity Gr ade Total Table Rice CSQ Auctioned Off Balance Auctioned Off (%) U. #1 21,384 20,955 429 a/ 98 S. Medium Grain #3 2,376 2,373 3 100 C 10,849 b/ 63 hinese Short G #1 29,682 18,833 rain #3 19,780 639 19,141 b/ 3 Chinese Medium Grain #1 3,510 197 3,313 b/ 6 Thai Long Grain #1 3,078 1 c/,578 1,500 51 Total 79,810 44,575 35,235 56 Source: Korea Agro-Fishery Trade Corporation (aT) a/ Of them, 418 MT was damaged quantities. b/ to be diverted to the alcohol processing purpose at Korean won 285 per Kg (US$0.25) from late April through early August 2011. c/ to be diverted to the alcohol processing purpose soon after an agreement with Thai government. Korea: Status of Rice Auction for Table Rice under 2008 CSQ (Unit: metric tons, milled basis, as of May 31, 2010) Total Commodity USDA Table Rice Auctioned Off Balance Rate of Grade CSQ Auctioned Off (%) U. #1 15,191 15,186 5 100 S. Medium Grain #3 3,798 3,784 14 100 C #1 23,575 16,975 6,600 a/ 72 hinese Short Grain #3 15,717 0 15,717a/ 0 Chinese Medium Grain #1 2,774 157 2,617a/ 6 Thai Long Grain #1 2,000 2,000 0 100 Total 63,055 38,102 24,953 60 Source: Korea Agro-Fishery Trade Corporation (aT) a/ diverted to the alcohol processing purpose at Korean won 229 per Kg (US$0.18) from May through July 2010. Korea: Auctioned-Off Prices of Imported Table Rice Comparing with Local Rice (Unit: Korean Won per Kg on Average) U.S. Medium Chinese Short Grain Thai Long Korean Short Grain Grain (Medium Grain) Grain Wholesale Auctioning-off Period High Medium #1 #3 #1 #3 #1 Quality Quality 2006 April-September (2005 MMA) 1,138 991 1,274 1,133 555 1,861 1,812 2007 March-August (2006 MMA) 1,363 1,211 1,357 1,303 953 1,961 1,916 2008 February-August 1,542 1,510 1,487 1,558 1,132 2,034 1,983 (2007 MMA) 2009 February-May 2010 1,125 (2008 MMA) 1,160 994 (1,100) na 1,329 1,913 1,845 2010 February-March 2011 914 (2009 MMA) 970 881 (850) 893 672 1,692 1,635 Source: Korea Agro-Fishery Trade Corporation (aT) Exports: Since CY2008, Korea has exported negligible amount of rice to other countries. In CY 2010, Korea exported 3,765 MT of milled rice with Australia importing 1,815 MT or 48 percent of total Korean rice exports followed by 35 other countries. The U.S. imported 272 MT of Korean rice for the period. The South Korean Red Cross donated 5,000 MT of milled rice to the Red Cross Society of the Democratic People?s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in 2010. Stocks: MY 2011/12 ending stocks (as of end of October 2012) are forecast to decrease to about 1.2 million tons, 25 percent of total consumption, as domestic rice consumption for processing purpose will continue increasing due to a government supported program. MY 2010/11 stocks (as of end of October 2011) are forecast at 1.34 million tons, equivalent to roughly 28 percent of domestic consumption. Ending stocks of imported rice continue to level off as the government encourages the use of rice in food processing. Imported rice stocks for MY 2011/12 are expected to remain at 100,000 metric tons the same for the previous year. Korea: Status of Rice Stocks (Milled rice, 1,000 MT, as of end October) Rice Year (Nov.-Oct.) 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10a/ 2010/11b/ 2011/12c/ Total 702 694 996 1,511 1,344 1,191 Government Stock 596 608 805 818 800 800 -Domestic Rice 456 510 698 636 700 700 -Imported Rice 140 98 107 182 100 100 NACF d/ 0 0 151 616 500 350 Civil Stock 106 86 40 77 44 41 Source: FAS/Seoul Estimate based on MIFAFF data. a/ MIFAFF Preliminary b/ FAS/Seoul Preliminary c/ FAS/Seoul forecast d/ NACF purchase under the government loan program. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Rice PS&D Rice, Milled Korea, R 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 epublic of Market Year Begin: Nov Market Year Begin: Nov Market Year Begin: 2009 2010 Nov 2011 USDA New USDA New USDA O New Post fficial Post Official Post Official Area Harvested 924 924 892 892 855 (1000 HA) Beginning Stocks 996 996 1,453 1,511 1,344 (1000 MT) Milled Production 4,916 4,916 4,300 4,295 4,300 (1000 MT) Rough Production 6,643 6,502 5,811 5,804 5,811 (1000 MT) Milling Rate (.9999) 7,400 7,561 7,400 7,400 7,400 (1000 MT) MY Imports 310 306 330 330 350 (1000 MT) TY Imports 320 320 330 330 350 (1000 MT) TY Imp. from U.S. 94 95 0 95 100 (1000 MT) Total Supply 6,222 6,218 6,083 6,136 5,994 (1000 MT) MY Exports 9 9 5 3 3 (1000 MT) TY Exports 9 9 5 3 3 (1000 MT) Consumption and Residual 4,760 4,698 4,800 4,789 4,800 (1000 MT) Ending Stocks 1,453 1,511 1,278 1,344 1,191 (1000 MT) Total Distribution 6,222 6,218 6,083 6,136 5,994 (1000 MT) Yield (Rough) 7. 7.0368 7. 6.5067 6.7965 (MT/HA) TS=TD 0 0 0 RICE -- STATISTICAL TABLES Korea: Import Trade Matrix of Rice Import Trade Matrix Country Korea, Republic of Commodity Rice, Milled Time Period Jan/Dec Units: 1,000MT Imports for: 2009 2010 U.S. 70 U.S. 95 Others Others China 151 China 160 Thailand 20 Thailand 59 Pakistan 6 Total for Others 171 225 Others not Listed 0 0 Grand Total 241 320 Korea: Farm Gate Price Index of Non-Glutinous Rice (2005=100) Year and Months Price Index 2001 108.8 2002 106.0 2003 110.4 2004 110.8 2005 100.0 2006 95.8 2007 98.7 2008 104.0 2009 98.3 2010 88.5 Quarterly 2009 2010 First 105.4 91.2 Second 103.5 87.3 Third 97.6 85.3 Fourth 92.9 89.4 Source: Statistics Korea (KOSTAT) Korea: Monthly Wholesale Price of Milled Rice (High Quality) Month\Year CY 2009 CY 2010 CY 2011 Won/Kg US$/Kg Won/Kg US$/Kg Won/Kg US$/Kg January 2,060 1.53 1,710 1.50 1,764 1.58 February 2,051 1.43 1,710 1.48 1,794 1.60 March 2,048 1.40 1,693 1.49 1,873 1.67 April 2,040 1.53 1,677 1.50 1,934 1.78 May 2,018 1.61 1,639 1.41 Na Na June 1,951 1.55 1,630 1.34 Na Na July 1,917 1.52 1,630 1.35 Na Na August 1,867 1.51 1,619 1.37 Na Na September 1,830 1.51 1,605 1.38 Na Na October 1,756 1.50 1,605 1.43 Na Na November 1,711 1.47 1,710 1.52 Na Na December 1,710 1.47 1,740 1.52 Na Na Average 1,913 1.50 1,665 1.44 Na Na Source: Korea Agricultural Marketing Information Service (KAMIS) Note: Monthly Average Exchange Rate is applied. Korea: Monthly Retail Price of Milled Rice (High Quality) Month\Year CY 2009 CY 2010 CY 2011 Won/Kg US$/Kg Won/Kg US$/Kg Won/Kg US$/Kg January 2,302 1.71 2,101 1.84 2,064 1.84 February 2,299 1.61 2,090 1.81 2,098 1.87 March 2,298 1.
Posted: 11 May 2011, last updated 12 May 2011

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