Coffee Annual Report

An Expert's View about Tree and Bush Fruits and Nuts in Tanzania

Posted on: 3 Jun 2012

Japanese coffee importers buy about 50 percent of Tanzanian Arabica coffee bean exportable surplus and European importers buy almost 90 percent of Tanzania’s Robusta beans.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 5/23/2012 GAIN Report Number: Tanzania Coffee Annual Tanzania Coffee Annual Report Approved By: Stephen Hammond Prepared By: FAS/Nairobi Staff Report Highlights: Coffee importers from Japan followed by Europe and the United States continue to provide the bulk of the export demand for Tanzanian Arabica coffee producers. European importers top the list of Robusta importers, buying more than 90 percent of Tanzania’s exportable surplus. Importers from those three destinations will likely buy more than 90 percent of Tanzania’s roughly one million 60 kilogram bags of exportable coffee surplus during marketing years (MY) 2012 and 2013. Executive Summary: Japanese coffee importers buy about 50 percent of Tanzanian Arabica coffee bean exportable surplus and European importers buy almost 90 percent of Tanzania’s Robusta beans, while European and U.S. traders buy about 30 and 10 percent of the available Arabica beans, respectively. Reportedly, European coffee traders source Tanzanian Robusta beans to blend with Kenyan AA coffee beans to obtain one of the African blends served in Europe. Reportedly, small amounts of Tanzanian Robusta coffee make their way into regional markets. As a result of the East African Community (EAC) trade alliance, all products should trade freely across EAC Member State borders. There remains an effort, however, to confine Tanzanian coffee production to sales at the Tanzania Coffee Auction. Buyers of AA Arabica coffee at the Nairobi, Kenya coffee exchange distinguish between Arabica coffee beans produced on the foot hills of Mt. Kilimanjaro from Arabica beans produced on the foot hills of Mt. Kenya or Mt. Elgon. Reportedly, Tanzanian producers are improving the cupping quality of their Arabica production but equality may be some years away. The record-high Arabica bean prices will influence short and medium-term Tanzanian production and exportable surpluses, likely pushing 2013 (and beyond) exports to record levels. Reportedly, the demand for new Arabica seedlings has been “astronomical” in Tanzania. The varieties have greater disease resistance, productivity and quality. Even though fertilizer and other input prices in Tanzania remain historically high, Tanzanian Arabica profit potential has encouraged growers to take the risk associated with the new investments. For Tanzanian Robusta producers, prices peaked against Arabica prices in 2008/2009 reaching just over 70 percent of Arabica values for a short period. The Robusta prices peaked at record levels at about the same time Arabica bean values peaked but at a much lower 45 percent of Arabica values (please see price charts in the body of this report). This report reflects the analysis and opinions of the FAS/Nairobi Office of Agricultural Affairs and does not necessarily represent the views or opinions of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, D.C. Production: FAS/Nairobi forecasts MY 2013 Arabica bean production at a record 700 thousand 60 kilogram bags (TKB), exceeding the MY 2009 record crop and Robusta production at a steady 300 TKB. Price incentives will focus Tanzanian producer attention on quantity, even though current world prices have fallen below the record levels experienced during MYs 2011 and 2012. Tanzania Coffee--FAS/Nairobi 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Beginning Stocks (1000 60 KG BAGS) 362 279 39 49 153 Arabica Production (1000 60 KG BAGS) 644* 392* 600 640 700 Robusta Production (1000 60 KG BAGS) 504* 202* 450 350 300 Total Production (1000 60 KG BAGS) 1,148* 594* 1,050 990 1,000 Total Supply (1000 60 KG BAGS) 1,510 873 1,089 1,039 1,153 Bean Exports (1000 60 KG BAGS) 1,200* 803* 1,008 850 950 Soluble Exports (1000 60 KG BAGS) 1* 1* 2 1 1 Total Exports (1000 60 KG BAGS) 1,201* 804* 1,010 851 951 Rst,Ground Dom. Consum (1000 60 KG BAGS) 30 30 30 35 35 Soluble Dom. Cons. (1000 60 KG BAGS) 0 0 0 0 0 Domestic Use (1000 60 KG BAGS) 30 30 30 35 35 Ending Stocks (1000 60 KG BAGS) 279 39 49 153 167 Total Distribution (1000 60 KG BAGS) 1,510 873 1,089 1,039 1,153 *Revised TCB estimates—Otherwise FAS/Nairobi estimates and forecasts The Tanzania Coffee Board (TCB) chose the British grading system based on bean size, shape and density. The grades in order of quality include: AA; A; B; PB; C; E; F; AF; TT; UG, and, TEX. Arabica coffee producers have found ideal coffee growing locations to Tanzania’s northern border with Kenya and on its southern highlands, while coffee farmers around Lake Victoria produce the Robusta beans. Producers in the north of Tanzania produce coffee on the foot hills of Mts. Kilimanjaro and Meru, in the shade of banana trees. In both the north and southern highland, farmers harvest Arabica beans between July and December. Around Lake Victoria, farmers harvest Robusta beans from May through October. Coffee was first introduced to Tanzania in 1898 and now approximately 450,000 small-scale farmers produce about 90 percent of Tanzania’s production. The remaining ten percent comes from 110 large- scale farms, commonly known as estate farms. A reported two million Tanzanians work directly or indirectly in the coffee industry. Consumption: The Japanese International Cooperation Agency estimates that Tanzanians drink roughly four percent of domestic production, more coffee per capita than any other east-Africans. The common method of local coffee preparation differs considerably from European techniques. Tanzanians traditionally boil the ground coffee beans to extract the coffee flavor. Anecdotally, in many of the major Tanzanian cities, coffee-shop owners have shifted away from traditional coffee preparation methods to European-style coffee-brewing techniques. Trade: The Tanzanian Coffee Board conducts coffee auctions in Moshi, Tanzania at the base of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Below, please find export data provided by the Tanzania Coffee Board. Tanzanian MY2011 Coffee Exports (60Kg Bags) Arabica Country 60 Kg Bags $ $/60 Kg %/Value %/60 Kg Bags Japan 322,339 1,595,131 4.95 53% 50% Europe 162,789 653,827 4.02 22% 25% USA 102,318 498,305 4.87 17% 16% Russia 17,083 66,388 3.89 2% 3% South Africa 10,623 57,408 5.40 2% 2% Israel 7,860 35,559 4.52 1% 1% All Others 20,039 91,579 4.57 3% 3% Total 643,051 2,998,198 4.66 100% 100% Tanzanian MY2011 Coffee Exports (60Kg Bags) Robusta Country 60 Kg Bags $ $/60 Kg %/USD %/60 Kg Bags Europe 333,394 570,498 1.71 89% 91% Japan 9,728 19,235 1.98 3% 3% Israel 1,213 2,657 2.19 0% 0% USA 550 847 1.54 0% 0% All Others 19,674 45,329 2.30 7% 5% Total 364,558 638,566 1.75 100% 100% Tanzanian MY2011 Coffee Exports (60Kg Bags) Total (includes Soluble GBE) Country 60 Kg Bags $ $/60 Kg %/USD %/60 Kg Bags Europe 498,170 1,233,856 2.48 34% 49% Japan 332,067 1,614,365 4.86 44% 33% USA 102,868 499,152 4.85 14% 10% Russia 17,083 66,388 3.89 2% 2% South Africa 10,623 57,408 5.40 2% 1% Israel 9,073 38,216 4.21 1% 1% All Others 39,825 137,424 3.45 4% 4% Total 1,009,709 3,646,810 3.61 100% 100% Source: Tanzania Coffee Board Policy Arabica Robusta 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Arabica vs. Robusta Coffee Prices $/60 Kg 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 The Government of Tanzania (GOT) established the Tanzania Coffee Board by means of the Tanzania Coffee Industry Act No. 23 of 2001--amended in 2009. The TCB regulates the coffee industry, operates the coffee auction and advises growers and GOT officials on coffee growing, processing and marketing. Other coffee-invested groups include the: Tanzania Coffee Research Institute; Tanzania 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Coffee Association (Private Association of Coffee Traders); and, Tanganyika Coffee Growers Association (Association of Coffee Estate growers). The TCB formulated and released a coffee-development strategy in 2010 that provides a vision of where stakeholders would like to take Tanzanian coffee production. One of the most important goals will be to increase production by five thousand tons by 2016. To achieve the increase, coffee producers will need to increase by 2,500 the hectares dedicated to coffee production and replace some 20 million 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 seedlings. Prices In the Tanzania coffee export table above, the price differentials between Robusta and Arabica paid at auction are striking. On average during MY2011, Arabica yielded $4.66/60 Kg bag while Robusta averaged just $1.75/60 Kg bag. The price data from the New York Coffee Market represented in the charts here below corroborates the premium paid for Arabica coffee during the period of the exports 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 noted above. Data Source: New York Market 80% Arabica Robusta 70% 12 60% 10 50% 8 40% 360% 20% 4 10% 2 0% Robusta Coffee Prices as a percent of Arabica Coffee Prices 0 Arabica vs. Robusta Coffee Prices In Tanzanian Shillings (Tzs) 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 Million Tzs/60 Kg 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Data Source: New York Market 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Data Sources: New York Market--Oanda Historical Ex Rate
Posted: 03 June 2012

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