Fresh Deciduous Fruit Annual

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Turkey

Posted on: 27 Nov 2011

Overall MY 2010 was a good year for Turkish fresh deciduous fruits even though production decreased slightly due to unfavorable weather conditions. MY 2011 is predicted to be a better year both in terms of production and exports as demand from new markets, such as Iraq and Iran, grows.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 10/31/2011 Turkey Fresh Deciduous Fruit Annual Fresh Deciduous Annual- 2011 Approved By: Rachel Nelson, Agricultural Attaché Prepared By: Yasemin Erkut, Agricultural Specialist Report Highlights: Overall MY 2010 was a good year for Turkish fresh deciduous fruits even though production decreased slightly due to unfavorable weather conditions. MY 2011 is predicted to be a better year both in terms of production and exports as demand from new markets, such as Iraq and Iran, grows. Executive Summary: Apple production in some parts of Turkey was affected negatively by the weather conditions in MY 2010 as frost hit the blooming trees. However, this did not affect the overall production significantly. Production of apples decreased slightly to 2,500,000 MT in MY 2010. It is predicted to increase again in MY 2011 and reach 2,700,000 MT since weather conditions have been favorable throughout the growing and harvest seasons. Grape production also decreased slightly in MY 2010 compared to the previous year due to heavy rains in some production areas. Grape production is predicted to reach 2,200,000 MT in MY 2011. Pear production was not affected by weather conditions in MY 2010 nor in MY 2011. Production was stable and was recorded as 380,000 MT in MY 2010 and is estimated to reach 384,000 MT in MY 2011. Middle Eastern and Eastern European countries continued to be the top export destinations for Turkish fresh deciduous fruit in MY 2010 and are predicted to continue as such in MY 2011. Grape exports increased about 25 percent in MY 2010 compared to the same period the previous year and this trend is predicted to continue in MY 2011. Both apple and pear exports decreased slightly in MY 2010 but are expected to increase again in MY 2011. Commodities: Apples, Fresh Grapes, Table, Fresh Pears, Fresh Production: Apples have traditionally been the most economically significant deciduous fruit crop for Turkey, followed by table grapes and pears. Turkey?s diverse geographic regions allow production of many different varieties of deciduous fruit. Deciduous fruit producers usually run small operations; however a few large commercial orchards were established in recent years, which use better quality seedlings and newer technology. Most of the production in the large and commercial orchards is exported as they grow new varieties which are in high demand in importing countries. There is an increasing trend of establishing new orchards specifically for export oriented production as it is more profitable. Apples Apples are grown in many regions across Turkey but approximately 50 percent of all commercial apple production comes from three provinces; Isparta, Karaman and Nigde. These provinces are located in the southern part of Central Anatolia and the Northern Mediterranean Regions. Commercial apples are also grown in Antalya, Eregli, Denizli, Yalova and Amasya. Apple production in some parts of Turkey was affected negatively by the weather conditions in MY 2010. Frost hit blooming trees in the spring of 2010 and this ruined some crops, especially around the Karaman province. However, overall apple production only decreased about 9 percent compared to the previous year and was recorded as 2,500,000 MT in MY 2010. There were no negative developments during the blooming season for the MY 2011 crop, therefore industry contacts predict that production will return back to the MY 2009 level. Apple production in MY 2011 is predicted to reach 2,700,000 MT. About half of the apples grown in Turkey are Red Delicious (Starking) and about one third are Golden Delicious. Amasya is the most popular native variety that is grown, which constitutes about ten percent of total production. The Granny Smith, Fuji, Gala, Jonagold, and Braeburn varieties are also becoming more popular. New varieties are becoming increasingly popular among growers due to their higher export potential. Table Grapes Table grape production decreased approximately 4 percent in MY 2010 compared to the previous year, reaching only 2,150,000. The decrease was mostly due to heavy rains in some grape production areas. The production in MY 2011 is predicted to increase slightly to 2,200,000 MT compared to the previous year. Grapes are grown in many regions throughout Turkey and are a significant commercial crop. Seedless grapes are mainly grown in the Aegean Region. The Marmara Region produces grapes for wine production and for fresh consumption. The earliest varieties come from the Mediterranean Region. There are no official statistics about the breakdown of grape utilization; industry contacts estimate that 50 percent of total production is used for fresh consumption. The rest are dried, utilized in pectin and its derivatives, or used in the wine and spirits industry. Pears Pear production slightly decreased in MY 2010 and was recorded as 380,000 MT. Since weather conditions were stable in most pear growing areas, production in MY 2011 is not predicted to change. Industry contacts and producers predict that pear production will be 384,000 MT in MY 2011. Many different varieties of pears are grown in Turkey and harvested throughout the year. There are both domestic and foreign varieties. The major varieties are Santa Maria, Akca, Mustafabey, Cassia, Willliams, Ankara and Deveci. Although pears are grown throughout the country, production is concentrated in the Southern Marmara, Northern Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions, including Bursa, Yalova, Antalya, Ankara, Konya, and Burdur Provinces. Consumption: Apples Traditionally about 90 percent of Turkey?s apple production is consumed as fresh fruit. About five percent are processed into juice, canned products, vinegar or dried products, and about one or two percent are exported. The remainder is lost to damage, and was added into domestic consumption in the production, supply and demand tables in this report. Turkish consumers prefer medium-sized apples weighing approximately one kilo per 6 pieces. Turkish consumers usually prefer Red Delicious at the beginning of the season, and Golden Delicious after the New Year. This is because Red Delicious apples become softer a few months after they are harvested unless they are kept in cold storage properly. Controlled atmosphere storage facilities, however, allow apples to be marketed throughout most of the year. Amasya apples can be marketed longer than Delicious without controlled storage facilities. Table Grapes Industry sources estimate that about 40 percent of Turkey?s grape production is consumed as fresh table grapes, about 35 percent is dried (including seedless sultana primarily for export markets), and about 15 percent is processed, primarily for wine production which has been growing rapidly in recent years (about 10 to 12 percent annually). Grapes are also processed into raki, a traditional distilled alcoholic drink, juice, and vinegar. Of the share marketed as fresh grapes, 85 to 90 percent are consumed domestically, 8-10 percent are exported and the remainder is not suitable for use and has been added into the domestic consumption calculations in this report. Pears About 90 percent of pears are consumed fresh. Three to five percent are exported, two to three percent are canned, and the remainder is unsuitable for use. Trade: Although Turkey is among the top deciduous fruit producing countries, exports traditionally have not been high compared to production. The major reason for the low export volume has been the lack of new varieties which are popular in many importing countries. MY 2009 was a very significant year for Turkish exporters as new markets opened borders to Turkish fresh deciduous fruits. Iraq continued as the top export destination for Turkish apples in MY 2011 followed by Egypt and Iran. This was mainly due to the geographic competitive advantage of Turkish apples and less stringent quality demands of Iraqi people compared to consumers in European markets. In MY 2010, 65 percent of all apple exports went to Iraq. This trend is predicted to continue in MY 2011 as well. Total exports in MY 2009 were 93,500 MT and decreased slightly to 80,000 MT in MY 2010 due to lower production. In MY 2011, apple export is predicted to increase approximately 12 percent and reach 90,000 MT. Pear exports decreased slightly in MY 2010 compared to MY 2009, reaching just 20,000 MT. Iran and Saudi Arabia continued to be the top export destinations for pears in MY 2010. Exports are predicted to increase about 12 percent in MY 2011 and reach 22,500 MT, mostly due to competitiveness in price. MY 2010 was a good year for table grape exporters. Grape exports increased by 25 percent in MY 2010 compared to the previous year and reached 235,000 MT. This was mostly due to price competitiveness since price sensitivity is rather high in major export destinations for table grapes. Russia, Bulgaria and Ukraine continued to be the top three export destinations for Turkish table grapes. The Middle East and some European countries are the major importers of Turkish deciduous fruits. Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are the primary destinations for Turkish apples and Saudi Arabia, Romania and Germany are the major markets for pears. Stocks: Apples, as well as some pears and grapes, are stored in atmosphere-controlled and climate-controlled storage facilities for short time periods so there are no notable stocks for these crops. Policy: Ministry of Economy (formerly known as Undersecretariat Foreign Trade) published communiqué on export subsidies for apple exports on April 6, 2011. According to the communiqué, the Turkish government provides USD 50 per MT of export subsidies annually to apple exporters. This subsidy, however, is not given in cash, but can be deducted from utility costs such as electricity and water, or can be deducted from taxes. There are no subsidies provided to pear and grape exporters. Duties for imports of fresh apples, pears, and table grapes have not changed since they were announced on January 1, 2004. Table- 1: Import Duties for Fresh Apples, Pears, and Table Grapes Product Tariff Code Duty (%) Effective Date Fresh Apples 0808.10 60.3 January 1, 2004 Fresh Pears 0808.20.10 & 0808.20.50 60.3 January 1, 2004 Fresh Table Grapes 0806.10 54.9 January 1, 2004 Marketing: Fresh deciduous fruit is sold domestically or exported through private traders and specialized marketing cooperatives. There are a number of cooperatives in each growing region throughout Turkey but none of them are very large and their budgets are usually limited. They do not do any marketing overseas but instead focus on helping small growers market their products domestically. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: Apples, Fresh Turkey 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 Market Year Begin: Jul 2009 Market Year Begin: Jul 2010 Market Year Begin: Jul 2011 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 165,000 165,000 165,000 165,000 165,000 Area Harvested 165,000 165,000 165,000 165,000 165,000 Bearing Trees 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 Non-Bearing Trees 12,000 12,000 12,000 13,000 13,000 Total Trees 52,000 52,000 52,000 53,000 53,000 Commercial Production 2,750,000 2,750,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,700,000 Non-Comm. Production 0 0 0 0 0 Production 2,750,000 2,750,000 2,500,000 2,500,000 2,700,000 Imports 2,849 2,800 2,000 2,000 2,000 Total Supply 2,752,849 2,752,800 2,502,000 2,502,000 2,702,000 Fresh Dom. Consumption 2,559,324 2,559,300 2,317,000 2,317,000 2,512,000 Exports 93,525 93,500 85,000 85,000 90,000 For Processing 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 Withdrawal From Market 0 0 0 0 0 Total Distribution 2,752,849 2,752,800 2,502,000 2,502,000 2,702,000 HA, 1000 TREES, MT Grapes, Fresh Turkey 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 Market Year Begin: Jun 2009 Market Year Begin: Jun 2010 Market Year Begin: Jun 2011 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 295,000 295,000 295,000 295,000 295,000 Area Harvested 295,000 295,000 295,000 295,000 295,000 Commercial Production 2,250,000 2,250,000 2,150,000 2,150,000 2,200,000 Non-Comm. Production 0 0 0 0 0 Production 2,250,000 2,250,000 2,150,000 2,150,000 2,200,000 Imports 664 650 450 450 500 Total Supply 2,250,664 2,250,650 2,150,450 2,150,450 2,200,500 Fresh Dom. Consumption 2,062,717 2,062,650 1,915,450 1,915,450 1,970,500 Exports 187,947 188,000 235,000 235,000 230,000 For Processing 0 0 0 0 0 Withdrawal From Market 0 0 0 0 0 Total Distribution 2,250,664 2,250,650 2,150,450 2,150,450 2,200,500 HA, MT Pears, Fresh Turkey 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 Market Year Begin: Jul 2009 Market Year Begin: Jul 2010 Market Year Begin: Jul 2011 USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 215,000 215,000 215,000 215,000 215,000 Area Harvested 215,000 215,000 215,000 215,000 215,000 Bearing Trees 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 Non-Bearing Trees 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 Total Trees 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 Commercial Production 385,000 385,000 380,000 380,000 384,000 Non-Comm. Production 0 0 0 0 0 Production 385,000 385,000 380,000 380,000 384,000 Imports 150 150 150 150 150 Total Supply 385,150 385,150 380,150 380,150 384,150 Fresh Dom. Consumption 353,588 353,650 350,150 350,150 351,650 Exports 21,562 21,500 20,000 20,000 22,500 For Processing 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 Withdrawal From Market 0 0 0 0 0 Total Distribution 385,150 385,150 380,150 380,150 384,150 HA, 1000 TREES, MT
Posted: 27 November 2011

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