UK Exporter Guide

An Expert's View about Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in the United Kingdom

Posted on: 23 Jan 2012

The UK presents market opportunities for many US consumer-oriented products, including specialty food products, “healthy” food items, wine, sauces, fruit, nuts and juices.

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 12/23/2011 GAIN Report Number: United Kingdom Exporter Guide UK Exporter Guide Approved By: Daryl Brehm Prepared By: Julie Nicholson Report Highlights: The UK has strong historic and cultural ties to the US, which are obvious in consumer trends in retail and foodservice markets. The UK presents market opportunities for many US consumer-oriented products, including specialty food products, “healthy” food items, wine, sauces, fruit, nuts and juices. “Health” and convenience foods are the main driving forces in the UK value-added food and beverage market. Consumers in this relatively wealthy country are looking for variety in high quality food products especially those perceived to have health benefits and a strong provenance. Post: London SECTION I. MARKET OVERVIEW Economic Situation The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the eighth largest economy in the world and the third largest economy in Europe, after Germany and France. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account for the largest proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) while industry continues to decline in importance. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards but, in terms of gross added value, represents less than 1 percent of GDP. While UK agriculture produces about 60 percent of the country’s food needs with less than 2 percent of the labor force, the UK is heavily reliant on imports to meet the varied demands of the UK consumer who also expect year round availability of all food products. After emerging from recession in 1992, the UK's economy enjoyed the longest period of expansion on record during which time growth outpaced most of Western Europe. In 2008, however, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Sharply declining home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded the UK's economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the Government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets. However, in 2010, facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, the Government initiated a five-year austerity program to reduce the budget deficit. The UK is very receptive to U.S. goods and services. With its $2.2 trillion GDP, the UK remains one of the United States’ top European markets and the fifth largest market worldwide for all goods, after Canada, Mexico, China and Japan. In 2010, the U.S. exported $48.4 billion of industrial and agricultural goods to the UK. Consumer oriented food and beverage products remain the most important sector, amounting to 50 percent ($776 million) of total U.S. exports of agricultural, fish and forestry products to the UK. Demand for U.S. consumer oriented food products continues to differentiate the UK from its European neighbors due to increased exports. This record figure secures the UK as the top EU destination and ninth largest global destination for U.S. consumer-orientated goods. UK Demographics According to the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS), in June 2010, the population of the United Kingdom was estimated at 62.3 million, up by 470,000 on the previous year. This is the highest annual growth rate since 1962. According to the latest data available, the South East of England is home to some 8.5 million residents in 2010, followed by London, which has 7.8 million people. Over a quarter of the UK population lives in London and in the South East of the country. These two regions together cover less than a tenth of the UK’s land area. The North West had the third largest population with 6.9 million residents. The UK population continues to age gradually. The number of people aged 85 and over was more than 1.4 million in 2010 accounting for 2.3% of the total population. In 1981, this was only 1.1%. In 2010 just over ninety percent of the UK population are listed as white with 9.1 percent belonging to mixed or non-white ethnic groups. South Asians were the largest of these groups, followed by people of mixed ethnic backgrounds, including Afro-Caribbean and Africans. Consequently, the UK has a wide variety of ethnic restaurants particularly in London and other major cities in the country. In 2007 almost two thirds of households in the UK were one or two person households, having increased from half in 1971. Key Influences on UK Consumer Demands • Slow population growth • Ageing population • Number of household units growing • Smaller households (notably one-person households) • Growing personal disposable income (boosting premium/convenience/eating out) • Rise in number of working women (46% of total workforce) • International consumer tastes e.g., Chinese, Indian, Italian, Thai, Mexican • Reduction in formal meal occasions, leading to an increase in snacking and “grazing” • Increasing public debate centered on food, incorporating safety, environmental, ethical, social and economic issues • Improvements in efficiency across the supply chain, reducing the real cost of food • Increased retail concentration (supermarkets growth vs. independent retailers) Trends in Imports from the United States of Consumer-Orientated Foods Product Category Growth 2006 –2010 (% U.S. Exports to UK 2010 ) ($m) Wine & Beer -17 218 Other Consumer-Oriented +99 174 Products Processed Fruit & Vegetables -0.03 102 Tree Nuts +19 95 Fresh Fruit -28 64 Salmon, Canned -20 55 Snack Foods (excl nuts) -14 34 Rice +4 29 Fresh Vegetables +23 28 Fruit & Vegetable Juices -41 14 Breakfast Cereals & Pancake Mix +139 13 Eggs and Products -40 11 Red Meats, Fresh/Chilled/Frozen -28 10 Dairy Products -72 6 Pet Foods (Dog & Cat Food) -73 3 Nursery Products & Cut Flowers -33 1 Red Meats, Prepared/Preserved -61 1 Poultry Meat +550 <1 Source: BICO Report/U.S. Bureau of the Census Trade Data Relative strengths/weaknesses of U.S. Supplier to UK market Opportunities Constraints The scale of the U.S. food industry may offer price Competition from EU member states (import competitiveness on large volume orders. duty payable on U.S. products). The UK climate limits growing seasons and types Poultry and red meat are highly regulated of products grown. from the EU, as are dairy product imports from the U.S. The diversity of the U.S. population creates Must meet strict UK/EU/retailer rules on innovative food products and concepts which are food safety, traceability, environmental often mirrored in the UK. issues and plant inspection. U.S. has good brand image in UK. The U.S. is a Labels, including nutritional panels need to popular destination for the UK tourist and be changed. Pack sizes and palletization familiarity with U.S. products is widespread. may also need changing. A common language means that the UK is a Need to develop relationship with UK trade natural gateway into Europe. contacts and invest in marketing product. The UK has a core group of experienced importers Biotech (GMO) ingredients are not widely with a history of sourcing from the U.S. accepted by the UK consumer, perhaps due to aggressive negative press. Strong interest in innovative products. Currently Taste buds differ in the UK, eg. here there is high interest in natural, “wholesome” and popcorn is sweet, relishes are like jam, and “health” food categories. spicy doesn’t mean high chili content. The UK can be a successful market for those companies willing to invest the time and resources to cement contacts. It normally takes on average 18 months from initial market survey to the time product appears on shelves. Exhibiting at UK food trade shows is a good way to put new product in front of a wider audience. SECTION II. EXPORTER BUSINESS TIPS Essential UK Market Considerations  Basic market research  Retail, Foodservice or Processing  UK business partner and terms  Import duty and excise tax  UK Value Added Tax  Price points and competitors  Labeling  EU Food Standards Restrictions  Promotion budget and resources General Consumer Tastes and Preferences Food As a result of food scares over the past two decades, the UK food supply chain is now Safety heavily scrutinized, meaning that UK retailers, foodservice operators and manufacturers are uncompromising on traceability and quality assurance. UK buyers often require technical specifications above the level mandated by government legislation. Biotech Biotech products or products that contain biotech ingredients can only be sold in the (GMO) EU if the biotech (GM) trait has been given approval. If approved. it may be sold with the appropriate labeling and that involves a positive statement of its presence in the food product, please see: . Food products containing biotech-derived ingredients in the UK are minimal. Large supermarket chains have determined that they will not stock products with biotech ingredients in their private label products (these, typically, account for 45-50% of supermarket lines). Many large companies have also taken a non-GMO approach, as well as many restaurants and cafes. Organic Sales of organic products make up around 2.5 percent of the UK grocery market ($3.7 billion of the $136 billion total grocery market). Supermarket chains dominate retail sales of organic foods, accounting for an estimated 82 percent of sales by value. Organic products now extend to a wide range of convenience and grocery items. There are signs that the global credit crisis has affected sales of premium products, including organic products in the UK. However, consumers that buy organic products for ethical reasons are unlikely to change their purchasing behavior. Health Like the U.S., the UK has a high incidence of heart disease and cancer. Consumers are looking for foods to improve their health which is driving sales of premium, less processed food, functional food, fresh fruit, fruit juices and low-fat or low-sugar processed food. Package UK households are mainly comprised of 1-4 people. In addition, kitchens and Sizes refrigerators are small. Shopping is undertaken every couple of days, with perhaps a “large shop” every 2-3 weeks. U.S. suppliers should consider this in determining export package size. Food Standards and Regulations The UK follows EU policies regarding labeling and ingredient requirements. A detailed report that specifically addresses labeling and ingredient requirements is available, entitled: EU Food and Agricultural Import Regulations & Standards Country Report (FAIRS) can be obtained from the FAS homepage: t%20Regulations%20and%20Standards%20-%20Narrative_Brussels%20USEU_EU-27_12-21- 2010.pdf General Import and Inspection Procedures Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs (HMRC) are responsible for the clearance of all goods entering the UK, for further information and customs forms please go to . The UK FAIRS Country report addresses UK import and inspection procedures; please find this report at: SECTION III. MARKET SECTOR STRUCTURE & TRENDS The UK retail grocery market was valued at ₤150.8 billion ($241.3 billion) in 2010, an increase of 3.1 percent on 2009. Groceries account for 12.8 percent of total household spending in the UK, making it the third largest area of expenditure (the largest is housing, and the second largest is transport). Food and grocery expenditure accounts for 53p in every £1.00 of retail spending. Convenience store shopping now accounts for 20.5 percent of the total UK food & grocery market. 21p in every £1.00 in food and grocery is spent in convenience stores. Retail Sector Supermarket Chains Five supermarket chains dominate UK food retailing, accounting for 82 percent of the market. Tesco is the market leader, with 30.5 percent market share, followed by Asda/Wal-Mart with 17.1 percent, Sainsbury’s has 16.1 percent, Morrison’s has 11.7 and the Cooperative rounds out the quintet with 6.9 percent. Other UK supermarket chains include Waitrose, Iceland, Aldi, and Lidl. Market Shares of the UK’s Supermarket Chains Retailer Market Share % Tesco 30.5 Asda/Wal-Mart 17.1 Sainsbury’s 16.1 Morrison’s 11.7 Cooperative 6.9 Waitrose 4.3 Aldi 3.6 Lidl 2.6 Iceland 1.9 Source: Kantar Worldpanel, market share summary, 12 weeks to August 7, 2011. In a similar pattern to that of three years ago, the discounters (Aldi & Lidl) are seeing strong growth in sales. The strength of the discounters in the current economic climate is highlighted by 24.4% rise in sales at Aldi and 13.8% rise in sales at Lidl. In general, each chain focuses on specific market segments. For example, Tesco targets the middle market, providing both economy and up-scale products. Sainsbury’s is pitched slightly up-market of Tesco, with Asda/Wal-Mart slightly down-market of Tesco. Morrison’s, The Cooperative competes at much the same level as Asda/Wal-Mart, while Waitrose, part of the John Lewis Partnership, is the most up-market of the leading chains. Iceland, Aldi, Budgens, Netto and Lidl are all price-focused outlets. As a result of town planning regulations, supermarkets in the UK are smaller than their counterparts in Germany. For example, Tesco and Sainsbury’s stores are just 3,500m² (37,700 sq ft) on average. Planning restrictions have resulted in limited availability of suitable sites. This in turn has fueled a move back towards smaller stores by the large supermarket chains, and created a polarization between superstores and convenience stores formats. The major UK supermarket chains have also developed store formats that are embedded in gas stations. For example, Morrison’s has a partnership with BP gas, Tesco with Exxon, and Sainsbury’s with Shell. The UK has one of the most advanced private label markets in the world and is seen as a flagship market for private label development. The UK's major supermarket chains dominate the private label market and on average 40-50 percent of products in their stores are private label. Originally, private label goods were a copy of a branded product, but today they are often innovative and marketed as a premium or high quality brand. They give UK retailers the opportunity to diversify their product ranges and develop new revenue streams. The Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD) estimates that UK internet grocery sales amounted to £4.8 billion ($7.7 billion) in 2010 up 21.4% on the previous year. This is 3.2 percent of the total grocery market. Although this growth is rapid, online sales still remail a small part of the market. Just 6% of shoppers use the internet for their food grocery shopping and those who do buy online mostly do so just once a month. Department Stores Marks and Spencer (M&S) food halls continue to maintain successful business growth. Most M&S customers tend to buy the bulk of their groceries from less high-end grocery retailers. A typical shopper uses M&S for special occasions, for convenience food such as ready-meals and as a top-up to their regular shop with a few luxury items. M&S consistently offer innovative, high quality and rigorously checked food. The London-based Department Stores: Harvey Nichols and Selfridges have expanded to other major UK cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. This has increased sales of U.S. products sold in their food halls. Other notable department stores stocking U.S. products are Fortnum & Mason and Harrods. Department Store food halls provide a unique opportunity for U.S. specialty foods. Convenience Chains The focus of these stores is mainly brands well known to British consumers. They are located in town centers, train and metro stations as a convenient stop for commuters and families making small purchases on evenings or weekends. Also major supermarket chains have begun to open small format convenience type stores. Other Retailers The UK has other outlets for U.S. products such as health food stores, mail/internet order companies and delicatessens. An importer is vital to reach these smaller customers. For further information on the UK retail sector, please see UK Retail Market Briefs which can be found at: files_London_United%20Kingdom_2-2-2011.pdf gdom_2-3-2011.pdf es_London_United%20Kingdom_2-2-2011.pdf . Hotel, Restaurant & Institutional (HRI) Sector In the UK, the HRI Sector is known as the Catering or Foodservice Industry and is generally considered to have two sectors: Cost Sector: Caterers within the cost sector traditionally do not derive substantial margins. Meal provision tends to be out of necessity, rather than as a result of a business opportunity being identified. Provision is governed by contract where pricing is controlled, if not fixed. Examples are: schools, hospitals, prisons and specialist care homes. Profit Sector: This is the area of the foodservice market in which the potential business gains are the main motivator. It is also usually allied to hospitality and leisure. Pricing is flexible and examples are: restaurants, fast food chains, pubs, hotels and leisure venues. The UK foodservice market was estimated to be valued at $52.8 billion (£33.2 billion) in 2009. Foodservice sales account for 30% of consumer food purchases. Breakdown of Food Market Value by Operator Type in 2010 Food Sales (£ Millions) Share (%) Restaurants 9,145 21.8 Fast Food 10,698 25.5 Pubs 5,738 13.6 Hotels 7,946 18.9 Leisure 3,426 8.2 Staff Catering 2,528 6.0 Health Care 948 2.3 Education 1,291 3.1 Services/Welfare 262 0.6 Total 41,982 100.0 Source: Horizons FS Limited, 2010 Number of UK Food Service Outlets by Type in 2010 Number of Outlets Share (%) Restaurants 27,738 10.7 Fast Food 31,368 12.1 Pubs 45,863 17.8 Hotels 45,840 17.7 Leisure 19,551 7.5 Staff Catering 19,259 7.4 Health Care 31,928 12.3 Education 34,428 13.3 Services/Welfare 3,078 1.2 Tota 259,054 100.0 l Source: Horizons FS Limited, 2010 The food service sector is the UK’s fourth largest consumer market following retail, motoring, clothing and footwear. Shoppers are currently eating out more frequently than they were 4 years ago. IGD estimates that 30% of shoppers eat out once a week or more, compared to only 13% in 2005. About 3 million meals are eaten at work everyday of which two million are prepared by contract caterers. British consumers are exposed to many different cuisines from around the world, with non-European foods being popular. As many as 7 out of 10 of Britons state that they like and eat non-European styles of food. The food service sector serves 8.6 billion meals a year, equivalent to 39,000 a minute. Supply Chain There are two main ways to enter the UK catering market. Some companies go direct to suppliers, domestic or foreign. However, by far the most popular way is through an intermediary such as a UK-based importer. Because there are a large number of small companies operating in the catering market, intermediaries skilled at filling small orders play a crucial role in the distribution of products. The importer normally takes title of the goods (i.e. ownership) following the purchase from a supplier to resell to trade customers. The UK’s food service industry holds many avenues of opportunity for U.S. food and beverage products. Networking within the industry is vital to ascertain the best market entry strategy. For further information on the HRI sector please see UK HRI report which can be found on the USDA website 0Report%202010_London_United%20Kingdom_4-7-2010.pdf . Food Processing The food and drink manufacturing industry is the country’s largest single employer. Food and drink is also the largest manufacturing industry in the UK, with an annual turnover over $111.6 billion (£72.3 bn). Around 400,000 people across Britain are employed in jobs associated with food and drink manufacture and sales, accounting for 16% of total employment in the country. In 2010 there were more than 6,000 food-manufacturing enterprises in the UK. UK multinationals such as Unilever and Diageo are among the largest in Europe. Many U.S. companies, such as Pepsico, Kellogg’s, ADM, ConAgra and Cargill, also have substantial interests in the UK. The major unprocessed commodities that are not commercially produced by the UK are rice, citrus fruit, bananas, corn, coffee, cocoa, stone fruit, tea and some oilseeds. Although the UK produces beet sugar, cane sugar is imported. Processed products that the UK has to import include wine and preserved/frozen fruit and fruit juices. SECTION IV. BEST HIGH-VALUE PRODUCT PROSPECTS Product Total UK Average U.S. Key Constraints Market Category UK Imports Annual Import to Market Attractiveness for Imports From U.S. Tariff Development USA 2009 U.S. Import Rate ($ 2009 Growth million) ($ (last 5 million) yrs) Highly fragmented U.S. #1 canned Fish and 2,180 43.1 22% 0-22% market, domestic salmon supplier, Seafood shortfall. developing interest in HS: 03 other products and species Chocolate 1,442.9 16.2 -2.4% 8-27% Domestic & EU British eat more confectionery competition, low chocolate than any HS: 1806 acceptance of other nationality. American chocolate taste Vegetables & 100.2 0.4 1.4% 0-16% Competition from Food has long shelf Fruit prepared Turkey, life in Vinegar Netherlands and HS:2001 India Preserved fruit 470.1 18.6 22.3% 7-27% Competition from U.S. nut butters & nuts EU, Thailand & perceived as high HS: 2008 South Africa quality, exotic preserved fruits of interest for gift/specialty trade Fruit & 908.8 10.1 53.0% 16-23% Competition from High focus on healthy Vegetable EU and Brazil living in UK. Juices Juice now more popular HS: 2009 than carbonated drinks Sauces, 840.5 28.4 19.5% 0-10% Australia starting U.S. #4 supplier, UK Condiments, to enter the wants authentic tex- Seasonings market mex, BBQ sauces, HS: 2103 marinades & salad dressings Domestic & EU New U.S. concepts in Soft drinks H 968.6 10.9 -18.5% 0-10% competition, beverages always S: 2202 strong brands, attractive, e.g. market reaching functional drinks saturation Domestic & EU U.S. micro-brew Beer competition, beers, generally HS: 668.9 4.0 97.7% 0% 2203 major brewers unique beers with a located in EU story. They are attractive to a niche audience W 4,362.1 152.61 -7.7% 18-25% Competition from UK #1 export market ine HS: EU, Australia, for U.S. wine, 2204 Latin America & S. California wine has Africa. 16% market share, Figure shows a other parts of U.S. minus due to wine should benefit in being shipped to future Italy and then the UK. Source: World Trade Atlas SECTION V. KEY CONTACTS AND FURTHER INFORMATION Foreign Agricultural Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Embassy of United States of America 24 Grosvenor Square London W1A 1AE Tel: +44 20 7894 0040 Fax: +44 20 7894 0031 E-mail: Web: Contact For: U.S. Government Agency for information on UK market, exporting from the U.S. to the UK. Policy information etc. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs Nobel House, 17 Smith Square, London, SW1P 3JR Tel: +44 20 7238 6951 Fax: +44 20 7238 2188 E-mail: Website: Contact For: UK Government Agency for any information on the UK Agricultural sector. Food Standards Agency Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH Tel: +44 20 7276 8829 Fax: +44 20 7238 6330 Email: Website: Contact For: UK Government Association for information on UK food safety standards and policies. United States Mission to the European Union Office of Agricultural Affairs Organization chart: Boulevard du Regent 27 B-1000 Brussels B-Belgium Tel: +32 2 811 4154 Fax: +32 2 811 5560 e-mail: Contact For: U.S. Government Office dealing with EU agricultural policy information. UK Trade Associations Institute of Grocery Distribution Grange Lane, Letchmore Heath, Watford, Hertfordshire, WD25 8GD Tel: +44 1923 857141 Fax: +44 1923 852531 E-mail: Web: Contact For: UK trade association for information about the food and grocery chain. Food and Drink Federation 6 Catherine Street, London, WC2B 5JJ Tel: +44 20 7836 2460 Fax: +44 20 7836 0580 E-mail: Website: Contact For: UK trade association which is the voice of the UK food and drink manufacturing industry. Fresh Produce Consortium Minerva House, Minerva Business Park Lynch Wood, Peterborough PE2 6FT Tel: +44 1733 237117 Fax: +44 1733 237118 E-mail: Website: Contact For: UK trade association for the fresh produce industry. British Health Food Manufacturer’s Association 1 Wolsey Road, East Molesey, Surrey KT8 9EL Tel: +44 20 8481 7100 Fax: +44 20 8481 7101 E-mail: Website: Contact For: UK trade association which works effectively to represent the interests of the UK natural health products industry at all levels of the legislative, regulatory and Parliamentary process. British Frozen Food Federation Warwick House, Unit 7, Long Bennington Business Park Main Road, Long Bennington, Newark, NG23 5JR Tel: +44 1400 283 090 Fax: +44 1400 283 097 E-mail: Website: Contact For: UK trade association for all aspects of the frozen food industry. APPENDIX - STATISTICS TABLE A. KEY TRADE & DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FOR 2010 UK Agricultural Imports From All Countries ($Mil) 61.3 U.S 1/. Market Share (%) 3.1% UK Consumer Food Imports From All Countries ($Mil) 40.6 U.S /. Market Share (% 1) 1.9% UK Edible Fishery Imports From All Countries ($Mil) 3.4 U.S. Market Share (% 1/) 2.9% UK Total Population (Millions) / Annual Growth Rate (%) 62.3 Million 0.8% Growth UK Urban Population (Millions) 55 Million Number of Major Metropolitan Areas 2/ 36 Size of the Middle Class (%) 3/ 30-43% Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (U.S. Dollars) $35,200 UK Unemployment Rate (%) 7.8% UK Per Capita Food Expenditures (U.S. Dollars) per person per week $27.61 UK Percent of Female Population Employed 4/ 69 % Exchange Rate (U.S.$1 = £) 1.6 Footnotes 1/ From Bico Statistics (Export/Import Statistics for Bulk, Intermediate, and Consumer Oriented Foods and Beverages - BICO) 2/ Population in excess of 1,000,000 3/ Middle class is “defined as individuals who have average incomes of more than £25,500” 4/ Percent of number of women (16- 64 year olds). TABLE B. CONSUMER FOOD & EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCT IMPORTS (In billions of United States Dollars, rounded to the nearest million) UK Imports from the UK Imports from the U.S. Market Commodity World U.S. % Share 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 Consumer Oriented Agric. Total 45.9 39.3 40.6 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.90 1.8 1.9 Fish & Seafood Products 4.1 3.4 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.73 2.9 2.9 Agricultural Total 59.9 50.8 52.7 1.3 1.2 1.5 2.30 2.4 2.8 Agricultural, Fish & Forestry 70.1 58.7 61.3 1.7 1.6 1.9 2.45 2.7 3.1 Source: Global Trade Information Services. TABLE C – TOP 15 SUPPLIERS OF CONSUMER FOODS & EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS UK - Top 15 Suppliers of Consumer Food Imports 2008 ($ millions) 2009 ($ millions) 2010 ($ millions) Netherlands 7,382.9 6,290.6 6,434.7 France 5,652.1 4,552.3 4,641.4 Ireland 4,668.9 4,186.6 4,472.3 Germany 4,063.7 3,499.4 3,575.0 Spain 3,272.4 2,813.3 2,877.6 Italy 3,047.4 2,794.8 2,788.6 Belgium 2,866.9 2,405.1 2,352.8 Denmark 2,034.4 1,692.4 1,685.6 Poland 841.2 762.1 926.6 New Zealand 915.7 856.7 853.9 United States 1/ 984.2 777.6 815.9 South Africa 890.9 751.1 767.3 Thailand 745.9 677.7 741.1 Australia 1,033.0 764.4 739.8 Chile 706.7 611.7 649.6 World 45,765.1 39,321.8 40,610.7 1/ note that this data under-represents actual U.S. sales to the UK as an undetermined amount of products is transshipped via other EU member states. Source: Global Trade Atlas UK – Top 15 Suppliers of Fish & Seafood Products Imports 2008 ($ millions) 2009 ($ millions) 2010 ($ millions) Iceland 612.9 496.8 444.6 Denmark 271.5 218.3 248.8 Thailand 192.3 196.7 230.6 Germany 262.4 194.5 228.8 China 259.8 206.3 217.9 Faroe Islands 185.3 156.6 183.4 Norway 201.2 164.9 168.5 Canada 125.1 112.6 123.7 Netherlands 136.3 122.6 123.6 United States 1/ 163.8 111.4 117.9 Sweden 78.9 100.0 116.4 Mauritius 130.6 86.6 106.5 Vietnam 64.6 82.4 92.0 Poland 90.1 87.6 87.4 India 75.8 80.1 81.1 World 4,097.5 3,361.7 3,445.6 1/ note that this data under-represents actual U.S. sales to the UK as an undetermined amount of products is transshipped via other EU member states. Source: Global Trade Atlas
Posted: 23 January 2012

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