US Hispanic Market Website Translation & eCommerce

An Expert's View about Retail Trade and Electronic Commerce in the United States

Posted on: 16 Jul 2010

This report is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts f.or the US Hispanic Market.

Globalization Partners International White Paper | June 2009 Website Globalization and E-Business U.S. Hispanic Market 1 of 20 www.globalizationpartners.com The Website Globalization and E-Business US The Website Globalization and E-Business Series includes a series of brief reports on country-specific Hispanic Market paper was researched and website globalization and e-business topics. The series includes: written by: ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? China Martin Spethman ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Japan Managing Partner ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Germany Globalization Partners International ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? US Hispanic Market mspethman@globalizationpartners.com ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Brazil Phone: 866-272-5874 ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? India ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Russia Maria Laura Rosas ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? Argentina Marketing Specialist ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? France Globalization Partners International ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? United Kingdom mlrosas@globalizationpartners.com ? Website Globalization and E-Business ? United Arab Emirates Phone: 866-272-5874 This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture Nitish Singh, PhD, and website globalization facts by country. These reports are by no means a complete coverage of Author of ?The Culturally Customized Website?, these topics. For more comprehensive or customized reports on country-specific Website Globalization and Assistant Professor of International Business, and E-Business topics, please email mspethman@globalizationpartners.com. Boeing Institute of International Business, John Cook School of Business, Saint Louis University. No material contained in this report may be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written singhn2@slu.edu permission of Globalization Partners International. The information contained in this White Paper has Phone: 314-977-7604 been obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, but neither its completeness nor accuracy can be guaranteed. Copyright 2009 Globalization Partners International. ® All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All graphics used in this report were provided by Flikr, Google Images and other free internet resources for pictures. Globalization Partners International helps companies communicate and conduct business in any language and in any locale by providing an array of globalization services including: ? Translation ? Multilingual Desktop Publishing ? Software Internationalization & Localization ? Website Internationalization & Localization ? Software and Website Testing ? Interpretation (Telephonic, Consecutive, Simultaneous) ? Globalization Consulting To learn more about Globalization Partners International, please visit us at www.globalizationpartners.com. 2 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com I. Market Introduction and Stats Stats/Source Online Activities Fast Facts Numbers Time Spent ? Hispanic Internet users spend Purchasing Power $923 Billion in 2008 (Idiom Technologies, 2007) General Stats Online approximately 5 ½ hours Purchasing Power Growth Rate $1.2 trillion by 2010 (Idiom Technologies, 2007) online weekly (Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies) Population 41.3 million (Idiom Technologies, 2006) Access ? 50% of Hispanics over 18 have Internet population 15.7 million (Abogada, 2007) Internet used a computer ? Approximately 40% of all Online spending $12.8 billion (diversityjobs.com, 2008) Hispanic households own a computer Future estimates $21.6 billion by 2011 (diversityjobs.com) Summary Sheet has been compiled through the use of sources from academia Motivations for ? Family: Hispanics believe that Internet Use the Internet is a great source of information for careers and L The US Hispanic Market is a range of people that come from over 20 different countries. Although (Karnell, 2005) allows their children more options. there are similar characteristics that range across the U.S. Hispanic Markets, big marketing ? Communication: This blunders can result if one assumes that all Hispanics are identical. market uses the Internet as a communication tool for social networking, and keeping in touch with family. ? Information: The Internet is L The U.S. Hispanic Market has a purchasing power of approximately $928 billion and that considered to be the premier is expected to grow exponentially over the next few years, reaching 1 Trillion by 2010. source of information for purchasing decisions. (adVirtuoso, 2007) The U.S. Hispanic Population compared to L According to Karnell, over 40% of all Hispanic households currently own a computer. In addition, the country as a whole as of June 2005, over half of the Hispanics that were able to access Internet from their house were Demographics Hispanic U.S. planning on becoming home enabled within the next 1-2 years. (Karnell, 2005) Consumers Population Median Adult Age 38 48 Median $34,000 $48,000 L The U.S. Hispanic market is spending on average 9% more time online than the general U.S. market HouseHold (Karnell, 2005). Income Average 3.1 2.3 Household Size L Currently, the U.S. Hispanic Market is spending $12.8 billion dollars online per annum and that is Percent with 35% 36% Children at Home expected to grow to $21.6 billion by 2011 (diversityjobs.com). Percent High 64% 84% School Graduate Sizeable Hispanic Markets: At a Glance Percent College 12% 25% Market Hispanic Population Graduate or Higher Los Angeles ? 8.4 million Homeownership 48% 67% New York ? 4.4 million Percent Married 57% 50% Miami ? 2.1 million per House Hold Houston ? 1.9 million Percent Catholic 67% 25% Chicago ? 1.9 million Sources: Cohorts, Neilson and Simmons Market Research (U.S. Census, Advertising Age ?Hispanic Fact Bureau (2005) Pack?, 2006) 3 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com II. US Hispanic Culture and the Online Consumer Cultural Values US Hispanic Culture and Values Collectivism: This value indicates how closely a society is knit. In collectivist cultures like the U.S. The U.S. Hispanic Market is an intricate and rich blend of cultures from South America, Central Hispanic Market, the needs, values and goals of the family and societal unit take precedence over individual America and Mexico. Although there has been some acculturation with western culture in the United goals. Group-consciousness and family are major States, this group continues to be very true to the symbols and traditions of its home countries. At a values that guide people?s behavior. Power Distance: macro-level the U.S. Hispanic culture can be described using five cultural values based on the work of A belief in authority and hierarchy (high power distance). Cultures like Germany that are Hofstede (1980). Professor Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how high on power distance accept power and hierarchy in society and are low on egalitarianism. In such cultures, values in the workplace are influenced by culture and is the author of several books including Culture?s less powerful citizens are accepting of unequal power Consequences (2nd, fully revised edition, 2001), and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind distribution in society. The U.S. Hispanic Market is high on power distance. (2nd fully revised edition 2005). Uncertainty Avoidance: The importance of predictability, structure, and order (high uncertainty avoidance) versus a willingness for risk-taking and Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior an acceptance of ambiguity and limited structure of societies and organizations that are very persistent across time. Hofstede?s research showed that (low uncertainty avoidance.) People from cultures high on uncertainty avoidance, like the U.S. Hispanic cultural values like Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Market, tend to have low tolerance for uncertainty and Uncertainty Avoidance can be used to categorize various national cultures. avoid ambiguous situations, view both conflict and competition as threatening and value security over adventure and risk. Although the Hofstede research showed five cultural values, each country uses a different set of these. Masculinity-Femininity: A belief in achievement and ambition (masculine) versus a belief in nurturing and For example, the U.S. Hispanic Market uses four as they rate significantly on each of the different caring for others (feminine). The U.S. Hispanic Market values, except for masculinity-femininity where they are rated moderately. is neither masculine nor feminine, but somewhere in-between. High-Low Context: To communicate effectively across Insights into US Hispanic Consumer Values: cultures the correct level of context has to be found. This context can be labeled as high or low, on a sliding scale. High context societies have close connections L Family: Hispanics are very close to their family units and keep them in mind when they are among group members and everybody knows what every other person knows. Low context cultures are choosing products. They are more likely to choose a product that will benefit the whole family societies that are logical, linear, action-oriented, and instead of just one individual. (Plomatos, 2005) the mass of the information is explicit and formalized. Most of the communication in such cultures takes place in a rational, verbal and explicit way to convey L Empowerment: Hispanics go online to find information. In addition, they hold the believe that their concrete meanings through rationality and language. The U.S. Hispanic Market is a high context culture. children?s lives will be improved by the Internet. (Lopez, 2005) (Hofstede, Geert. Culture?s Consequences, Comparing Values, L Value: Hispanics prefer to buy products that are high in quality and will last for a long time. Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations (Plomatos, 2005) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001) L Loyalty: Hispanics are very loyal to products that they have chosen to use, but only if it is a product they feel is designed to last. (Plomatos, 2005) L Information: Hispanics do a lot of research before they decide to purchase a product, therefore, having information available on products and services is important. 4 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com II. US Hispanic Culture and the Online Consumer US Hispanic Consumer Decision Making: ? Familiarity: Hispanics want to feel familiar and comfortable with the brands they are purchasing. In addition, they usually have some knowledge of the brands they are choosing to use ?either through commercials, personal experience or by communicating with people who have used the product. (Korzenny, 2003, www.cheskin.com/blog/blog/archives/000071.html) ? Relevance: The product needs to be relevant to the Hispanic Market and fill their needs by understanding their culture and being compatible with their lifestyle. (Korzenny, 2003, www. cheskin.com/blog/blog/archives/000071.html) ? Word of Mouth: Hispanics talk about products, websites, and experiences they have had with companies both positive and negative. If they have had a positive experience or really like and believe in a product, they will share with their family, friends, neighbors and social group who value one another?s opinions. (Georges Sawyer, 2007). ? Culture: The majority of Hispanics are very emotionally attached to their home country or the culture of their parents? home country. These emotions have a positive impact on their purchasing decisions. (Allen and Friedman, 2005). Primary Cultural Values of the U.S. Hisanic Market (Singh, 2007) ? Familismo (Family) ? Simpatia (harmony in interpersonal relation) ? Dignidad and respeto (dignity and respect) ? Tradition (home country, culture and traditions) 5 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com II. US Hispanic Culture and the Online Consumer (Cont.) Demographics Definitions US Hispanic Consumer Segments: Note: Market segmentation is an exercise in carefully identifying profitable and accessible consumer segments based on socio- Socio-demographics: The analysis of different social groups. The criteria used to segment consumers based demographics, geographics, and psychographics. Segmentation is unique to each company and product. Some general insights on age, economics, etc. on the U.S. Hispanic consumer segments have been divided into demographic and specific consumer segments. Geographics: The geographical distribution of the Consumer Segments (Schroeder, S. and Cohorts) market being analyzed. The criteria used to segment ? Affluent Grandparents: The people in this consumer segment are successful, dual income couples with an average age these consumers can be country, region, town, etc. For example, consumers can be segmented by residence or of 62 and average income of $97,000. They enjoy fashionable, often expensive activities, travel frequently, and indulge in work. (about.com) doting on their grandchildren. ? Young Families: This consumer segment consists of families whose parents are young and career minded. The children Psychographics: The criteria used to segment consumers based on lifestyle, attitudes, personality, often influence what the parents buy and how they spend their leisure time. They are on average 30 years of age and have buying motives, and/or extent of product usage. (about. an average household income of $34,000. They regularly speak Spanish at home. com) ? Young Social Latinas: Fitness, fashion and friends are their main passions. This consumer segment, consisting of young, social Latina females who are on average 23 years old and make around $23,000 per annum. In addition, they indulge in music and enjoy hip electronic gadgets. They are often bilingual. ? Young Latinos: This consumer segment is usually less educated and consists of single Latino males. The average age is 28 years old and they make approximately $37,000 per year on average. This group enjoys living on the edge. In addition, they are interested in sports, cool cars, and both music and electronics. Consumers Segmented via Demographics. (Campanelli, Melissa) ? New Lifers: Foreign-born Hispanics who have been in the U.S. on average for 8 years comprise this group. They moved to the United States to provide a better life for themselves and their family Usually, they have young children and large extended families- both in the United States and abroad. They speak Spanish exclusively and have strong ties to the culture and traditions of their homeland. Spanish radio is popular due to its familiarity. They have a mean household income of $40,000. ? Old Ways: This group includes foreign-born Hispanics that have spent about half their lives in the U.S., and they are on average 54 years old. Spanish again is spoken almost exclusively. They are very proud of their heritage and culture, although there has been some merging of U.S. culture. Products and items that are either made in their homeland or that remind them of their homeland are popular. For example, ?Dulce de Leche? cakes are very popular in portions of South America , and therefore popular with this group. Their average household income is $47,000, and over half of this group lives in New York, Los Angeles or Miami. ? Settled In: The majority of this group are U.S.-born Hispanics and are on average 43 years of age and have a household income of $68,000 per year. Although they are still proud of the culture and heritage, the effects of culture assimilation is clear in this group. Less than 20% of this group prefers to speak Spanish exclusively. They are much more technologically savvy than either New Lifers or Old Ways--they are 33% more likely to have gone online in the last month than people in the other groups. ? The Pioneers: This group is exclusively U.S. born and is on average 65 years of age. They have an annual household income of $50,000. Around 20% prefer to speak Spanish exclusively and are likely to live in New York, Los Angeles, San Antonia or Albuquerque, NM. They are the first group to grow up in the Unites States with their parents and extended family being their only ties to the ?old country? who taught them their heritage and customs. This group still prefers products that reminds them of their heritage or country but are willing to try new American products. ? Young Americans: Approximately 75% of this group is U.S. born Hispanics and they are on average 26 years of age. They have a household income of $60,000 per year. Approximately, 17% prefer to speak Spanish exclusively. This group is the most technologically advanced: of the five groups, they use the Internet the most, they listen to music on the radio, and watch music videos. By and large, they have almost fully assimilated into the American culture in terms of product usage, although they still prefer products that remind them of ?home? and pay homage to their ancestry. 6 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com III. The Spanish Language Language Facts/Tips Spanish is a romance language that originated in the northern region of Spain. Currently, it is the primary language of 21 countries, one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and the (Adapted from Sources from Academia) Ì Dialect: Make sure the dialect that is being second most widely spoken language in the United States. Spanish is spoken by over 322 million used is appropriate for the market in which the people worldwide. (Wikipedia.org) materials will be distributed. If it is going to multiple Spanish speaking markets or will be used to cover the US Hispanic Market, use a Throughout the 21 countries in which Spanish is the primary language there can be a difference in the team of native speakers from several countries working together to produce a Universal dialect, vocabulary, accents, and even grammar Spanish. rules that need to be taken into consideration Ì Grammar: Verb forms are much more when translating content and materials into extensive in Spanish than they are in English. In Spanish, various endings are attached to Spanish. verbs to indicate who is speaking for first-, second-, and third-person forms in singular and plural. For regular verbs, the -ar, -er or -ir The Spanish language is read from left to right. at the end is replaced with the appropriate In addition, it uses the 26 letters of the Latin ending. Examples: yo hablo, I talk; tú hablas, you (singular) talk; él habla, he talks; ella habla, Alphabet with the addition of the characters ñ, she talks; nosotros hablamos, we talk; ellos ch and ll. The use of accents such as á, é, ó, í, hablan, they talk. In many cases the verb form gives enough information that it isn?t necessary and ú are used in some words to change meaning to indicate with a subject noun or pronoun who and pronunciation. The correct pronunciation is performing the action. Example: canto, I sing. of Spanish words is derived primarily from the (from About.com Spanish Library) Ì Text expansion: When some languages, such spelling of the word. as English, are translated into Spanish the text can expand up to 25-35%. This means the text takes up more physical space on the page and the words inside the graphics, tool bars, tables, etc. can all expand. Ì Alphabet: There are no accented letters in the Spanish alphabet, unlike in other languages. Instead, they have four special characters ch Although there isn?t a universal Spanish dialect, it (che), ll (elle), ñ, (eñe), and rr (erre). There is disagreement between authorities on exactly is possible to translate materials into a ?neutral? what letters are to be included in the full or what some copy writers and translators call a Spanish alphabet and whether to continue to include these special characters. In addition, all ?Universal Spanish?. In response to the demand the letters of the alphabet, when written singly, for Spanish language materials appropriate are feminine. (about.com) for the diverse groups of US-based Spanish Ì Gender: Spanish nouns, such as la dentista or el perro, are either masculine or feminine. speakers, skilled teams of Spanish translators collaborating and using appropriately developed The gender of the noun determines the form glossaries can translate and copy write into a ?Universal Spanish?. of numerous adjectives that can be used to describe it, as well as the appropriate pronouns used. A general rule is that masculine nouns go By forming teams of native speakers from a with masculine adjectives and feminine nouns go with feminine adjectives. In addition, a noun multitude of Spanish-speaking locales, GPI ending with ?-o? is generally masculine or ?-a? produces culturally-correct Spanish language is generally feminine. There are exceptions to this rule. For example, el día is masculine content. If you are targeting a specific group of wheras el/la cada can be either masculine US Hispanics, just let us know and we will make or feminine. One example of the nouns and adjectives matching is: El carro es caro (the car sure your translation team includes professionals is expensive). (about.com) from the appropriate countries. 7 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com IV. Website Globalization Whether you are trying to launch a multilingual website in order to expand the markets for your products and services, or you are trying to increase your company?s global operational efficiencies by developing multilingual extranets and intranets, Website Globalization is a requirement to make either a reality. In order to enable your web presence to communicate, conduct and complete international e-Business, you need to translate (globalize) your website. Website translation is also known as ?Website Globalization?. In order to truly ?translate? a website into other languages you may need both Internationalization (I18n) and Localization (L10n) services. + Internationalization (I18n) involves enabling the backend of a website to handle different languages, character sets, currencies, submit form data, site search capabilities, etc? and involves understanding what database and content management systems you are using to author, store and publish your site?s content. Localization (L10n) involves translating and localizing the front end of your website into different languages ensuring all content (text and graphics) is translated in an accurate and culturally correct manner. The next two pages detail the steps that may be performed in a typical website globalization project. The tables list the team members, tasks and standard quality assurance steps utilized in translating a website. 8 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com Quality Tasks Team Assurance IV. Website Globalization Subject Matter Cultural Translation, Formatting of Source File Project Glossary Localization of Localization of Delivery Final Edits and SEO and Internet Training and Correctness Editing and Language QA / Testing Review Kick-Off Development all Graphics Multimedia to Client Archiving of Files Marketing Research Assessment Proofreading Documents GO! ? Account Manager ? Account Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Desktop Publishers ? Lead Translators ? Localization Engineers ? Lead Translators ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Localization Engineers ? Global SEM Specialists ? Internationalization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Desktop Publishers ? Desktop Publishers ? Desktop Publishers ? Localization Engineers ? Web CMS Specialists ? Internationalization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Internationalization Engineers ? Web Designers ? Web CMS Specialists ? Web Designers ? Web Designers ? Web Designers ? QA-Testers ? Web Developers ? Web Designers ? Web Developers ? Web CMS Specialists ? Global SEM Specialists ? Web Developers ? Web Designers ? Global SEM Specialists ? Web Developers ? Companies wanting to translate ? A Project ?Kick-Off? includes ? A Globalization Services ? Translation teams develop ? Before the actual translation ? Translation is performed ? All embedded translatable ? Many websites have an array ? Many websites incorporate various ? GPI provides basic Online Localization ? After the website and all components ? Client provides any final comments for ? GPI recommends the client plan on and their website put together all of and confirms the following: Team (GST) will review/study and maintains client specific begins, the source web by a base translation/copy text commonly found in of linked documents which may multimedia components which may Quality Assurance (QA) as a standard have been localized, final draft sets of the translation and formatting. conduct some form of global internet the source files from their site any reference materials glossaries leveraging any content and overall site writing team, and editing/ navigation buttons, web art require localization. require localization. line item for all website projects. the source files in all target language marketing (IM) and/or search engine (called a?Localization Kit?) for a 9 provided, including source existing client glossaries design and feature set proofreading by a second and other web graphics are versions are provided to the client. ? Comments are incorporated and final marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic The project team globalization services provider 9 files, demos and general and the latest industry- is reviewed for basic linguistic team. pulled from graphics and ? Formatting or desktop publishing (DTP) ? Multimedia must be analyzed ? This QA checks the language versions websites and documents are produced. to your new language sites. Project schedules to analyze. client information. specific dictionaries. cultural correctness and translated using the standard of these documents includes formatting individually for numerous items. These of your site under selected browser-OS ? Client may review and approve all web 9 Project specifications ? The files are prepared in order customizations that may ? All translations are completed translation workflow. the target language documentation to items range from determining word combination for any cosmetic or content for both translation accuracy ? GPI ensures the client?s Translation ? This may include global search engine to utilize a translation memory 9 Workflow requirements ? In addition, there may be be required. by human translators, match the original source documents counts in screen text, audio scripts and linguistic issues, and will help identity and design correctness. Memories and Glossaries are updated optimization of the localized web tool workflow and preserve 9 Communication any mark-up/formatting code client-specific training for utilizing translation ? The translated text is then in terms of layout, fonts, graphics, and graphics, to the analysis of the types of basic functionality issues as well. with any final linguistic changes and content, submission of pages to key channels in order to save time and costs translation teams related ? An array of issues are memory technologies that incorporated into the overall design. assets and how they were digitized and ? Another round of QA is performed once the final project folder, including all country (locale) search engines and 9 Review & approval with desktop publishing the to the subject matter of reviewed ranging from the ensure an efficient and original graphic, adjusting as included in your multimedia. ? Typically all testing is client-driven and language versions of a website are in source files are securely stored for pay-per-click marketing campaigns opportunities language versions. the website. need to culturally customize consistent translation. required, to create a language ? Adobe PDF?s can be created and GPI?s professionals can work side by their final hosting environment future revisions if required. through services like Google AdWords 9 Review current ? A proposal is generated based on graphics and adding or ?localized? version of optimized for screen or print and linked ? All multimedia can be localized and side with your expert users to perform or Overture. an array of factors including word web authoring and local phone numbers to the graphic. off of the new website. tested to play in any target languages. Internationalization (I18N), Localization counts, localizable graphics, publishing workflow. comprehensive customization (L10N) and/or Functionality Testing, target languages and any content of website features based on onsite or offsite. management systems and workflows to be used. locale specific cultural values. GPI follows a comprehensive, customizable and fully documented Quality Control Process. Each step in our translation workflow includes a series of checklist-based quality audits to ensure the accuracy of the translation and desktop publishing. Our client?s Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to review and Clients are given an opportunity to review and QA and workflow processes can also be easily review and approve at several stages in review and approve at several stages in approve at several stages in the documentation approve at several stages in the documentation incorporated into our workflow. the documentation translation process. the documentation translation process. translation process. translation process. 9 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com Quality Tasks Team Assurance IV. Website Globalization Subject Matter Cultural Translation, Formatting of Source File Project Glossary Localization of Localization of Delivery Final Edits and SEO and Internet Training and Correctness Editing and Language QA / Testing Review Kick-Off Development all Graphics Multimedia to Client Archiving of Files Marketing Research Assessment Proofreading Documents GO! ? Account Manager ? Account Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Project Manager ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Lead Translators ? Desktop Publishers ? Lead Translators ? Localization Engineers ? Lead Translators ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Editors & Copy Writers ? Localization Engineers ? Global SEM Specialists ? Internationalization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Desktop Publishers ? Desktop Publishers ? Desktop Publishers ? Localization Engineers ? Web CMS Specialists ? Internationalization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Localization Engineers ? Internationalization Engineers ? Web Designers ? Web CMS Specialists ? Web Designers ? Web Designers ? Web Designers ? QA-Testers ? Web Developers ? Web Designers ? Web Developers ? Web CMS Specialists ? Global SEM Specialists ? Web Developers ? Web Designers ? Global SEM Specialists ? Web Developers ? Companies wanting to translate ? A Project ?Kick-Off? includes ? A Globalization Services ? Translation teams develop ? Before the actual translation ? Translation is performed ? All embedded translatable ? Many websites have an array ? Many websites incorporate various ? GPI provides basic Online Localization ? After the website and all components ? Client provides any final comments for ? GPI recommends the client plan on and their website put together all of and confirms the following: Team (GST) will review/study and maintains client specific begins, the source web by a base translation/copy text commonly found in of linked documents which may multimedia components which may Quality Assurance (QA) as a standard have been localized, final draft sets of the translation and formatting. conduct some form of global internet the source files from their site any reference materials glossaries leveraging any content and overall site writing team, and editing/ navigation buttons, web art require localization. require localization. line item for all website projects. the source files in all target language marketing (IM) and/or search engine (called a?Localization Kit?) for a 9 provided, including source existing client glossaries design and feature set proofreading by a second and other web graphics are versions are provided to the client. ? Comments are incorporated and final marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic The project team globalization services provider 9 files, demos and general and the latest industry- is reviewed for basic linguistic team. pulled from graphics and ? Formatting or desktop publishing (DTP) ? Multimedia must be analyzed ? This QA checks the language versions websites and documents are produced. to your new language sites. Project schedules to analyze. client information. specific dictionaries. cultural correctness and translated using the standard of these documents includes formatting individually for numerous items. These of your site under selected browser-OS ? Client may review and approve all web 9 Project specifications ? The files are prepared in order customizations that may ? All translations are completed translation workflow. the target language documentation to items range from determining word combination for any cosmetic or content for both translation accuracy ? GPI ensures the client?s Translation ? This may include global search engine to utilize a translation memory 9 Workflow requirements ? In addition, there may be be required. by human translators, match the original source documents counts in screen text, audio scripts and linguistic issues, and will help identity and design correctness. Memories and Glossaries are updated optimization of the localized web tool workflow and preserve 9 Communication any mark-up/formatting code client-specific training for utilizing translation ? The translated text is then in terms of layout, fonts, graphics, and graphics, to the analysis of the types of basic functionality issues as well. with any final linguistic changes and content, submission of pages to key channels in order to save time and costs translation teams related ? An array of issues are memory technologies that incorporated into the overall design. assets and how they were digitized and ? Another round of QA is performed once the final project folder, including all country (locale) search engines and 9 Review & approval with desktop publishing the to the subject matter of reviewed ranging from the ensure an efficient and original graphic, adjusting as included in your multimedia. ? Typically all testing is client-driven and language versions of a website are in source files are securely stored for pay-per-click marketing campaigns opportunities language versions. the website. need to culturally customize consistent translation. required, to create a language ? Adobe PDF?s can be created and GPI?s professionals can work side by their final hosting environment future revisions if required. through services like Google AdWords 9 Review current ? A proposal is generated based on graphics and adding or ?localized? version of optimized for screen or print and linked ? All multimedia can be localized and side with your expert users to perform or Overture. an array of factors including word web authoring and local phone numbers to the graphic. off of the new website. tested to play in any target languages. Internationalization (I18N), Localization counts, localizable graphics, publishing workflow. comprehensive customization (L10N) and/or Functionality Testing, target languages and any content of website features based on onsite or offsite. management systems and workflows to be used. locale specific cultural values. GPI follows a comprehensive, customizable and fully documented Quality Control Process. Each step in our translation workflow includes a series of checklist-based quality audits to ensure the accuracy of the translation and desktop publishing. Our client?s Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to Clients are given an opportunity to review and Clients are given an opportunity to review and QA and workflow processes can also be easily review and approve at several stages in review and approve at several stages in approve at several stages in the documentation approve at several stages in the documentation incorporated into our workflow. the documentation translation process. the documentation translation process. translation process. translation process. 10 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Cultural Customization: Key Issues The basis for cultural customization of websites is a theoretically-sound, empirically-validated framework built on five unique cultural values that account for similarities and differences across global cultures. Research studies indicate that attitude towards websites, interactivity and usability of websites, as well as purchase intentions at websites are enhanced when sites are congruent with the target customers? cultural predispositions (see The Culturally Customized Website, Elsevier, 2005) The cultural customization framework is drawn from established research and is based on five unique values: Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low-High Context. (See Page 4 of this Report) These five predominant country cultural values can be represented in comparison to other countries using the maps below: Ma Power Distance vs. Individualism -Collectivismsculinity -Femininity vs. Uncertainty Avoidance 100 100 Ì US Hispanic 50 50 Ì US Hispanic Masculinity -Femininity Index Power Distance Index 0 0 0 50 100 0 50 100 Arab World Argentina Australia Austria Brazil Arab World Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark East A frica Ecuador Colombia Costa Rica Czech Republic Denmark East A frica El S alvador Finland France Germany Greece El Salvador Finland France Germany Guatemala Guatemala Hong K ong Hungary India Indonesia Hungary Hong K ong India Indonesia Ireland Iran Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Norway Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Pakistan Panama Peru Philippines Poland Poland Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa Portugal Russia Singapore South Africa South Korea South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Turkey Thailand Turkey U.S. Hispanic Market United A rab Emirates United K ingdom U.S. Hispanic Market United A rab Emirates United Kingdom United S tates Uruguay United S tates Uruguay Venezuela West A frica Venezuela West A frica Cultural Maps for US Hispanic Market Cultural Maps adapted from: ?The Culturally Customized Website: Customizing Websites for the Global Marketplace? by Nitish Singh and Arun Pereira (2005), and Hofstede, Geert. Culture?s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001) 11 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com Uncertainty Avoidance Index Individualism - Collectivism Index V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization, Cont. The Cultural Customization Scorecard Once we have identified the country?s predominant cultural values using the cultural maps the next step in customizing a website is to evaluate it on the relevant cultural values. This can be done in the form of The Cultural Customization Score Card. The score card is produced by analyzing the site on the features that conform to the cultural values of interest. (For a detailed cultural analysis of your website please contact (mspethman@globalizationpartners.com) The Cultural Customization Scorecard? - U.S. Hispanic Market Grading Scale: Values Individualism Collectivism Uncertainty Power Masculinity Low High Avoidance Distance Context Context > 90% Excellent Customization on Cultural Value Cultural 70-89% Good Customization on Cultural Value Scores < 70% Poor Customization on Cultural Value Cultural Customization (Examples)  Collectivism: The U.S. Hispanic Market is a collectivist culture. The targeted websites may be culturally customized to a degree by emphasizing values important in collectivist cultures. Research suggests there are several web-specific features that can be included in a website to make it more appealing to collectivist cultures. For example, emphasizing family theme. ? The opening Proctor and Gamble page for their Mexico website is multigenerational, highly aesthetic, and shows people working together. This could be considered both a colllectivist and high-context picture. ? Family is very important to the Hispanic Consumer, therefore emphasizing family activities with pictures can be a very good strategy. 12 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization  Masculinity ? Femininity: The U.S Hispanic Market is a culture that is is somewhat neutral between masculinity and femininity. Therefore emphasizing themes, values and graphics which meld these two beliefs is an important feature of a website for this market. Some ways that masculinity can be depicted for a Hispanic audience are achievement orientation, success, product durability and effectiveness, as well as a sense of adventure and fun. On the other hand, femininity can be expressed through focusing on website aesthetics, a soft-sell approach, and focusing on softer themes. For example, the Star Media website has a separate women?s section, which caters to the news and topics in which women would be interested called ?starMedia Mujer?. The original page leans more toward the masculine, with puzzles, chess games and sports news. 13 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization, Cont.  High-Low Context: As the U.S. Hispanic Market is a high context culture, the values and communication style consistent with the high-context value like harmony and aesthetics can help achieve cultural customization. For example, Colgate uses picture navigation that is color-coded by ?type? of product, on their Spanish pages.  Uncertainty Avoidance: As the U.S. Hispanic Market is a very risk-averse society it is important to reduce risk, anxiety and uncertainty that these consumers might have shopping online. For example, using graphics and pictures of support personnel along with some graphic designs for products may help to reduce the anxiety. Orange uses pictures of handymen in their help section. This also highlights the collectivist trait as they are helping one another.  Power Distance: Since the U.S. Hispanic Market?s score is high on power distance, cultural customization may be achieved by adding elements that emphasize this value. For example, displaying awards or honors that a company or the brand has received. Colgate has an award section that chronologically lists all of the awards the company has received on their Spanish website. 14 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Website Customization Considerations Symbols and Icons The US Hispanic Market is not a homogenous culture, but instead one that is strongly tied to the country of origin. Therefore, many of the symbols and icons that are important to different segments of the U.S. Hispanic Market are country-dependent. It is important to be aware of these differences in order to avoid any cultural blunders and the inadvertent use of offensive symbols. For example: Mexico L The Mano Fico: Carvings or paintings of the Mano Fico are carried as good luck charms to ward off the evil eye. The evil eye is thought to be a curse brought on the fortunate in order to bring them misfortune. (wikipedia.org) L Counting Stars: If you count stars your eyes will look like those of a fish. L Weddings: If it rains on the night of a wedding, the bride will cry through the marriage. L Theft Prevention: Keeping a head of garlic wrapped in red and tied with a gold ribbon in a purse will prevent it from being stolen. Venezuela L Marriages: If someone passes a broom over a woman?s feet she will never get married. L Presents: Never give a packet of handkerchiefs as a present as it will cause a fight between giver and receiver. Brazil L Visitors: If a broom is placed behind the front door, it will keep away bad visitors. L Loss of Money: By keeping your purse on the floor money will disappear and the owner will not know where it went. L Becoming Rich: Always putting sugar in the cup before pouring the coffee will cause that person to get rich. Argentina L Wishes: Turning your back to fountain and throwing in a coin will bring good luck and the person will get three wishes. L Money: If money is found and doesn?t have an owner, the finder will receive more money as long as the original found money is not spent. 15 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization, Cont. Colors For the U.S. Hispanic Market certain colors carry specific meaning and symbolize aspects of their culture. ? Red: Religion, vibrancy, visibility and death ? Black: Mourning, respect and sophistication ? Purple: Death Spatial Orientation Barber and Albert Badre, authors of Culturability: The Merging of Culture and Usability (1998), spatial orientation has a direct effect on website usability, because it affects visual perception. Manipulating the orientation can change the user?s comfort level. What is user-friendly for one country may be vastly different for another. The U.S. Hispanic market prefers to have more information shown on a page with clear navigation menus such as ?fly-out? navigational menus. For example, Univison has a wide array of navigational tools on their U.S. Hispanic site in comparison to their English site. (Feige, 2007) Univision uses multiple navigation menus on their Hispanic Site. These menus are clear and easy to navigate. 16 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com V. US Hispanic Market Cultural Correctness and Web Customization, Cont. Text Length When translating a document or website, it is important to take into account how the length of the text will change after translation. There are a variety of reasons why text expansion occurs. Equivalent phrases in a target language may have more characters or words than in English, and some cultures prefer using a more formal style than other cultures, avoiding abbreviations, for example. Additionally, for both documents and websites both line and page breaks may be different in the localized version than in the English version. Finally, the layout of the document or website itself may change depending on the direction of the text. For example, Arabic is a bi-directional language and is read right-to-left, which will not only switch the layout of the text, but also the graphics, the tool bars, the navigation bars, and the binding of the book, etc... Similarly, some languages like Chinese and Japanese can be displayed either in left-to-right character rows or vertical character columns, and the choice influences how document elements such as graphics, figures, tables, call outs, etc. are arranged in the final document or webpage. There can either be text expansion or compression when a document or website is translated from English into a target language. For example, Colgate emphasizes such traits as family and power distance on their Hispanic website Spanish can expand up to 35% when translated from English. With document localization, there are several steps that can be taken to help preserve the integrity of the look and feel ?layout? of the document. These include: L Using a larger font in the original language, if it is expected the language will expand during translation. This will help to develop a better feel for the final size of the document and how the document elements will be laid out relative to the text. If the text is expected to shrink, use a slightly smaller font for the same reasons. L Tables and graphics may need to be resized or changed. Some, like the vertical Chinese or Japanese layout, will require more finessing than others. 17 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com VI. Internet and Search Engine Marketing for the U.S. Hispanic Market A search engine marketing campaign for the U.S. Hispanic Market should be multi-dimensional for both short-term and long-term success. Using Pay-Per-Click campaigns on targeted Hispanic websites and Search Engines is one way to produce immediate results and become familiar to the Hispanic market segment that is being targeted. Long term search engine marketing plans should include the use of keywords in both Spanish and English. In addition, it is important to note that Hispanics tend to use longer strings of words in search It is recommended that firms plan on and conduct some phrases and/or questions than the rest of the U.S. market. (Porter, 2005) form of global search engine marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic to their new language sites. Porter provided some examples of the longer keyword phrases. These included: This may include global search engine optimization of your localized Web content, submission of pages to Tactics to Consider  Comprar tono para télefono (buy tone for key country (locale) search engines, and a pay-per-click marketing campaigns through services like Google phone) Adwords or Overture.  Tonos de música para cellular (music tones L Spanish keyword research and tracking for cell) L SEO For more information on Global SEM Services, see www.globalizationpartners.com/SEM  Descarga de tonos gratis (a free tone L Media buys on all major Hispanic download) Websites The Importance of.es Sites L PPC There are several other important aspects L Affiliate Marketing The use of the ccTLD ?es?, which is common for Spanish sites originating in Spain, is also used as the Spanish that need to be considered when developing L E-Mail Marketing extension of U.S. sites. The three main extensions that U.S. Companies use are: a Search Engine Marketing plan for the U.S. L Instant Message Advertising Ì ?es? Hispanic Market. One of these items is to L Pay-Per-Click Ì ?español? realize that the market might use the words L Social Networks Ì ?Spanish? ?Spanish?, ?Espanol?, ?es?, or ?Español? to L Entertainment/Game Marketing These domains extensions show that there is a separate locate the Spanish version of a website via site for the Spanish speaking population of the United search engine, so these should be used as part of the keyword set chosen. In addition, if using on-page States. In addition, where the extension is placed in the domain name has no current standard. Some examples advertisements it is important to make sure that the content is culturally relevant and in Spanish. of domain formats for Hispanic pages are: In the best-case scenario, the search enginge result takes the user to a Spanish Landing page with Ì www.unitedespanol.com information that is directly relevant to the advertisement that they chose. (Porter, 2005). Ì www.dodge.com/es Ì youthradio.org/spanish According to Neilson, the top English Sites According to Neilson, the top Spanish Sites Ì espanol.scotts.com for Hispanics are: are: The most common domain for the Spanish URL is ?.com. espanol? which can be confused with the Spanish pages from other countries where Spanish is spoken. Ideally, the Ì ESPN Soccernet.com L Univision webpage will have multiple URLs (/espanol, /español, /Spanish, / es) that lead to the U.S. Hispanic Spanish Ì StuffMagazine.com L Star Media site.(Singh, 2007) Ì RollingStone.com L Yahoo en Español (Yahoo! Telemundo) Ì Miami Herald L AOL Latino Browser Settings Ì FHMUS.com L Migente.com Spanish dominant users are telling site content managers Ì WWE.com L La Opinión something when their browser setting for language is set Ì Warner Bros. Online L MSN Latino to Spanish ? they are saying that this is their preferred language when browsing through the web. Interestingly Ì Homestore.com enough, many Hispanic users that have Spanish as their Ì Marvel only language choice are still presented or defaulted with English homepages and content although Spanish pages Ì MTV.com and content exists. (Useability Sciences, 2007) 18 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com Resources Search Engines ß AltaVista Español ß Mexico Ch@nnel ß Super Pages es.altavista.com www.trace-sc.com/menu.htm espanol.superpages.com ß AOL Española ß MexOnline ß Tabarca www.aol.com.mx www.mexonline.com/websites.htm www.tabarca.com ß Buscador Español ß MexSearch ß Telepolis www.buscadorespanol.com www.yellow.com.mx/index.html www.telepolis.com ß Buscar Portal ß Mundo Latino ß Tematicos www.buscarportal.com www.mundolatino.org tematicos.com ß Buscar ß Netscape Española ß Terra (Argentina) www.buscar.com wp.netscape.com/es/escapes/search/ buscador.terra.com.ar netsearch_0.html ß Clasificado2 ß Terra (Chile) www.clasificado2.com ß Ofrecido compras.terra.cl www.ofrecido.com ß Dónde ß Terra (Mexico) donde.uji.es/index.html ß Ozú buscador.terra.com.mx www.ozu.es ß Excite Española ß Vea www.excite.es ß PáginasAmarillas www.vea.com www.paginas-amarillas.es ß Google Española ß Wanadoo Española www.google.com/intl/es ß Search Iberia www.eresmas.com www.searchiberia.com ß Interlaboral ß Ya www.hispanic-business.net ß SeDonde www.ya.com www.sedonde.com ß Lugar Latino ß Yahoo! Telemudo www.lugarlatino.com ß StarMedia telemundo.yahoo.com us.starmedia.com ß Lycos Española www.lycos.es Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the ?Allow? button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser 19 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com Resources, Cont. Useful Links ß Neilsen//NetRatings ß WebProNews ß Hispanic Market Weekly www.nielsen-netratings.com www.webpronews.com/topnews/2004/05/20/ www.hispanicmarketweekly.com search-engine-marketing-to-the-us-hispanic- ß DMNews market ß Ahorre.com Blog www.dmnews.com www.ahorre.com/blog ß Ahorre ß HispanicAd.com www.hispanicmarket.net ß PR Newswire hispanicad.com www.prnewswire.com/hispanic/market/ ß HispanSource slide02_files/frame.htm ß Hispanic Marketing and Public Relations www.hispansource.org Website and Podcast ß Meneses Research and Associates www.hispanicmpr.com ß Hispanic Market Pro www.menesesresearch.com www.hispanicmarketpro.com ß Cheskin ß BusinessWeek www.cheskin.com ß HispanicMarket.com www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/ www.hispanicmarket.com content/jul2006/sb20060712_923491. ß Topics Online Magazine htm?chan=top+news_top+news www.topics-mag.com/internatl/superstitions/ ß Magazine Publishers of America mexico.htm www.magazine.org/Advertising_and_PIB/ ß Marketing y Medios Ad_Categories_and_Demographics/index.cfm www.marketingymedios.com/ ß About.com marketingymedios/market_profile/index.jsp spanish.about.com/od/translationresources/ ß Hispanic Research, Inc. Spanish_Translation_Resources.htm hispanic-research.com ß Abbott Wool?s Market Segment Resources www.awool.com/hmwindex.html ß DiversityJobs.com ß Hispanic Business www.diversityjobs.com/hispanic-online- www.hispanicbusiness.com ß Fantomas spending-to-surpass-all-other-minority-groups fantomaster.com/fantomNews/ ß Wikipedia.org archives/2005/04/14/hispanic-search-engine- ß Hispanic Trending Blog en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hispanics_in_the_ marketing-a-breakdown juantornoe.blogs.com/hispanictrending/ United_States hispanic_websites/index.html ß The McKinsey Quarterly ß Hispanic News www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Financial_ ß Hispanic Targeting www.hispanic.cc Services/Personal_Financial_Services/ www.hispanictargeting.com Seizing_the_Hispanic_market_1429_abstractl ß AdVirtuoso ß Hispanic PR Wire www.advirtuoso.com/opportunities.html www.hispanicprwire.com Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the ?Allow? button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser 20 of 20 Website Globalization and E-Business | US Hispanic Market www.globalizationpartners.com
Posted: 16 July 2010

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