Vietnam Grain and Feed Annual 2009 in Vietnam

An Expert's View about Cereals, Leguminous Crops, Oil Seeds in Vietnam

Last updated: 26 Apr 2010

2008 was a remarkable year for Vietnam’s rice industry. Despite both unfavorable weather and economic conditions, Vietnam’s total rice production for CY 2008 was a record 36.93 million tons

Required Report - public distribution Date: 4/1/2009 GAIN Report Number: VM9025 Vietnam GRAIN Vietnam Grain and Feed Annual 2009 Approved By: Michael Riedel Prepared By: Tran Quoc Quan Report Highlights: Post forecasts Vietnam?s rice exports in calendar year (CY) 2009 to reach 5.2 million tons, even though CY 2009 rice production is estimated not to be as high as that of CY 2008. The Vietnamese government set its rice export target for CY 2009 at 4.5-5.0 million tons, due to carry-over stocks and expected good production. Despite unfavorable weather and economic conditions, Vietnam?s total rice production for CY 2008 increased to a new record of 36.9 million tons. The value of Vietnam?s rice exports in CY 2008 set a new record of $2.9 billion. Post forecasts Vietnam?s CY 2009 corn production at 4.8 million tons, mostly due to better yields and increased planting area. CY 2008 corn imports into Vietnam amounted to 610,000 tons, and Post forecasts CY 2009 corn imports at 700,000 tons, due mainly to high demand from the feed industry. Post estimates Vietnam?s wheat imports for the marketing year (MY) 2008/2009 to approximate the MY 2007/2008 volumes. Wheat imports from the United States may decrease, mostly due to competition from Australia. Vietnam?s wheat imports for MY 2007/2008 only reached 1.05 million tons, due to relatively high global wheat prices during the first half of CY 2008. Vietnam?s wheat imports from the United States reached a record 112,000 tons, mostly due to competitive pricing. Executive Summary: SITUATION AND OUTLOOK 2008 was a remarkable year for Vietnam?s rice industry. Despite both unfavorable weather and economic conditions, Vietnam?s total rice production for CY 2008 was a record 36.93 million tons, a 2 million ton increase of paddy production over CY 2007. Rice export volumes increased only 3.3 percent over CY 2007, while their value doubled over CY 2007?s level, due to the high global rice prices. Vietnam?s CY 2009 rice export target was set at 4.5-5.0 million tons, thanks to carry-over stocks and expected good production. Post?s forecast for CY 2009 export volume is slightly higher at 5.2 million tons, due mostly to higher figures for carry-over stocks. Export volumes will be controlled according to a whole-year export target, rather than monthly targets, according to Vietnam?s new rice export policy for 2009. Export contract registrations and the Minimum Export Price (MEP) are still deemed necessary to benefit the exporters and the rice growers. Due to high demand from the Vietnamese feed industry, Post forecasts Vietnam?s CY 2009 corn production at 4.8 million tons, thanks to both better yield and larger planted area. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Vietnam produced 4.5 million tons of corn in CY 2008, an increase of almost 8 percent over CY 2007. The planted area of CY 2008 increased by a little over six percent, but the average yield only saw a one percent increase. Post forecasts CY 2009 Vietnamese corn imports to increase to around 700,000 tons, in response to strong demands for this key feed ingredient. Corn imports from the United States should reach 25,000 tons, due to strong competition from India and Argentina. Corn exports from the United States to Vietnam in CY 2008 were 23,000 tons, compared with almost 30,000 tons in CY 2007. This was most likely due to the rise in global commodity prices that made U.S. corn less competitive into the Vietnamese market, the total size of which in CY 2008 was 610,000 tons, a slight increase over CY 2007. MARD data shows that there was no significant growth of the hog and poultry industries in CY 2008 because of the disease incidents hindering the industries? growth. Post estimates Vietnam?s MY 2008/2009 (July-June) wheat imports to be unchanged from MY 2007/2008 at slightly over one million tons. Wheat imports from the United States, however, may decrease this year, due to an anticipated increased Australian presence. Vietnam?s wheat imports for MY 2007/2008 reached 1.05 million tons, down from 1.16 million tons in MY 2006/2007, due to relatively high wheat prices in the first half of CY 2008. Wheat imports from the United States, however, reached a record volume of 112,000 tons, thanks to more competitive U.S. wheat prices as compared to Australia. Commodities: Rice, Milled Production: PRODUCTION Table 1.2 Vietnam?s Area, Yield, and Production for Rough Rice (as of March 2009) Market 2008 2009 ing Yea 2007 r Revised Estimate Forecast Harvested Area (tha) Old New Old New Old New Winte 1r 1,846 1,846 1,820 1,820 1,810 Spring2 2,971 2,971 2,970 2,990 2,980 Autumn3 2,595 2,595 2,500 2,500 2,500 TOTAL 7,412 7,412 7,290 7,310 7,290 Yield (mt/ha) Winter 4,29 4,29 4.22 4.22 4.25 Spring 5.83 5.83 5.60 5.70 5.70 Autumn 4.50 4.50 4.52 4.52 4.55 AVERAGE 4.99 4.99 4.89 4.93 4.94 Production (tmt) Winter 7,919 7,919 7,680 7,680 7,692 Spring 17,336 17,336 16,632 17,043 16,986 Autumn 11,678 11,678 11,300 11,300 11,375 36,933 36,933 35,612 36,023 36,053 TOTAL 1 Lua Mua (10th Mon 2 th), Winter-Spring 3, Summer-Autumn Source: MARD, Post estimates Estimate for MY 2008 (MY began January 2009) Spring Crop According to MARD, the total planting area reached 2.98 million hectares as of mid-March 2009. Southern provinces have been harvesting, and planting in the north has started earlier than last year thanks to favorable weather conditions. The Northern provinces have planted around 1.1 million hectares as of mid-March. The main rice growing provinces in the North Central Coast and Red River Delta have finished their planting, whereas the provinces in mountainous areas are still planting. Autumn Crop MARD planned the planting acreage for the 2008-2009 autumn crop to be equal to that of the 2007-2008 autumn crop. Post estimates that the 2008-2009 autumn planting area will be smaller compared with that of 2007-2008, but bigger than that of 2006-2007 and higher than Post's estimate of August 2008 (see Table 1.2). Review for MY 2007 (MY began January 2008) Despite facing adverse weather and economic conditions in MY 2007, Vietnam achieved a record paddy rice production of 36.93 million tons, which was 2.2 million tons higher than MY 2006's production. Spring Crop An unusual cold spell in the north of the country in early CY 2008 killed about 148,000 hectares of mature plants and 10,000 hectares of seedlings. The spring crop in the north, however, only ended up with a delayed harvest, which did not significantly impact the overall output. The spring harvest in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), on the other hand, produced Vietnam?s exportable surplus, rising to a record 9.7 million tons; more than 570,000 tons higher than the same crop?s harvest in CY 2007. Autumn Crop The MRD, the main region for this crop, contributed 1.1 million more tons of paddy than it had in the 2007 autumn crop, which resulted from a significant increase in rice planting acreage. Winter Crop The heavy rain storms and flooding in the Northern provinces in October 2008 badly affected about 274,000 hectares of agricultural land. However, the total rice area affected was only around 28,000 hectares, since the time of the flooding was harvest time for almost all provinces in the north. The flooding caused the average rice yield to drop only by 0.06 tons per hectare, reducing northern Vietnam?s paddy production by only 50,000 tons. The overall average yield for the winter crop was 0.06 tons per hectare higher than last winter's crop. Total winter crop paddy rice production, however, was 520,000 tons lower than last winter?s crop, due to reduced planting area. Graph 1.1 Vietnam?s Historical Rice production and area Source: USDA/FAS/OGA/IPA MRD Rice Production The Cuu Long (Mekong River) Delta Rice Research Institute expects a bumper winter- spring crop in MY 2008, with more than 10 million tons of paddy harvested, due to the fact that the incidence of diseases has fallen sharply. The MRD is spread across 12 provinces that collectively have about 2.97 million hectares of farmland, and produces over 50 percent of Vietnam?s rice and more than 90 percent of the country?s rice exports. The MRD is expected to produce about 19.9 million tons of paddy in MY 2008. While the MRD?s population is 17 million out of Vietnam?s 85 million people, the MRD is the only place in Vietnam that has a significant rice surplus, which is supplied all over Vietnam and exported. The MRD spring crop is usually planted in November/December and is harvested by March/April. This is the crop that helps policy makers project annual export volumes. According to the Planning Department of MARD, as of mid-March 2009, the MRD Spring crop planting is estimated at 1.542 million hectares, which is 102 percent of their planned area. Early harvesting is recorded at 714,000 hectares. Right after the harvest, farmers quickly planted the new autumn crop, the planting for which has been reported at approximately 51,000 hectares in the provinces of Soc Trang and Dong Thap. Graph 1.2 Vietnam Regional Rice Production Source: USDA/FAS/OGA/IPA Table 1.3 Rice Production in the Mekong Delta by Marketing Year (000 ha; mt/ha; ,000 mt) 2007 (Revised) 2008 (Estimate) (old) 2008 (Estimate) (new) Area Yield Prod. Area Yield Prod. Area Yield Prod. Winter 345 3.96 1,366 340 3.95 1,343 340 3.95 1,343 Spring 1,511 6.40 9,670 1,510 6.50 9,815 1,542 6.50 10,023 Autumn 2,056 4.56 9,375 2,000 4.55 9,100 2,000 4.55 9,100 Total 3,894 20,411 3,850 20,258 3,882 20,466 * Includes main Autumn and late Autumn Source: MARD, Post estimate Consumption: CONSUMPTION Vietnam?s per-capita rice consumption is currently about 150 kg/year, which reflects a 12 percent drop from ten years earlier. This decline in per-capita rice consumption is consistent with other countries in Asia; as the economy develops, consumers have greater means and access to other foods, with per-capita consumption of rice tending to decline as income increases. Vietnam?s total rice consumption, however, is increasing steadily, in accordance with a yearly population growth of about one million people. Other factors in Vietnam?s increased rice consumption are higher use in home-made animal and aquaculture feeds and the beer industry. Post estimates an additional 100,000-150,000 tons of rice per year will be required to serve the increasing population. In some years, however, rice consumption may increase much more than this, since rice can be used as an alternative source for feed material, whereas other sources are limited or too expensive to import. CY 2008 is an example of this, where large unsold stocks of rice were used locally for processed foods and animal feed. Policy: POLICY Vinafood 2, Vietnam's top rice exporter, aims to build rice trading markets and warehouses to expand storage capacity and ensure a stable supply in the MRD (see GAIN report VM9014). Media reports suggest that Vinafood 2 would invest more than VND 600 billion ($35.3 million) to build a market complex in Can Tho city. The market, with a storage capacity of 200,000 tons, would be finished by the end of 2009, and would start buying, milling, storing, and shipping grain in 2010. This year?s rice export management differs from the year before because the Government of Vietnam is controlling the rice export volumes based not on monthly export targets, but rather an yearly export target, in order to avoid the trade disruption that occurred in 2008 and earlier years. Vietnamese rice exports are still controlled by the Rice Export Management Committee, which is headed by the Prime Minister and includes MARD, the Ministry of Industry and Trade, and Vietfood. The export contract register procedure and the MEP are still required. The Vietnamese authorities regard the MEP as a vital measure to protect the profit margins of the rice growers. The purpose of the contract register procedure, besides controlling the export volume, is to help exporters schedule vessels for delivery. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: RICE STATISTICAL TABLES Table 1.1 Vietnam?s Production, Supply and Demand for Rice 2007 2008 2009 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 Rice, Market Year Market Year Begin: Market Year Begin: Milled Begin: Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 Vietnam Annual l Data Annual Data Da New Annua ta Displayed New yed Jan Di Post Post Displa splayed Data Data Data Area Harvested 7,412 7,412 7,412 7,290 7,290 7,310 7,290 Beginning Stocks 1,392 1,392 1,392 2,012 2,007 2,018 1,843 Milled Production 24,375 24,415 24,376 23,500 23,504 23,775 23,795 Rough Production 36,932 36,992 36,933 35,606 35,612 36,023 36,053 Milling Rate (.9999) 6,600 6,600 6,600 6,600 6,600 6,600 6,600 MY Imports 400 300 300 300 300 400 400 TY Imports 400 300 300 300 300 400 400 TY Imp. from U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Supply 26,167 26,107 26,068 25,812 25,811 26,193 26,038 MY Exports 4,649 4,800 4,650 5,200 5,200 5,200 5,000 TY Exports 4,649 4,800 4,650 5,200 5,200 5,200 5,000 Total Consumption 19,506 19,300 19,400 19,039 19,150 19,150 19,150 Ending Stocks 2,012 2,007 2,018 1,573 1,461 1,843 1,888 Total Distribution 26,167 26,107 26,068 25,812 25,811 26,193 26,038 Yield (Rough) 5. 5. 4.9829 5. 5. 4.9279 4.9455 Commodities: Corn Production: PRODUCTION Post forecasts Vietnam?s CY 2009 corn production at 4.8 million tons, thanks to both better yields and higher demand from the local feed industry. According to MARD, Vietnam produced 4.5 million tons of corn in CY 2008, an increase of almost eight per cent over CY 2007. Planting area expanded by 6 percent, but the average yield only saw a one percent increase. Corn is Vietnam?s second biggest annual crop after rice in terms of production area. However, total corn production area is only one third that of rice. The government is focusing on increasing corn production to supply the local feed industry. With its lower market price and yield compared with rice and other crops, such as legumes, soybeans, and tobacco, corn does not seem an attractive crop to provide high income to the farmers. Significantly improving the average yield by using high-yielding varieties is the most likely way to achieve the government?s objectives of increasing corn production to supply the feed sector. Table 2.3 Vietnam Corn Production in Calendar year 2007-2009 Unit 2007 2008 2009 estimate revised Forecast Planting area 1,000 hectares 1,072.80 1,150.00 1,140.00 1,200.00 Yield mt/ha 3.96 4.00 3.98 4.00 Production 1,000 mt 4,250.90 4,600.00 4,530.90 4,800.00 Source: MARD / Post Estimate Graph 2.1 Vietnam?s Historical corn production and area Source: USDA/FAS/OGA/IPA Consumption: CONSUMPTION Corn is used locally as material in the animal feed industry, due to the protein and energy it contains. Within the industry, corn is used mainly in hog and poultry feed, which make up about 65 percent of Vietnam?s total feed consumption. MARD data shows that there were no significant changes in production of hog and poultry industries in 2008, mainly because of disease. Trade: TRADE / COMPETITION While improvements in local yields should be possible over the coming years, competition from corn produced in countries with more land available for corn production and more conducive climates, will likely hinder increased Vietnamese corn production. Limits on storage and grain handling facilities are also determining factors for future growth. Imports Post forecasts CY 2009 corn imports to increase to around 700,000 tons, in response to strong demands for this key feed ingredient. Corn imports from the United States will likely stay at 25,000 tons, almost the same level as CY 2008, due to strong competition from India and South American countries. Exports of U.S. corn to Vietnam depend a great deal on pricing, since they have high freight costs, especially when shipped in relatively small vessels. Panamax-size vessels do arrive in Vietnam loaded with mixed loads (corn, wheat, soybean meal, etc.) from U.S. competitors. Vietnam?s corn imports increased slightly from 593,000 tons in CY 2007 to 610,000 tons in CY 2008. High international corn prices forced some buyers to look for alternate sources like rice or the corn by-product, DDGS. Rice prices soared in early 2008, but came down again by the end of the year, resulting in large quantities of low-quality rice that could not be sold on export markets. This rice was used for the local feed industry. Imports of DDGS from the United States, according to U.S. Department of Commerce trade statistics, were about 160,000 tons in CY 2008. U.S. corn exports to Vietnam in CY 2008 were 23,000 tons, compared with 30,000 tons in CY 2007, most likely due to the rise in global commodity prices that made U.S. corn uncompetitive into the Vietnam market. Most U.S. corn imports are shipped via container, since bulk vessel shipments are not freight advantageous. India is the top exporter of corn to Vietnam, followed by Brazil and Thailand. Vietnam?s import tariff on corn is zero percent for countries with Most Favored Nation status. Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: CORN STATISTICAL TABLES Table 2.1 Vietnam?s Production, Supply and Demand for Corn 2007 2008 2009 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 C Market Year Begin: Market Year Begin: Market Year Begin: orn V May 2007 May 2008 May 2009 ietnam A nnual Data New Annual Data New Annual Data Displayed Post Displayed Post Displayed Jan Data Data Data Area Harvested 1,150 1,200 1,073 1,200 1,140 1,200 Beginning Stocks 398 87 398 398 22 52 Production 4,600 4,560 4,251 5,000 4,530 4,800 MY Imports 500 700 593 500 610 700 TY Imports 500 700 593 500 610 700 TY Imp. from U.S. 42 50 30 0 23 25 Total Supply 5,498 5,347 5,242 5,898 5,162 5,552 MY Exports 0 0 0 0 0 0 TY Exports 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feed Consumption 4,000 4,230 4,200 4,300 4,200 4,300 FSI Consumption 1,100 1,060 1,020 1,200 910 1,200 Total Consumption 5,100 5,290 5,220 5,500 5,110 5,500 Ending Stocks 398 57 22 398 52 52 Total Distribution 5,498 5,347 5,242 5,898 5,162 5,552 Yield 4. 4. 3.9618 4. 3.9737 4. Commodities: Wheat Production: PRODUCTION Vietnam does not produce wheat. Consumption: CONSUMPTION Wheat-based foods are increasingly used in Vietnam. The use of wheat flour in food also relies on the influence of culinary cultures from other countries. Chinese noodles, with a local name that sounds like the Chinese name ?mi? (mee), and a kind of dim sum called ?banh bao,? are very popular in Vietnam. "Mi" also means wheat in Vietnamese. France also has a strong influence on Vietnamese cuisine. Baguette-style bread (so-called ?banh mi?) are found more easily in Vietnam than in Thailand or other Southeast Asian countries. ?Banh mi? is popular in Vietnamese daily diets, due to its many uses and low cost, which makes it suitable for many kinds of consumers, especially mid- and low-income. ?Banh mi thit,? which is a baguette bread stuffed with butter or mayonnaise, liver paste, various kinds of sliced ham and mixed vegetables is, a typical Vietnamese ?fast-food? that can be found at street vendor carts, small shops, and some restaurants in most places in Vietnam. Instant noodles, locally called ?mi goi,? are increasing their share of daily food consumption. Several foreign companies, such as Unilever, Uni-President, and Ace Cook have entered into the ?mi goi? market. Pizza, spaghetti, and other pasta are more widely used now, as part of a new westernized food trend. These foods, together with cookies, biscuits, and other bakery products show small but steady growth among wheat-based products. Chinese noodles and instant noodles account for 40-45 percent of the total wheat flour consumption in Vietnam. Bread/baguettes consume about 30 percent, and about 10 percent is used for cookies, biscuits, and other bakery products. The remaining 15-20 percent goes to the animal feed industry. Wheat flour is a primary ingredient in the aquaculture feed industry. In MY 2007/2008, Vietnam?s aquaculture industry production showed a 15 percent increase over the previous year, to around 4.6 million tons. There are 20 flour mills in Vietnam, with a total annual capacity to produce about 1.36 million tons of wheat flour from 1.8 million tons of wheat. However, many local private mills have a small capacity, are equipped with old machinery, and operate well below full capacity. These mills face strong competition from medium- to large-foreign invested mills with modern equipment. Trade: 3.3 TRADE / COMPETITION Vietnam is a net importer of wheat and wheat flour. Current import duties are 5 percent for wheat and 10 percent for wheat flour. Graph 3.1 Vietnam Wheat Imports in MY 2006, 2007 and 2008 The Vietnamese consumer does not yet demand as high a quality of wheat as consumers in more developed markets, but that is changing. Noodles, which make up the largest share of wheat-based products in Vietnam, require flour with high gluten content. Post estimates that Vietnamese MY 2008/2009 wheat imports will be about equal to the MY 2007/2008 import volume. Wheat imports from the United States, however, may decrease due to an anticipated increased Australian presence. Traders saw a large volume of cheap Chinese wheat flour imported into Vietnam during the third quarter of CY 2008. The import volume through official trade channels was around 100,000 tons, but according to traders, the total import volume might have reached 150- 160,000 tons through unrecorded border trade. The imported wheat flour prices were about VND2,000-3,000/kg cheaper than the local processed wheat flour. Those imports of wheat flour restrained wheat imports in the second half of CY 2008, which were only 50 percent of those in the second half of CY 2007. Australian wheat still dominates the wheat import market in Vietnam, and supplied over 50 percent of the total wheat import volume in MY 2007/2008. Besides relatively low transport costs, Australian wheat is suitable for making flour that is used for the noodle industry, which accounts for the major share of Vietnam?s wheat flour consumption. Chinese and Canadian western wheat were also competitive in Vietnam, as they share Australian wheat?s quality characteristics and are used for other products such as baguettes, cookies, and aquaculture feed. Vietnam?s wheat imports for MY 2007/2008 reached 1.05 million tons, down from 1.16 million tons in MY 2006/2007, due to relatively high wheat prices in the first half of CY 2008. Wheat imports from the United States, however, reached a record volume of 112,000 tons, thanks to more competitive U.S. wheat prices as compared to Australia, due to that country?s unfavorable harvest. Wheat marketing efforts are directed by the U.S. Wheat Associates? regional office in Singapore. Table 3.3 US Wheat Export to South Asia (2007/2008 and year to date 2008/2009) Country 2008/09 HRW SRW HRS White 2007/08 HRW SRW HRS White Bangladesh 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 228.0 173.2 0.0 45.5 9.4 Cambodia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Indonesia 549.6 269.4 13.5 121.8 145.0 972.8 297.6 1.0 258.3 415.9 Malaysia 56.1 0.0 11.5 27.6 17.0 79.1 21.6 0.0 44.1 13.4 New 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Zealand Pakistan 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 150.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 150.7 Philippines 1,421.2 32.9 19.3 734.6 634.4 1,670.3 12.2 18.4 884.8 754.9 Singapore 59.2 0.0 7.2 20.7 31.3 63.2 0.0 0.0 19.5 43.7 Sri Lanka 125.5 10.5 0.0 0.0 115.0 87.7 16.9 0.0 5.5 65.3 Thailand 439.4 79.8 0.0 207.0 152.5 407.9 79.7 0.0 216.4 111.9 Vietnam 31.9 0.0 8.1 8.2 15.6 100.6 34.0 5.5 43.3 17.8 Total 2,682.8 392.6 59.5 1,119.9 1,110.8 3,760.5 635.2 24.9 1,517.3 1,583.0 Source: U.S. Wheat Associates Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics: WHEAT STATISTICAL TABLES Table 3.1 Vietnam?s Production, Supply and Demand for Wheat Wheat 2007 2008 2009 Vietnam 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 Market Year Begin: Market Year Begin: Market Year Begin: Jul 2007 Jul 2008 Jul 2009 Annual Data New Annual Data New Annual Data Displayed Post Displayed Post Displayed Jan Data Data Data Area Harvested 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beginning Stocks 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 MY Imports 1,071 1,400 1,053 1,100 1,100 1,200 TY Imports 1,071 1,400 1,053 1,100 1,100 1,200 TY Imp. from U.S. 104 60 112 0 60 100 Total Supply 1,071 1,400 1,053 1,100 1,100 1,200 MY Exports 0 0 0 0 0 0 TY Exports 0 0 0 0 0 0 Feed Consumption 50 220 150 50 150 200 FSI Consumption 1,021 1,180 903 1,050 950 1,000 Total Consumption 1,071 1,400 1,053 1,100 1,100 1,200 Ending Stocks 0 0 0 Total Distribution 1,071 1,400 1,053 1,100 1,100 1,200 Yield 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. TS=TD 0 0 0
Posted: 14 April 2010, last updated 26 April 2010

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