Report on fresh deciduous fruit

An Expert's View about Processed Fruit and Vegetables in South Africa

Posted on: 27 Jun 2016

Update on the South African Deciduous Fruit Supply and Demand

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Required Report - public distribution Date: 5/16/2016 GAIN Report Number: South Africa - Republic of Fresh Deciduous Fruit Semi-annual Update on the South African Deciduous Fruit Supply and Demand Approved By: Justina Torry Prepared By: Wellington Sikuka Report Highlights: Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY production of apples and pears will increase by about one percent to 930,000 MT and 410,000 MT, respectively, based on increases in area planted which was partially offset by the impact of dry weather conditions. Table grape production is estimated to decrease by about 2.7% to 283,700 MT in the 2015/16 MY, based on the dry weather conditions that resulted in smaller grape sizes. 2 Commodities: Apples, Fresh Pears, Fresh Grapes, Table, Fresh Executive Summary Post estimates that the South African apple production will increase by about one percent to 930,000 MT in the 2015/16 MY based on the increase in area planted and new plantings coming into full production. Post estimates that the South African apple exports will increase by about two percent to 473,021 MT in the 2015/16 MY, based on the available production and the weak rand exchange rate. Post estimates that the South African pear production will increase by one percent to 410,000 MT in the 2015/16 MY based on the increase in area planted. Post estimates that the South African pear exports will increase by two percent to 210,100 MT in the 2015/16 MY based on the available production and weak rand. Post estimates that the South African table grape production will decrease by about 2.7% to 283,700 MT in the 2015/16 MY, based on the dry weather conditions that resulted in smaller grape sizes. Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY exports will decrease by three percent to 255,800 MT based on the decrease in production. The domestic consumption of apples, pears and table grapes are forecasted to remain flat in the 2015/16 MY based on the available production and the slow economic growth prospects in South Africa. South Africa is a net exporter of deciduous fruits, and only imports small quantities to fulfill a niche market or to satisfy domestic demand when supply is limited. MY – Marketing Year (January to December) Sources Name Website Hortgro http://www.hortgro.co.za South African Table Grapes Industry (SAGTI) http://www.satgi.co.za/ Fresh Fruit Portal http://www.freshfruitportal.com/ Brief background of the South African Deciduous fruit industry 3 Deciduous fruit is the largest sub-sector when measured in terms of hectares under fruit plantation in South Africa. Approximately 79,803 hectares (ha) was planted to deciduous fruits in South Africa in the 2013/14 MY. Figure 1 shows that grapes (Fresh and dried), apples and pears have the largest area planted and accounted for approximately 78 percent of the total area planted with deciduous fruit in the 2013/14 MY. The Western Cape is the largest and traditional producer of deciduous fruits in South Africa, however, in the past two decades; the Northern and Eastern Cape, and Limpopo provinces have become increasingly large producers of deciduous fruit. South Africa is ranked the fourth largest apple producer and second largest pear producer in the Southern Hemisphere. Figure 1: 2013/14 MY Percentage of total area planted to deciduous fruits in South Africa *Fresh and Dried. Source: HORTGRO Apples, Fresh: Production Post estimates that the South African apple production will increase by about one percent to 930,000 MT in the 2015/16 MY based on the increase in area planted and new plantings coming into full production. Post revised upwards the 2014/15 MY estimates to 920,406 MY, based on the industry data. The 2013/14 MY production remains unchanged at 792,549 MT based on industry. Apples are grown in several provinces around South Africa, but the Western Cape (WC) is the heartland of deciduous fruit production, accounting for approximately ninety percent of the total apple production and exports. The WC is a winter rainfall area and has a climate similar to the Mediterranean, which is 4 favorable for apple production. The most important apple growing regions are Ceres, Groenland, Langkloof East, Villiersdorp, all located in the WC. Harvest for South African apples typically begins at the end of January and runs through to June, with peak harvest times falling between February and April. Since 2008, Golden Delicious cultivar has been the leading favorite and most planted cultivar ahead of the Granny Smith cultivar which was previously favored by producers. Other cultivars which have been growing steadily are Gala, Pink Lady and Fuji. Area Planted The area planted to apples has steadily increased over the past decade as shown in Figure 2 driven by increased earnings from the export markets due to the weakening rand, and investment into the sector. Post estimates that the area planted to apples will increase by one percent to 23,932 hectares (ha) in the 2015/16 MY, from 23,625 ha in the 2014/15 MY. The 2013/14 MY area planted remains unchanged at 22,929 ha based on industry data. Figure 2: South Africa Apple Area Planted *Estimate, Source: HORTGRO Consumption Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY domestic consumption of apples will only increase marginally by less than one percent to 214,000 MT due to the increase in production, partially offset by the low economic growth and consumer pressure from high food prices as a result of the drought conditions in the country. The 2014/15 MY domestic consumption was revised upwards to 213,058 MT based on industry data. The 2013/14 MY consumption remains unchanged at 210,303 MT based on industry data. Over the past years, growth and stability in the domestic market has largely been driven by the increasing preference for fresh fruit over processed fruit from a growing middle class. Apples are 5 popular in South Africa and are widely consumed throughout the year. In addition, apples form part of the national food basket of goods monitored by the South African National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) to track food price inflation. Exports Post estimates that the South African apple exports will increase by about two percent to 473,021 MT in the 2015/16 MY, based on the available production and the weak rand exchange rate. Post revised upwards the 2014/15 MY to 465,695 MT, a 22% increase from the 2013/14 MY exports of 381,931 MT, based on final GTA data at the back of the increase in production. Africa is now the leading export market for South Africa apples. In the 2014/15 MY, exports to other African countries constituted 45% of the total exports, followed by the European Union (28%), Asia (21%) and the Middle East (6%). Table 1 shows the breakdown of the major export countries for South African apples. Table 1: South African Fresh Apple exports South Africa Export Statistics Commodity: 080810, Apples, Fresh Year Ending: December Q Partner Country Uni uantity t 2013 2014 2015 World T 459,327 381,930 465,695 United Kingdom T 107,541 65,218 87,828 Nigeria T 32,317 43,624 55,395 Malaysia T 46,515 43,797 53,651 United Arab Emirates T 23,947 16,227 19,360 Bangladesh T 8,369 10,297 17,778 Kenya T 10,384 11,169 15,482 Netherlands T 33,371 12,170 15,259 Zambia T 10,072 12,392 14,555 Zimbabwe T 12,154 12,124 13,713 Singapore T 12,549 12,084 12,745 Angola T 19,789 16,853 12,743 Botswana T 1,395 8,524 11,381 Senegal T 9,692 8,074 11,038 Namibia T 1,986 10,011 9,813 Russia T 7,195 4,512 7,832 Ghana T 11,250 6,256 7,358 Taiwan T 6,212 5,390 7,128 Swaziland T 852 7,399 6,839 Mauritius T 5,841 5,203 6,011 Mozambique T 5,089 5,754 5,457 6 Benin T 14,599 5,602 5,060 Cameroon T 6,835 4,306 4,886 Cote d Ivoire T 3,678 4,014 4,730 France T 8,587 4,951 4,413 Lesotho T 600 3,213 4,365 Bosnia & Herzegovina T 0 1,115 4,224 Oman T 3,555 3,619 3,816 Germany T 5,228 3,130 3,507 Gabon T 2,995 3,320 2,828 Hong Kong T 2,536 1,669 2,657 Tanzania T 2,488 1,922 2,608 Saudi Arabia T 6,324 4,170 2,537 Togo T 4,959 2,437 2,088 Congo T 1,389 1,532 2,029 Source: GTA Imports South Africa is a net exporter of apples, and only imports apples to fulfill niche markets or satisfy domestic demand when supply is limited. Post estimates that South African apple imports will increase to 21 MT in the 2015/16 MY, from 4 MT in the 2014/15 MY based on the resumption of imports from the US. USDA - APHIS has been working with South Africa on the United States and South Africa protocol agreement, to allow for the importation of apples from Apple Maggot regulated areas to South Africa. South Africa submitted their inputs to the draft phytosanitary work plan for NW apples to APHIS at the beginning of March 2016 the draft protocol may be obtained from the Northwest Fruit Exporters (509/576-8004) or from the South African Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests, on the following link: Click here to download the protocol. Table 2: South African Fresh Apple imports South Africa Import Statistics Commodity: 080810, Apples, Fresh Year Ending: December Partner Coun Quantity try Unit 2013 2014 2015 World T 124 21 4 Lesotho T 0 0 4 United States T 123 21 0 Source: GTA Table 3: Tariff Rates, Fresh Apples Heading / CD Article Statistical Rate of Duty Subheading Description Unit General EU EFTA SADC 0808.10 9 Apples, fresh kg 4 % Free 4 % Free Source: SARS – Schedule 1 - Customs and Excise Tariffs 7 Table 4: PSD - Apples, Fresh Apples, Fresh 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 Market Begin Year Jan 2014 Jan 2015 Jan 2016 South Africa USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 22,900 22,929 23,100 23,625 23,200 23,932 Area Harvested 20,600 20,633 21,000 21,638 21,000 21,919 Bearing Trees 25,600 25,637 25,700 26,337 25,700 26,679 Non-Bearing Trees 2,500 2,536 3,000 3,287 3,000 3,330 Total Trees 28,100 28,173 28,700 29,624 28,700 30,009 Commercial Production 792,500 792,549 860,000 920,406 865,000 930,000 Non-Comm. Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 792,500 792,549 860,000 920,406 865,000 930,000 Imports 0 21 0 4 0 21 Total Supply 792,500 792,570 860,000 920,410 865,000 930,021 Fresh Dom. Consumption 210,200 210,303 139,900 213,058 210,000 214,000 Exports 382,000 381,931 450,000 465,695 455,000 473,021 For Processing 200,300 200,336 270,100 241,657 200,000 243,000 Withdrawal From Market 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Distribution 792,500 792,570 860,000 920,410 865,000 930,021 (HA) ,(1000 TREES) ,(MT) 8 Pears, Fresh: Production Post estimates that the South African pear production will increase by one percent to 410,000 MT in the 2015/16 MY based on the increase in area planted and young orchard coming into full production. Post revised upwards the 2014/15 MY estimates to 404,072 MY based on industry data. The 2013/14 MY pear production remains unchanged at 413,614 MT based on industry data. The major growing areas for pears in South Africa are Ceres, Groenland, Wolseley/Tulbagh (all in the Western Cape) and Langkloof East in the Eastern Cape. Like apples, pears grow well in areas that do not have very high temperatures; hence the Western Cape is the heartland of pear production, accounting for at least 79 percent of the total production in South Africa. Pears are normally harvested from late December to early January. Packham's Triumph is the most popular variety planted, followed by Forelle, William Bon Chretien, and Abate Fetel. Area Planted Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY area planted with pears will increase by two percent to 12,894 hectares (ha), from 12,697 ha in the 2014/15 MY based on increased investment in the sector. The 2013/14 MY area planted remains unchanged at 12,211 ha based on industry data. Figure 3 shows that the area planted with pears has increased steadily since 2010. Figure 3: South Africa Pears Area Planted *Estimate Source: HORTGRO Consumption 9 Post estimates that the domestic consumption of pears will remain flat at 45,900 MT in the 2015/16 MY based on available production supply and the slow economic growth prospects in South Africa. The 2014/15 MY domestic consumption has been revised downwards to 45,879 MT based on updated industry data and lower than expected demand as more fruit was diverted for processing. The 2013/14 MY consumption remains unchanged at 48,535 MT based on final industry statistics. Pears and apples are close substitutes in the domestic market. Exports Post estimates that the South African pear exports will increase by two percent to 210,100 MT in the 2015/16 MY, from the 2014/15 MY exports of 205,199 MT based on the available production and weak rand. The 2013/14 MY exports remains unchanged at 207,310 MT based on GTA data. The EU, is SA`s traditional market accounting for about 58% of the total exports followed by Middle East (16%), Asia (12%) and Africa (10%). Table 5: South African Fresh Pears exports South Africa Export Statistics Commodity: 080830, Pears, Fresh Year Ending: December Partner Coun Quantity try Unit 2013 2014 2015 World T 202,431 207,309 205,199 Netherlands T 64,685 55,055 47,283 United Arab Emirates T 17,665 21,295 22,022 Russia T 15,486 15,540 14,920 United Kingdom T 20,258 17,541 14,552 Germany T 10,794 10,457 13,501 Italy T 7,032 8,293 8,708 Malaysia T 5,714 8,576 8,565 France T 8,705 7,634 7,200 Hong Kong T 5,311 7,614 7,125 India T 2,807 4,555 6,029 Saudi Arabia T 2,812 4,448 5,577 Singapore T 3,600 4,388 4,308 Canada T 4,361 3,822 3,921 Nigeria T 906 2,379 3,819 Portugal T 5,395 4,409 3,792 Indonesia T 3,741 4,304 3,570 Belgium T 294 82 3,254 Angola T 2,027 1,977 1,954 Mauritius T 1,382 1,666 1,918 Botswana T 93 1,340 1,793 10 Oman T 1,628 1,909 1,588 Spain T 1,954 1,747 1,439 Namibia T 78 1,417 1,374 Vietnam T 300 1,017 1,168 Swaziland T 97 1,051 1,095 Bahrain T 534 863 1,094 United States T 979 848 1,062 Source: GTA Imports As the second largest pear producer behind Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, South Africa only imports small quantities of pears, with China as the leading source of Ya pears (white colored pears). Imports from China began after a 2007 agreement that allowed imports of Chinese pears into the South Africa market. The South Africa and Chinese agreement is available on the South African Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry on the following website link: http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/plantHealth/docs/protocol_pear_China.pdf . Table 6: South African Fresh Pears imports South Africa Import Statistics Commodity: 080830, Pears, Fresh Year Ending: December Partner Coun Quantity try Unit 2013 2014 2015 World T 64 44 144 China T 64 44 119 Germany T 0 0 24 Swaziland T 0 0 0 Source: GTA Table 7: Tariff Rates, Fresh Pears Heading / CD Article Statistical Rate of Duty Subheading Description Unit General EU EFTA SADC 0808.30 8 Pears, fresh kg 4 Free 4 Free percent percent Source: SARS – Schedule 1 - Customs and Excise Tariffs Table 8: PSD - Pears, Fresh Pears, Fresh 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 Market Begin Year Jan 2014 Jan 2015 Jan 2015 11 South Africa USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 12,200 12,211 12,300 12,697 12,400 12,894 Area Harvested 11,200 11,193 11,200 11,682 11,300 11,863 Bearing Trees 13,700 14,036 13,600 14,838 13,700 15,068 Non-Bearing Trees 1,900 1,492 1,800 1,107 2,000 1,124 Total Trees 15,600 15,528 15,400 15,945 15,700 16,192 Commercial Production 413,600 413,614 400,000 404,072 410,000 410,000 Non-Comm. Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 413,600 413,614 400,000 404,072 410,000 410,000 Imports 0 44 100 144 100 150 Total Supply 413,600 413,658 400,100 404,216 410,100 410,150 Fresh Dom. Consumption 48,500 48,535 48,500 45,879 48,500 45,900 Exports 207,300 207,310 205,000 205,199 190,000 210,100 For Processing 157,800 157,813 146,600 153,138 171,600 154,150 Withdrawal From Market 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Distribution 413,600 413,658 400,100 404,216 410,100 410,000 (HA) ,(1000 TREES) ,(MT) 12 Table grapes, Fresh: Production Post estimates that the South African table grape production will decrease by about 2.7% to 283,700 MT in the 2015/16 MY, from 291,442 MT in the 2014/15 MY based on the dry weather conditions that resulted in smaller grape sizes. The 2013/14 MY grape production remains unchanged at 251,447 MT based on industry data. The major growing areas for grapes are the Berg River and Hex River in the Western Cape Province; and the Olifants River and Orange River in the Northern Cape Province. Grapes are normally harvested from October to May. Harvest starts in week 43 (October) in the Northern Cape Region followed by Orange River region. Hex River valley is the last region for table grapes harvesting. The leading varieties of South African Table Grapes are Crimson Seedless, Thomson Seedless, Prime and Flame. The cultivar profile in South Africa has changed in recent years, seeded cultivars are declining on a yearly basis as consumers prefer seedless grapes and production of black and red seedless varieties has increased. The popularity of seedless cultivars stems from characteristics such as large berry size (with elongated or oval berry shapes), favorable texture (crunchiness), and good eating qualities. Area Planted Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY area planted to table grapes will increase by 3% to 18,700 hectares (ha) from 18.212 ha in the 2014/15 MY based on new areas planted and growers replacing old cultivars with new higher yielding varieties. The area planted in the 2013/14 MY will remain unchanged at 16,229 ha based on final industry data. Figure 4 shows that the area planted to grapes has been increasing since 2008. Figure 4: South Africa Grapes Area Planted *Estimate Source: SAGTI Consumption 13 Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY domestic consumption of table grapes will remain flat at 33,500 MT based on the available production and the low economic growth prospects. The 2014/15 MY domestic consumption has been revised upwards to 33,592 MT based on industry data at the back of the increased production. The 2013/14 MY consumption remains unchanged at 29,763 MT based on industry data. The domestic consumption of grapes in South Africa is dependent on the export market. Grapes that cannot be sold on the export market, including grapes that do not meet the export standards and quality are diverted to the domestic market. Exports Post estimates that the 2015/16 MY exports will decrease by three percent to 255,800 MT based on the decrease in production. Post revised the 2014/15 MY and 2013/14 MY exports to 263,452 MT and 226,401 MT, respectively, based on industry data and the revision of the marketing year from ‘Jan – Dec’ to ‘Oct – Sept’. The EU is the leading historical export market for South African grapes, accounting for at least 75 percent of the table grapes exports. South Africa benefits from a shorter shipping distance than other Southern Hemisphere competitors, strong demand for seedless varieties, and a free trade agreement with the EU. Exports have also benefitted from a weaker Rand against its major trading currencies such as the Euro. Exports to Asia (14%), Middle East (6%) and Africa (4%) also have strong growth potential. Table 9: South African Fresh Table Grapes exports Season (Oct. - Sept.) Exports (MT) 2002/2003 198,235 2003/2004 238,298 2004/2005 210,823 2005/2006 230,896 2006/2007 227,265 2007/2008 224,123 2008/2009 217,875 2009/2010 234,579 2010/2011 202,500 2011/2012 245,797 2012/2013 234,463 2013/2014 226,401 2014/2015 263,452 2015/2016* 255,800 *Estimate, Source: South African Table Grapes Industry Imports 14 South Africa is a net exporter of table grapes, and imports are mainly to make up for out of season demand, with Egypt, Spain and Namibia being the major suppliers, and a small quantities being imported from Israel. Table 10: South African Fresh Table Grapes imports South Africa Import Statistics Commodity: 080610, Grapes, Fresh Year Ending: September Q Partner Country Uni uantity t 2013 2014 2015 World T 4,558 4,687 5,602 Spain T 2,818 2,833 2,873 Namibia T 0 332 1,324 Egypt T 1,630 1,461 1,220 Zambia T 0 17 96 Other Countries NES T 0 0 50 Israel T 111 41 22 South Africa T 0 0 18 Swaziland T 0 0 0 United Kingdom T 0 3 0 Chile T 0 0 0 Source: GTA Table 11: Tariff Rates, Fresh Table Grapes Heading / CD Article Statistical Rate of Duty Subheading Description Unit General EU EFTA SADC 0806.10 1 Grapes, fresh kg 4 % Free 4 % Free Source: SARS – Schedule 1 - Customs and Excise Tariffs Table 12: PSD; Table Grapes, Fresh Grapes, Fresh 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 Market Begin Year Oct 2013 Oct 2014 Oct 2015 15 South Africa USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post USDA Official New Post Area Planted 16,200 16,229 18,200 18,212 18,200 18,700 Area Harvested 12,600 12,600 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,200 Commercial Production 251,500 251,477 291,400 291,442 294,000 283,700 Non-Comm. Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 251,500 251,477 291,400 291,442 294,000 283,700 Imports 4,700 4,687 5,500 5,602 5,500 5,600 Total Supply 256,200 256,164 296,900 297,044 299,500 289,300 Fresh Dom. Consumption 29,800 29,763 33,400 33,592 33,500 33,500 Exports 226,400 226,401 263,500 263,452 266,000 255,800 Withdrawal From Market 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Distribution 256,200 256,164 296,900 297,044 299,500 289,300 (HA) ,(MT) Policy Table 13 provides the list of the regulations applicable to apples, pears and table grapes in South Africa. Exporters should also be aware that there is no law in South Africa governing an importer from requesting additional certifications over and above the legislation and regulations indicated in this section. Table 13: List of key legislations and regulations Policy Link Agriculture http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/Food percent20Import percent20& percent20Export Product percent20Standard/docs/Agric percent20Product percent20Standards percent20Act percent20No Standards percent20119 percent20 percent20of percent201990.pdf Act No 119 of 1990 Agricultural Agricultural Pests Amendment Act, 9 of 1992 Pests, Act, http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/APIS/doc/Agricultural percent20Pests percent20Act.pdf 36 of 1983 Foodstuffs, http://www.nda.agric.za/vetweb/Legislation/Other percent20acts/Act percent20- percent20Foodstuffs, cosmetics percent20Cosmetics percent20and percent20Disinfectants percent20Act-54 percent20of percent201972.pdf and disinfectants Act 54 of 1972 Procedures http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/plantHealth/docs/importProcedure.pdf. for exporting to South Africa Maximum http://www.daff.gov.za/daffweb3/Branches/Agricultural-Production-Health-Food-Safety/Food-Safety- Residue Quality-Assurance/Maximum-Residue-Limits Limits 16 Regulations Apples relating to http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/foodSafety/doc/localImportRegulations/Apples_regulations.pdf standards, grading, Pears packing and http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/foodSafety/doc/localImportRegulations/Pears_regulations.pdf marking Grapes http://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/foodSafety/doc/localImportRegulations/gg35395 percent20nn422 percent20APS percent20table percent20grapes.pdf Source: South African Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) Prices Table 14 below shows that the price of apples has always been higher than the price of pears in the local market, while in the export market, pears are normally priced higher than apples. The apple and pear prices in Table 14 are the average prices (Rand/Ton) earned in the respective markets. The key driving forces of the increases in apple and pear export prices is the depreciation in the value of the rand and increasing world demand. Table 14: Price of Apples and Pears APLES PEARS Local Export Processed Local Export Processed Market Market Market Market Market Market Season (R/Ton) (R/Ton) (R/Ton) (R/Ton) (R/Ton) (R/Ton) 2003/2 004 2,109 3,794 336 1,977 4,059 495 2004/2 005 2,310 3,638 341 2,128 3,861 491 2005/2 006 2,580 3,791 373 2,304 3,786 573 2006/2 007 2,799 4,363 447 2,664 4,680 715 2007/2 008 3,618 5,419 1,071 3,222 5,704 973 2008/2 009 3,568 5,834 786 3,452 6,336 1,035 2009/2 010 3,656 5,881 534 3,454 6,144 810 2010/2 011 4,326 6,210 737 3,856 6,612 896 2011/2 012 4,470 6,531 1,146 4,191 6,803 1,115 2012/2 013 4,845 8,658 1,137 4,650 8,835 1,316 17 2013/2 014 4,944 10,136 1,141 4,815 9,900 1,376 Source: HORTGRO
Posted: 27 June 2016

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